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60001 1390K 


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Rev. M. bland, D.D. RR.S. & F.A.S. 




Printad by J. SmlCb. Prlnt«r to the Unlvcnlty. 




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On submitting to the public another Volume in 
addition to the many valuable ones which have already 
appeared on the same subject, some apology may seem 
due, some explanation requisite, of the motives which 
led to the undertaking, and of the object proposed 
to be accomplished. 

Several years ago. Dr. Cbaven, then Master of 
St. John's College^ — a man of primitive simplicity, of 
unostentatious merit, and a Christian indeed without 
guile, — anxious that the Students of the Society over 
which he presided, should receive some religious in- 
struction in addition to the usual course of College 
Lectures, directed that aU those over whom he had 
any control, should be lectured and examined in the 
Gospels or Acts of the Apostles, every Sunday during 
term :— his directions were warmly seconded by those 
who were engaged in the tuition of the College : — and 
it may be added from a personal experience of several 
years, that there seemed to be, in by far the greater 
portion of the young men themselves, a regularity, 
attention, and anxiety for information* more general 
and more eager than was usually to be found in 
their ordinary studies. Considerable difficulty, how- 
ever, arose respecting the Books to be recommended 


for their perusal. For though nothing could be easier 
than to present them with a long catalogue of Authors 
who have gained a reputation by the mode in which 
they have treated the subject: and in those cases in 
which the usual academical pursuits were neglected, 
a selection might not perhaps have been attended with 
much trouble : — ^yet in a course of instruction, in which 
the foundation only was to be laid whereon a goodly edi- 
fice might in due time be erected ; — where other branches 
of science were required ; — and where degrees and honors 
were conferred by the University without any reference 
to religious knowledge or acquaintance with any part 
of Scripture (though happily this disgrace has since 
been removed) it could scarcely be expected that suffi- 
cient time could be allotted to the perusal of a 
multiplicity of books : and it was much regretted that 
some of those which were most frequently met with, 
contained matter, ignorance of which would have been 
deemed bliss in the opinion of all who were anxious 
for the welfare of the Students or the general good 
of society. In a system of education, where the mind 
is to be informed, the heart impressed, and thus 
the real good of others promoted, especial care ought 
to be taken that nothing drop even incidentally that 
can offend those whom our Saviour calls little children 
that believe in him, that can either stagger their faith 
or corrupt their hearts : and it was not therefore without 
considerable uneasiness that observations were discovered 
of a nature widely different from those which a Christian 
would wish to have first imprinted on young and inex- 
perienced minds. Such were the insinuations and doubts 
^x>nveyed in extracts from other writings respecting the 


miracles of our Saviour and his Apostles, and the 
Divinity of two of the persons of the Holy Trinity, 
inserted at eonsiderahle lengdi, and with much gteater 
fmree than any attempted answers. 

Considerations of this nature, aided and strengthened 
I^ a wish to do good wherever an opportunity might 
occur, suggested the idea, that a portion of the leisure 
hours which the duties of a very small parish left 
unoccupied, might be useAQly employed in arranging 
some of the materials which had been collected for 
private use; increasing them from the stores of the did 
Divines of the English Church, than whom we shall 
locA: in vain for more sound expositors of Holy Writ ; 
and oecssionally endeavouring to illustrate and confirm 
interpretations deemed the best^ by the opinions of 
the Fathers and early writers. It is needless to add 
that free use has been made of the best and most 
eminent authors that could be obtained ; so that what- 
ever appeared important, instructive, or impressive, 
has been unhesitatingly incorporated in the following 
pages. Novelty in Theol<^ indeed has not been 
aimed at, nor could it be expected in such a work as 
the present : — ^to arrange, unite, and reduce to a conve- 
nient finrm what has been said by others, has been 
the object chiefly kept in view : — and a consciousness 
of good intentions with a willingness to follow in a 
good cause will, it is hoped, have guarded against any 
erroneous views : — ^will plead an apology for any imper- 
fections whidi may be observed, or defects which may 
have escaped attention. Had the desire of fame only 
been considered, some other department of composition 
would have been chosen: but if the present vehone 


mjs&I i«( Itmui 'U lar^ nni.-miiigc u jnnmMBs ^n? 

^ X A 

♦ ♦.-<'.*^ «^^.p^V7 

^v «n Ofm]iuei]:aean a nor ««x imgaig : oie 

m 5ta<&*» ^ mii^ Hiearr mi in i to 

Xi^x^j v»ita eiukiuosmd 43f Jia;:/*^t3 brpx&zaoe. Baft 
ait ;^. /> s«v }i»:rt ^^ tr:e pescat jpCss to mademhie the 
jcu^vft 6i ^Jc^ert, wzee^ i^ gi-JrHmrrgca intectkos are 
ic^Y^KX^ zoA x^ T^jy^Jr^ji^ ycA rcsdu are Ekehr to essae: 
/^ ftua^T i^ r*v^..iieJ9t htte v> expccaft a bope that vliat 
A Mnr ^^^ Vr tLe v''/n«r Stzdents mar be foond 
l/y «^<rvi:r tr^ yiry)^e% Pjt ^x3A it was intecded. 

It ir*;ftii A^«^ 40 the prtae&t cccasioii been deemed 
t^^AA/uaj^ ^u^. h$ a &r9 m.^itanees, to insert tbe names 
*4 t?>. i»r>>^t //^/r. -jff'v^m anr cb^errations mav haTe 
\^>^^ U0$*rm^^A ; tl'^/r ^yom laagnage haring been in 
^:ui^'J^ f*^ih^Af UJ0^ foKo are eonrersant with their 
ii)rf;^^/^j^t^ i<y>i^>j 4^/7 tn.^.h f^irme the present, will easily 
fkiK0f^i//A if^^t* tv ^}}^% it would be of small im- 
pifftkiuA i MhA ii^^f tu^^um would haTe very matarially 
$^mirilmUA U0 itt^^otik^. i\u: ntze of the Tolume, already 
exittidtd t// a (fy^^sfUir fmlk than was ori^nally con- 
UitiifhUd. ft i* impomlACf however, not to refer to 


the ''Doctrine of the Greek Article/' hy the late 
learned Bp. Middleton; a work which a very distin- 
guished Prelate has justly characterized as one which 
will supply to the Scripture Student some of the most 
valuable helps to the critical investigation of the text 
of the New Testament which can be derived from 
any modem publication. The value and importance 
of the extracts which have been made from this book 
will^ it is hoped, lead to a diligent perusal of the 
work itself. Nor has it been deemed advisable to 
enter upon the discussion of the Harmony of the 
Gospels: this would fall more particularly within the 
scope of the subsequent volumes: but it will be 
sufficient to make a reference generally to the ''New 
Testament chronologically arranged" by the Rev. G. 
Townsend. Should health and strength be granted, 
it is proposed to complete the Historical Books of the 
New Testament on the present plan, when a catalogue 
will be appended of those authors from whom ob- 
servations have been derived. 

The references to the Old Testament are according 
to Bos's edition of the Septuagint. 




tvayy^kun^] Ao&ksably to its Etjrmcdogy, from eJ aod 
uyyiXXm, this word in classical use signifies either. good news, 
or the rewaxd given to the bearer of good news, or the sacrifice 
ofered in oansequence of good news. Suid. ra xaXXicrra Siaym 
ycXkov* Etym. M. to ayaBds ayyeXiaii cwpov/uitvoV' Thus 
Aristoph. Plut. 7^9 wayyikia tocovt' aToyyelkoarra' So also 
Josqphus BeU. Jud. iv, 11, 5, rd <nro r^y 'Pmfuis ^vofyyekia 
9irff. And Chrysostom ouk cwsm^o^ ^ 'r£p ypamuiaTtov tq 
€vaYYi\ia r^f cr^p vyielas^^'^ln the second signification Horn. 
Od» ^. 152, €ua77tfX<ov H /uh iarw^ in answer to which 166, 
OUT ap eytiv ci;cry«ye\iov ToSe Tiam* In which sense also 
Chrysostom uses it, Horn. 19, on Acts, to woyyi^ov tovto 
€(m. Ta a aoL iaTcu ayoBa" KoBdmp koX iv Tfj arv¥t0eii^ (^curi 
wpos dXX^\ou$ Of auQponroi' tI /mm twv eiayy^Xlup ; o vaT^p croi 
ij^€i' If M'lrrtip aoih And Cicero 2 Ep. Att. 12, 8, O suayes 
£]»8tola8 tuas ;— -quibus euayyiXia quse reddam nesdo. — In the 
third signification we meet with the word in Xen. Hell. i. 6, 27> 
i6u€ Ta evayyiXui, koI toiv OTponwrai^ irapiiyy€iKe ^iirvo' 
iroUiaBai" And Isocr. Areop. iwl ToaavTUit Trpa^taiv €vay^ 
yiXia fA€9 SU iiff TeOvicfifiw. 

The words eiayyiXwv and 6110770X10 occur six times in the 
Septuagint, in the Books of Samuel and Kings, (2 Sam. iy« I0:«— 
xyiii. 20, 22, 26, 2? : — ^2 Kings yii. 9). In five of these the 
meaning is good news : in the other the word denotes the reward 
given for bringing good news. In like manner ei;a77eXi^civ or 
evayyeXi^eaOcu which occurs much mcnre frequently, is always 
the version of the Hebrew verb signifying to Ml good news. 

In the New Testament it signifies the joyful intelligence of the 
Advent of the Messiah, and the erection dT that spiritual and ever- 
lasting kingdom foretold in the prophet Daniel, by the coming of 
Jesus Christ in the flesh :— H>r the glad tidings of the redemption 



of man from sin and death, through his merits and intercession, 
on the merciful conditions of faith and repentance.^ 

But Ecclesiastical writers have given to it a different meaning, 
and used it by metonymy, to. signify the History of good news, 
viz. of the life, the sayings, actions and sufferings of Jesus Christ. 
See Schleusner, Campbell, Prel. Diss. 5, 2 : — Michaelis. Vol. iv. 
Not that each of the Evangelists however, has given a complete 
history of the actions of Christ in a regular chronological order ; 
but esxAi has recounted such memorable events as the circum- 
stances of the readers for whom it was designed, seemed to 
require. Chrys. Hom. 1. in Matth. p. 3. ovk ^/ncei efy €1/07- 
yekurni^ irdvra eiireli; ; tipKei fiiv aWd Ktj^u Tecaape^ 01 ypd- 
(PovT€9 oxri, fiifTe Kara rov^ avT0V9 Kcupov^ ; fi^re iv rois avroi^ 
TOfroi99 M^'^c fTwekdovre^ nai itaX€j($€vT€^ oXXijXok, elra wrvep 
a!(f> 6w>s (TTo/tAaros iravra (^eyyanrratj fjieyia^rtj 1-^9 iKijOela^ 
airo^i^i^ toSto ylvertu* So also ^ Theophylact in praef. to 
St. Matth. p. 3. 

It' may be added that our English word (roapel derived- from the 
Saxon God or good and spells word or tidings (i. e. Grod^s Urord 
or good tidings) expresses the force of the Greek ev^LyyeXiov* 

This title is not to be ascribed to the writer either in this or 
the other histories of our Lord, but was given by the early 
believers who knew the writer, and the occasion on which it was 
written (a xai eiayyeXia oi irio'Toi fisrd ravra eSucaimaav 
jcaXeciy, (Ecumenius in Act ex Chrysost.' pv 4. de libris Evan- 
gelist.) ; and indeed it was used from the time of the Apostles as 
we learn from Justin Martyr, who calls these books dwojuLvtffii>' 
vevjjLara or memoirs, i. e. an account of transactions familiarly 
written,^ by which name Xenophon designated those in which he 
gave an account of the acts and sayings of Socrates. Apol. xxi« 
p. 77*' <>'* ydp 'AirocrroXoi ev tw ytvofuevoi^ vir -avTwv Aw&iL" 
vfiixovevpxKTi^ a icaXelrai evayyekia* Dial, p.' 257-^ ta^ iv rois 
aTToiuLvtjfiLoveiiicun twv 'ATrocrroXaiy aircXi ^irfKnarai* 

Kara MarOalov] i. q. rod MarOaiov, the force of Kara de- 
pending entirely upon the word with which it is connected. In 
the title of this Gospel several variations are found in the different 
copies, as evayyiXiov ro Kara MarOaioVy ro Kara Man-Oalov 
evayyiXiov, ro evayyiXiov Kara MarBalov. 

^ Theodoret in £p. ad Rom. i. 1, has evayydktov hi ro K^pvy/ia 
irpofftUop€u<r€v, **« iroXXMir ayaOwy ftirt<rj^vovfi€voy ^oprgyiav. evayyeXitjerai 
flip Ta« Tov Qeov KaraWayd^f riyV tov Jia/3JAoi/ KardXvaiv, tAv dfAapr^ 
fiarmw tiJk d(p€(rtv, rov davdrov Ttjv irav\av, tSv vcKpmy rtjy dyavTaaiv^ 
Tifv ^mifp Tijv alwiftoyf Tffv /SaxrtMiav ruv ovpavuv^ 


Trom the expresfiion xara MixrOaloPj &c., Faustus the 
Manichsean imagined the Grospels not written by the persons 
whose names they bear, but by persons who professed to write 
according to them. But we find the phrase commonly used in 
the signification which it here bears, as Acts xvii. 28. rive^ rwv 
taaS vfui^ ^iroifiTwtf, for v/uLwy, — and Axrts xviii. 15. ei oi ^^Ttfiuui 
i(m w€pi \6yov xat ovofiarwv /cai vofiov toS icoff vMa9. Thus 
also Polyb. m. 6. rd9 Kar 'Avvlfiav ir/oo^eiy ; — m. 48. irc/>J twp 
Koff iavTov frpayfjkdrwv. iGlian. V. H. ii. 42. i} Korr avTOv 
apenf. Diod. Sic. i. p. 648. i} kuto aHixa pw/jLtf, corporis robur. 
— — £ustath. on Od. e. p. 213. ij Kara top 'EXXdpucoif laTopla, 
the history which Hellanicus wrote;— he cites also uElius Dio- 
nysius ip r^ icar twrov ptfTopuc^ Xe^uccS. So Plato, Cratyl. iv. 
Kar Ev^JjjjMOK, and xyiii. Kad' 'HpcucKeiTov* ^ 

Tertullian and Cyprian though writing Latin, retain the 
Greek preposition, Kara Matthaeum, Kara Marcum. And the 
Greek Fathers when quoting the translations of the Old Testa^ 
ment, usually say Kara toi/v e^ofiiiKOpraf Kara 'AidXaPf koto, 
'^ji/jLiuiypv, &c. Thus Origen, to. Se irap lifiip apTlypa(f>a, wp 

KOi Toy M^ei/f e^€U€fifiPp Ttt lUP fiP Kara tow-U, to oe ercpop 
Kara Qedoruopa. Epist. ad Airicanum. 

The simple title was kept till the fifth century, when the 
Epithet a7ioy or sanctum began to be added, and in conformity 
to this, the Complutensian Polyglot has to xard Mardaiop 
ayiop evayyiXioPi though as Wetstein observes, in quorum 
{9cU. Apoatolorum) scriptis cum Evangelii plusquam septuagies 
fiat mentio, sancti Epithetum nusquam additum reperitur. Some 
of the Latins write sanctum Domini nostri Jesu Christi Evange- 
lium secundum Matthseum; — and the translators into modem 
Languages have added the Epithet both to the Gospel and the 
writer. II santo Eyangelio, &c. secondo S. Matteo.-^Le saint 
Eyangile, &c. selon St. Matthieu. Our translators have only 
added the Epithet to the writer. And though Grotius says 
the inscription of this book was formerly €1/0776X101/ 'Iijrof; 
Xptcrroi/^ he must be mistaken ; all the old Greek copies having 
as Wetstein says, the inscription to Kara MaTOalop evayyeXiov. 
MaTOaiop] St. Matthew was the son of Alphseus, though pro* 
bably not that Alphseus who was the father of the Apostle 
James the Less : by birth a Galilsean as all the Apostles 
were ; but of what city or whidi tribe, does not appear. It 
has been supposed not improbable that he was bom at or near 
Capernaum, the place of his ordinary abode. Though a Jew 
by religion, he was by profession a publican: and his oiBco 



> seems to have consisted in collecting the customs due upon 
tsommodities which were carried, and from persons who 
passed over the lake of Gennesareth. His profession as well 
as his call to the Apostolic Office he himself relates ix. 9- 
St. Mark and St. Luke mention him by the name of Levi : but 
as the custom prevailed among the Jews as well as other nations 
of having more names than one, and the three Evangelists have 
recorded one and the same fact, though they differ in respect to 
the name, it is reasonable to suppose they mean one and the same 
person. And this seems confirmed by the Apostolical constitu- 
tions which introduce him speaking thus, eyd MarOaios o koI 
Aevii- And Jerom gives as a reason, Cseteri Evangelists nee 
publicani nomai ascribunt, ne antiquse conversationis recordantes, 
sugillare Evangelistam viderentur : in Matth* c. x. Both he 
and Eusebius Uiink them the names of one and the same person. 
Probably Levi was the name by which the Apostle was called in 
the former part of his life : and Matthew that by which he was 
best known afterwards. This probably lucrative post he che^* 
fully quitted for the sake of Christ: and under the following 
circumstances. Our Lord having cured a paralytic retired out 
of Capernaum to walk by the sea side, where he taught the 
people that flocked altar him ; and seeing Matthew sitting at the 
receipt of custom commanded him to follow him. He instantly 
obeyed, and became one of his constant attendants. We cannot 
however suppose that he was before wholly unacquainted with 
our Saviour^s person or doctrine, especially cls Christ^s sermons 
sod miracles were so frequent at Capernaum, by which he could 
not but be in some measure prepared to recdve the impressions 
which our Saviour^s call now made upon him. 

From his elevation to the Apostleship, he continued con- 
stantly with our Lord during his abode upon earth ; and by 
this long attendance he wais enabled to communicate accounts 
on which we can depend. After the Ascension, for the space 
of eight years he preached the Gospd in several parts of Judaea: 

' but into what countries he subsequently travelled, is uncertain. 
From Eusebius^s Eccl. Hbt. it may be inferred that at the 
banning of the fourth century there were not any certain and 
well attested accounts of the places out of Judsea, in which 
several of the Apostles preached. ^Ethiopia is generally as- 
signed as the province of St. Matthew^s Apostolical Ministry. 

Of the time and manner of his death no certain account is 
transmitted to us. And it seems a matter of doubt whether 
he died a natural death, or suffered martyrdom. The former 


luis been deemed not improbable (Clem. Alex. Strom, lib. iv.) ; 
though Socrates (Hist. Eocl. 1. 1, c. xix. p. 50) says that Matthew 
preached the Gospel in Ethiopia, and suffered martyrdom at 
Nadabbar, a dty of that country. Others say that he died in 
Persia: — and others again that he was honourably buried at 
Hierapolis in Parthia, one of the first places to which he preached 
the GrospeL But the diversity of these accounts seems to shew 
that they are all without good foundation. Chrysostom (Horn. 48) 
has a commendation of St. Matthew consisting of divers articles^ 
but says nothing of his martyrdom ; which may induce us to 
think that there was not any tradition about it among Christians 
at that time, or that it was not much regarded. 

That St. Matthew wrote his Gospel (though doubtless designed 
for the benefit of the universal diurch) yet more immediately 
for the use of the Jewish converts in Pdbstine, is a point on 
which all the antients are agreed ; but we have no good autho* 
rity for the ojnnion that he wrote it in Jerusalem. Chrysostom 
(Horn. 1. in M«lth.) says Svda m€v cvv eKcuTTos iiarplfimw 07- 
payf/e, au cipoSpa Su (al. iurarov) icrxypio'aaOai, With this view, 
the Apostle carefully points out every drcumstance which might 
conciliate the faith of that nation, and avoids every unnecessary 
expresaion which might in any way serve to obstruct it 

It is generally agreed that St. Matthew^s Gospel was the 
first which was written, though no positive conclusion can be 
drawn as to the exact date^. It would seem to have been extant 
before the dispersion of the Apostles, from Bartholomew's carry, 
ing it with him to India, where as Eusebius Eocl. Hist. v. 10, 
informs us it was found by Panaetus when he went to propagate 
the faith in those parts, and by such as retained the knowledge 
of Christ, was reputed a valuable treasure. But as it has become 
impossible to settle the point upon antieni authority^ various 
opinions have been rais^; the earliest date which deserves 
noticing being a. n. 38, the latest a. n. 64. And as it is not pro- 
bable that the Christian converts would be left any considerable 
number of years without a written history of our Saviour's ministry, 
we may Mfely incline to the early publication. For when 
St. Matthew began to write, the great question among the Jews 
was, whether Jesus was the true Messiah or no; and the main 
tendency of his Gospel seems to prove this. He shews by his 

^ That die first published Gospel was written in the lanouage of 
the Jews and for their peculiar use^ is perfectly conformable to the 
distinction with which we know they are fiivoured, in having the 
Gospel preached to them exclusively by our Saviour^ and before all 
other nations by his Apostles. 


mighty deeds that he was the Christ, the Son of God ; that Ms 
Mother Mary was a Virgin : that he was not come to destroy 
the law but to fulfil it: and that his miracles were not the 
effect of any human art, but incontestable proofs of the power 
of Grod, and of his divine Mission. And as the fulfilment of 
prophecy had greater weight with the Jews than any other species 
of evidence, we may suppose the Apostles would be anxious 
to enable them to compare what had occurred during Christ^s 
ministry with their antient prophecies, as well as to confirm 
those who believed in. his Divine Mission, and convert others : 
and it is reasonable, therefore, to conclude that they would lose 
no time in sending forth a written accoimt of them, in order 
that the enquiry might be more easily made; and the coinci- 
dence when ascertained, be more striking and satisfactory. 

The proper evidence of antient facts is written testimony: 
and all the antients with one consent, assure us that St. Matthew 
wrote in Hebrew: not meaning by this, the antient pure Hebrew 
(for that in a great measure was lost among the vulgar) but 
in a language commonly used at that time by the Jews . of 
Palestine, and therefore still called the Hebrew tongue because 
written in Hebrew characters. It was the Syriac, with a mix- 
ture of Hebrew and Chaldee ; and was the language which the 
Jews brought with them from Babylon after the captivity, 
blended with that of the people whom they found at their 
return in the land, and in the neighbouring regions. Papias, 
Irenseus, Origen, Eusebius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, 
Jerom, Augustine, Chrysostom, the Author of the Latin Com- 
mentary an St Marhf ascribed to Chrysostom, and the Author 
of the Synopsis of the ScripturCf which bears the name of 
Athanasius, are a cloud of witnesses who depose this; and 
therefore strange it is that any should question its being originally 
written in that language, when the thing is so universally as- 
serted by all antiquity, without a single contradictory voice, and 
all having so much better opportunities of being satisfied on the 
subject than we can have at so great a distance. Indeed this point 
does not seem to have been controverted during the first 1400 
years. Erasmus was one of the earliest, who called in question 
a tradition which had so long and so universally obtained in 
the church, and who contended for a Greek original : and though 
several ingenious arguments have been adduced in its favour, 
which however admit of an answer ; still the dispi 
a matter of fact ; and thi^y^itot attested b] 
many of w|iom had * 

a judgment of it. 


It was no doubt toon translated into Greek, but by whom 
is uncertain. , Jerom ^professes that he could not tell. Theopby- 
lact (prsef. Comm. in Matth. p. 2.) says it was reported to have 
been done by St. John, but Athanasius (or the author of the 
Synops. S. Script, p. 403) attributes it to St. James the Less. 
It was made howeyer in the Apostolic times, and considered, as 
authentic as the c^riginal ; and therefore it matters not whether 
it was translated by an Apostle, or some Disciple, so long as 
the Apostles a|^roved the, version which has been received as 
auth^itic and jdaced in the sacred Canon. 

It is probable that the Hebrew Gospel remained for some 
time in use among the Jews who had been converted to Christ- 
ianity ; when they retired to Fella, they cairied it thither along 
with them ; and in the times of Epiphanius (Hasres. 29, 7*) <^d 
Eusebius (£ccL Hist iii. 85) it was used by the Judaising 
Christians in Decapolis and the countries beyond Jordan. But 
ihey added to it several things whidi they perhaps might have 
heard from the Apostles and their immediate Disciples : and this 
in time brought it under the suspicion of other believers. The 
Ebiom'tes ^ at length by their additions and defalcations in favour 
of some errors into which they had fallen, concerning the Divi* 
nity of our Saviour and the Virginity of Mary, so corrupted 
it, that at length it was given up by other churches which 
adhered to the form df sound doctrine. It would appear from 
a paasage in Epiphanius that for some time it continued in its 
primitive purity in the hands of the Nazarenes; e^^ouo-t Se to 
«ara Mardaioy evayyeXwv irXtipiffTaTov efipciuFTl, wap ai/roTv 
yap aad)m Twroy xaBm «^ ^PX^ iypd<j>ij efipcuKol^ ypafiyjatnv^ 
in Gtol^BTai* ,Haer. 29. 9* Whether^ or. how far they assisted 
in corrupting it, we need not here enquire; see Joneses Method 
of settling the Canon of the New Testament; for after their 
extinction we hear no. more of the genuine Gospel of St. Mat- 
thew: for the Greek Vision, which in the Apostolic times 
was made from it^ haying always preserved its integrity, vnir 
versally prevailed, and was looked upon as authentic as the 
original: and there being no longer any country in which the 
language of the original was commonly spoken,* that .original 
would soon be fcMrgotten, and the Greek translatiixi then ge- 
nerally understood would be substituted in its room ^ 

* ■ ! t 

^A^P Ti^ trap avtoi^' evayyeXitp^ Kara Marddiov ovofjiatofiev^, ovj^ oXif Zi 
^artp, dWd verodivfidvif^ not tiKpoTtiptafffxtyw. Epiph. Her. 50. 15. 
\o' have leisure^ would do well to consult Campbell's ip- 
^t Matthew's Goqiel ; and Michadis with Bishc^ Marsh's 



It may be proper to add, that it is upon the concurrent 
testimony of antiquity that we ascribe this Grospel to St. Matthew. 
Though it is not mentioned by name in any of the Apostolical 
Fathers, yet there are manifest allusions to several passages in the 
writings of all of them. Papias is the first who has mentioned 
St. Matthew as the writer of a Gospel. Justin Martyr quotes 
the Grospel without mentioning the name of its author: but 
Irenaeus, Origen, Athanasius, Cyril, Epiphanius, Jetom, Chry- 
sostom, and their successors frequently. quote it, and ascribe it 
to St. Matthew. Nor does any early profane writer contro- 
vert its genuineness, or impugn the universal opinion of the 
early Christian Church. 

Chap. I. 

The distinction of Chapters which we now have, was not made 
by the Evangelists and Apostles ; but introduced into the Latin 
Church for the sake of assisting the memory, and reference to 
passages. And for greater convenience our Chapters have been 
subdivided by Robert Stephens into r/unj/xeerfa or verses. 

The Greeks divided them into rirXot, which word is formed 

by syncope from the Latin titulus ; and these they subdivided 

into K€(f>d\aia, or as they are frequently called Ammonian 

Sections. ' It appears from Suidas (voce rirXos) that there were 

in St. Matthew 68 r/rXoi, and 355 Ke<l>dkcua, 

in St. Mark . . 48 36 (qu. 236?) 

in St. Luke . . 83 348 

in St. John . . 18 932 

titXoc. Cap. V«". 

o« Tnpl t£v fiAywv ••••• ••• •••••• 2 1 

/3. mp\ tSu avmpeOePTwv vcuSitaiv .••••••••••••». 2 16 

y* 'rrepi pa'tmcrfiov *lwdwov •••••••• 3 1 

S* irepl Khjaew^ tSv AiroffToKtop .•••••••••••• 4 17 

ۥ trepl Twv ficucaptonjTWP 5 1 

r* 'n-epi tov Xeirpov ••••••• •#••• 8 2 

notes. Lardner thinks that St Matthew wrote in Greek ; and that 
the original Greek was translated into Hebrew. But his reasonins 
seems unsatisfactory and inconclusive : and his opinion is not supported 
hj any antient authority. In this instance he seems to have aUowed 
his judgment to be biassed by the fear of unsettling the foundation 
of his system of credibilily. Whitby and Beausobre, who 8upi>ort 
the Greek original^ seem willing to terminate the differe|ice by com- 
pounding matters^ or regarding the language with indifference. Townson 
inclines to the opinion of two originals. 


rirX'ot. Cap. 

^. irtpl rw imrovrapywf •• • 8 

fl» ir€pl T^ icvyBtpSii tlerpov •••••••• 8 

0* irepi tUv laBivrmv awo irouciXwv voamw* •••••••• 8 

ToS fin imTpeirofiivav oKoXovOeiv 8 

T^ eiTiTififfaewi tSv ihiTony •••••••••• 8 

Tw ovo caiitovJ^ofUywp • 8 

Tov wapaXvTiKod ••• 9 

ToS Mardaioi; •• • 9 

T^9 dvyarpo^ rod 'Af>j(iavvaywyau • 

T^^ aifioppoovaffi •• ••• 9 

tSo¥ ovo Tvfpikwv • 9 

TOV oaifiovJ^ofUuav Kmdxw ••• 9 

T^9 Twv 'AtrocrroXtop oiaray^s iO 

Tmy aTrooTCLkerrmv 7r€Lpa Iwdwov .11 

TOV J^fipav e-j^pvTos Tt^v x^po, 12 

0(upjoviS^ofi€vav Tv<p\oS Kal kohPov •••••••12 

Twy cuTovvTwv arifieiop cSecy 12 

Tw¥ irapafio\£v ••IS 

*la>dvvov Kal 'Hpfooov 14 

I. ir€p 

iOm Trep 

i/3. irepl 

lY- ^^p 

cS. irep 

!ۥ irep 

ir« 'Tepl 

$(. irep 

ifl. irepi 

i9» irep 

K. wep 

Ka. irepl 

ic/3. vep 

xy. wep 

jcj. irep 

K€» irep 


Kf. wept tSv irerre aprwv Kal Ho lyQvwv 14 

«« • 

TOV ev QaXaaari itepiirdTov • • . • 14 

Kfi. irepl Ttfi irapafidaew^ r^9 evToXfi^ Oeov 1& 

k6* irefi T^ jfavawaias 16 

X. irepl Twv OepaireiSevTwv oyXo^v 16 

Xcu wepl Tcir iirrd iprreonf Kial ovo lyBvmy ••••..• li 

X/3. ircpi Trjii ^VM^ ^v ^tk^wraiaif 16 

X«v. irepl T^ ep Kaiureipeuf, iireperr^emv 16 

Xo* rrepl T99 fieroftifpibaiaewf 17 

Xc^ irepl tSv aeKfiwtaJ^ofi^v ••••«•••• 17 

Xr- irepl tAv airaiTovvrmv iiiSpaxfia 17 

X^. irepl rw JioXo^i^o/ttiwr, Tit fiieO^my .•••••• 18 

X^^ irepl Twp exerroy irpofiaTwu irapafioK^ 18 

X0« irepl t6v o^peSKovTot tu fwpia TaXoPTa •••••• 18 

A4« itefH TQ? iweptanifremtf tSl elgeaTiy aM0pu>'^<p 

iiroXSatu Ttiv yvnuKa avTw •••••••••• 19 

fuu irepl TOV eirepemi<rarr9s irXavaiov » 19 

m/^ irepl Twy fuado/uLevwv epyaTwv •••••• 20 

f»y. Tepl Tm vnm Ze/3e^cov ; 20 

ftc» irepl t£v hvo TvipiXjSv ••••• 20 

pLem irepl t^9 ovov Kal tov ireiXov 21 

9ir» irepl twv Tv<l>X£y k€U ymXwv • * • • • • 21 

M^. irepl T^s j^fipaifOeiffm WKm 21 







































' titAo*. Cap. Ver. 
fij;. irepi tUv ewepamjfravrwv tov Kvpiov *Ap^iepewv 

KOi UpeajiuTeptov 21 23 

Aid. irepi t£p ovo v\wv TrapafioXri 21 *28 

V. irepl TOV a/uLireXwpo^ irapafiok^ 21 33 

va. irepi twv KaKoviievwv eU tov yafiov 22 2 

vfi. v€pi t£v iirepwTffaaPTwv cid tov Ktjvaov . . • • 22 17 

vy, wepl tUv '^MOouKalwv • . . 22 23 

vZm vepi TOV iirepwTiiaavTo^ ^ofiiKov 22 35 

ve, irept Ttj^ tov Kvpiov irpoi tov9 ^apiaaiov^ €7rf- 

pamjaeo)^ 22 41 

IT* Trepi TOV TCLkavt/cr/JLOv twv TpafifxaTcwv Kat 4>a- 

puralwv • . 23 13 

11^. vepl Ttj^ awreXela^ 24 3 

tnj. w€pl T^ fifxepa^ kcu wpa^f r^ avvTcXeiois . • • • 24 36 

iS. irepi Twv 0€Ka irapBevwv 25 1 

^. irepl Twv Tci TctXavTa XafiovTwv 25 14 

^a. vepl Tfj^ eXevaewi tov XpioTov 25 31 

^)3. irepl Tfj^ aXei'^pcuTffi tov Kvpiov fJLvptp 26 6 

^y. vepl Ttj^ €TotfAa<rla9 tov Tlao^a 26 17 

^S» irepi Tvirov fivaTikw 26 26 

^6. iTBpl T^ vapaooaeoJi tov 'Itjaov 26 45 

^r. 'rrepl r^9 apviiaeats TIeTpov .26 60 

^^. irepl Tfji 'lovia /uera/uieXecay 27 3 

/^9' 'tr^pl Ttji cuT^aeiDi KvptaKov orcJ/Aaro^ 27 57 

These titXoi, though perhaps more proper and accurate than 
our chapters, are yet deficient. Thus we do not find. one Trepl 
Tfj^ yeveaXoyia^ 'hjaov, c. i.; nor, to pass over the interme- 
diate portion of the Gospel, do we find one trepl t^9 (rravpwaetof 

IfftroVf c xxvii.; vepl Tiji a^payicretos ToV'Ta<f>ov 'Ificov, 
c xxvii..; wepl t^« ai;a(maur€a>c 'Iffaov^ c. xxviii.; 9r«pc t^. tov 

Ifftrov airo row fiaBifrwv mffrof^wpiiaew^j c xxviii. &c. 

Ver. 1. Bi)3Xo9 yevia-eo^] Both Hebrews and Greeks under- 
stood by fil-fiXoi any kind of writing, whether short - or long. 
In Mark x. 4, a bill of <Mvorce is called fil0Kos : see also Isai. l. 1, 
and Jer. xxxii. 10, 11, 12, a deed of conveyance is called by a 
corresponding name. See also Deut 'xxiv. 1 ; Josh. x. 13. 

Arrian, spei^ng of Alexander and the origin £rom which 
he wish^ to be supposed to. have descended, uses the word 
'yev€at^9 Alex. 7- ^» ^j on «/c deoS t€ avT^ ^ yevean ^vvejiri^ 
#cai irapa 0€ovi i| airoj((oipri<riv. See also 7* 39, 6, 7"'**And 4. 
8, 3, virep to7v AioaKovpoiu Xoyov^ ylyy^oBai^ iww^ cc Am avti- 
MtiyOm avToiv 9 761^0-19^ iK^ipvfieica Tvv&aptp. So Herodotus 11. 


46, yepeijXoyeovaip airimp n/y yiveaiWf i* e. from what parents 
they were descend^. In Philo 1. de vit. Mos. we find Balaam 
saying, rh err axpifteia^ eSpe Tijy nrpwrriv KorafioK^v t^ tovtwv 
y€P€(rewsj which in the Septuagint is expressed by tIs i^fiKpifia- 
caTo TO ciripfia 'Icucwfi. — ^Archdeacon Bonney, in his life of 
Bishop Middleton, p. 42, tells us that the Rajah of Tanjore, 
speaking of English History, called it the generations of the 
Kings of England. 

This is an elliptic form of expression, and ^Se ecriv, or 
avTfi, or something similar must be understood : See Bos. Ell. 
Gnec. p. 207* Thus St. Mark i. 1, apy^ tov eiayyeXiov *Irfaou 
\purTov vioS TOV OeoS, scil. ^le eari* And St. John, Apocal. 
avoKoXv^a 'Iffaou X/^MrroS, scil. ijie core. See also Isai. i. 1, and 
Jer. i. 1. Thus Herodotus i. 1, 'Hpo&^rov "AXucapifau'a'tjo^ urropiri^ 
airi&ej^it ^^6, in which only the substantive verb is omitted. 

By these words some understand only the genealogy of 
Jesus Christ, and therefore suppose it to be the inscription of 
the first seventeen verses. But' as the Hebrews sometimes de^ 
nominate a Book from the' first words of it, or. from, what is 
described in the beginning, as e. g. the first Book of Moses is 
called Genesis ; so others understand the History of the life and 
actions of Jesus Christ, and therefore suppose it to form the 
title of the whole Gospel ; though the words may really and 
properly belong only to the' first seventeen verses. Our Trans- 
lators seem to have inclined to this latter opinion. It has been 
a subject of much discussion; and authorities seem in favor of 
the former explanation. An appeal to the Septuagint will not 
perhaps settle the dispute, each party producing instances from 
it. In Gen. V. 1, from which this seems to be taken, we have 
ouTf/ 17 jiipXo^ yeveaeois avOptowwv' which Aquila renders tovto 
jiifSXioy yewtifjLaTwv 'A Jo/x, where the Sons of Adam and those 
descended from them are enumerated: and in Gen. ii. 4, the 
same words jiipXo^ yevetreaj^ are used in the account of the 
gradual creation of the Heaven and Earth. It seems, however, 
more frequently used in the former signification (see Trommii 
Concordantia) ; and the design of the Evangelist, which appears 
to have been first to prove that Jesus Christ, whose history he 
was about to give, was the Son of David and Abraham, . would 
lead us to restrict it to that signification ; more especially as we find 
(v. 18) the history proceeds to relate the manner of his birth. 

Chrysostom, indeied, in Horn. 2. on Matth., in answer, to the 
question why St. Matthew calls, his Grospel /3i/3Ao9 yeveaew^f 
since it does not treat only, of th& nativity of Clmst^ answers 


OTf iratrifi rtj^ ouco^ofiias to «re0aX(uov .tovto* kqI ifxti km 
pil^a rai/TctiF iifiiv tUv ayaB&v yiv^rcu, Atid in the same manner 
Theodoret on chap, xxxix. of Jer. calls the first Book of Moses 
/3i/3\o9 T^ KT'uremiy and Cyrill. Alex. 1. adv. Julian. fiifiXloy 
T^9 Koa/uLoyowiof^, 

Grotius, who thinks this like one of the iwtypaifkii fiepiKol 
found in Moses and the Prophets, says the Hebrews have no 
single word which expresses the meaning of the Greek yeveaXayial 
and as they would, therefore, use two words, so the Greek 
translators rendering word for word, would also use two. He 
therefore translated the words *' deecriptio originis,^^ and in some 
English versions we find it rendered '< an account of the origin 
or descent;^ '^ a table of the Grenealogy C ^^ the lineage,*" &c. 

— 'ifi<Tov\ See V. 21, 

— X/9M^oi;] Literally, (mointed (Suidas Xpurros* o kcxp^" ^ 
fievos iv iXaitp); and applied to priests^ prophets, and kings; 
though for prophets we have not that express law, nor the practice 
upon record which we have for the other. The priests and kings 
were set apart to their ofiicea by a certain oil prescribed in the law 
of Moses. But though Jesus Christ united in his own person 
all the offices of priest, prophet, and king, yet we no where 
find that he received any outward or sensible unction ; and there- 
fore the unction which the prophets and Apostles speak of with 
regard to him, is the spiritual and internal unction of grace and 
the Holy Ghost, of which the outward unction was no more 
than a figure and symboL See Kidder's Demonstration, and 
Pearson on the Creed, voL i. p 125—150. 

In the Septuagint and the New Testament, the word answers 
to the Hebrew Messias ( Joh. iv. 25, 42 : Dan. ix. 26), which 
name was sometimes given to the Kings and High Priests of 
the Hebrews, 1 Sam« xii. 5 : Psal. civ. 15 ; but after the pro- 
phecies of Daniel, it belonged kot e^i^xv^ ^ ^^^ ^^g ^^ ^he 
race of David, whom they expected .to avenge them of their 
enemies, of whom the prophets in the Old Testament spake, and 
whose spiritual kingdom extends over all nations* Hence we 
find JLpurroi and BcMnXfi); frequently changed, 1 Sam. ii. 12 : 
Psal. ii. 2, 6 : and Luke xxiii. 2, Xpurrov fiaatK^a for XpurTov 
roarrsoTi flaatkicu Thus Greg. Nyss. de Perfectione, p. 709. 
r^ ii ToS XpurroS irpoafiyopuf, icvpiow teal wpwrws to (iaatkuoiy 
SiaatifialveTai xparos. And Lactantius iv, 7> ChriiE(tus non pro- 
prium nomen est, sed nuncupatio potestatis et regni : sic enim 
Judsi reges suos appellabant. Sed exponenda hujus nominis 
ratio est propter ignorantium errorem, qui eum inunutati litterA 


Chrestum solent dicere. Erat Jud«ii ante praeceptum-, ut aa^ 
cnim Gonficerent unguentam, quo peningi poBaent ii, qui Tocaban- 
tur ad saoerdotium vd ad regnum. Et gknit nunc lUHnanis in- 
dumentum purpuras insigne est regie dignitatis adsumpt«, sic 
illis unetio sacri unguenti nomen ac poteatatem regiam confere* 
bat. See also Horsley^s Sermons, Vol. i. Sermon 9. p« 188. 

Without the article however, it is to be^ understood, not as 
an appellation, but as a proper name: and some distinction was 
necessary, as the name Jesu% was common among the Jews, about 
our Saviour^s time. And so prevalent did the naime of Christ 
become, that Tacitus, Suetonius, Pliny, and o< i^ao distinguish 
him by no other. Whence the Jews who would not acknowledge 
Jesus to be the Christ, bq^ to call the Messiah whom they ex- 
pected, no longer Xfyumo^ but i}Xffi/uM6yo9. 

That the name c^ Jesus is so often added to the name of 
Christ in the New Testament is not only that thereby Christ 
might be pointed out for the Saviour (wfaidh the name of Jesus 
signifies, see v. SI) but also that Jesus might be pointed out 
for the true Christ; against the unbelief of the Jews, who deoied 
that Jesus of Nazareth was he. 

Mill omits XpiaroS because it is not in the JSthiopic version, 
and he thinks there is no need of it, as St. Matthew^s intention 
is to shew, not that Jesus Christ was descended from David; 
because it was notorious to all that the Messiah must descend 
firom him ; but that Jesus of Nazareth was of the seed of David 
and Abraham. ProL 1213. But is it reasonable to place so 
much auth<Nrity in one version, to the overlooking so many others 
aawdlas MSS? 

— ^-iMaS] i.e. inro7ovoi;, according to the flesh. Acts ii. 30: 
Bom. ix. 5. In the same mannar the Hebrews used the cor- 
responding word for all who were lineally descended from, the 
person spoken of. v\ou here anarthrous : see Middleton Gr. Art. 

p. 16a - 

— Aa/3i^] In some of the old MSS. there is a different read- 
ing here, Aavii: but in general it is abbreviated and written 
AdS, omitting the third and fourth letters. It may be observed 
Aat in the generations which follow, sometimes one and some* 
tunes another name is omitted in different MSS., and there, is 
sometimes a great discrepancy in the orthography of the prop^ 

— vioS AafilS] See Pearson on the Creed, Vol. i. p. 136 : 
and South'^s Sermons, Vol. xii. Sermon 7* By no more ordinary 
and more proper name did the Jewish nation point out the Mes- 


siah than by the Soa of David. And not only in the New 
Testament, (see Matth. xii. 23 : xxi. 9 : xxii. 42 : Luke xviii. 38.) 
but in the writings of the Jews we find continual mention of 
^' Messiah the Son of David/^ and the << Son of David ^ jcar 
i^aXVif, It occurs no less than seven times in one section of the 
Talmudical book, Sanhedrin. 

Chrysostom says David is named here before Abraham, be- 
cause he was nearest the time of Jesus; and bmg a great King 
as well as prophet, and an illustrious type of Christ, he is fitly 
enough named first ; especially since the Jews expected the Mes- 
sias of the lineage and family of David. See Kidder ii. p. 164. 

— viod Afipad/ui] Which Wetstein thinks belongs to David. 
But it may be referred to Christ, and perhaps with more pro- 
priety on account of the particular promises made by Grod to 
each that the Messiah should be bom of their seed. To Abra- 
ham (Gal. iii. 16.) the promise was that of a Son in whom all 
the nations of the earth should be blessed; Gen. xii. 3: xxii. 18: 
xxvi. 4 : xxviii. 14 : To David of a Son whose reign should be 
eternal, 2 Sam. vii. 12 : Psal. Ixxxix. 4 : cxxxii. 11 : Isai. ix. 7 • 
xi. 1 : Jer. xxiii. 5 : xxxiii. 15. These promises the Jews ex- 
pected should be accomplished in the person of thie Messiah, 
Luke i. 32, 69. And it was from this particular expectation 
that those who believed Jesus to be their Messiah called him 
the Son of David. 

And besides that the promises were made to these two in 
plainer terms than to any other; one of them was the Father 
of the Jewish nation, and the other the first in the kingdom; 
of which nation and kingdom all the prophecies had told that 
Christ should come. Whence we observe that when God pro- 
mises not to destroy his people, it is on account of Abraham, 
not David : but when he declares he will not destroy the kingdom, 
it is for David'*s sake, not Abraham^s. 

— 'Afipad/x] Erasmus 1, 2, and Stephens 1, 2, write after 
the Septuagint, *A(ipadML with an aspirate,^ which is properly 
rejected, as it should be in 'Eaaiat, 'Ekia^, &c. 

2. 'Aftpadfx] St. Matthew begins his reckoning from Abraham 
to whom the first promise of the kingdom was made. Gen. xvii. 6. 
St. Luke runs his line up to Adam the first head and fountain 
of human nature; which fairly shews that one deduced only his 
title to the crown, the other the natural descent of his humanity. 

— c^cVi'i^re] The frequent repetition of this verb, Rosen- 
mailer thinks, originated in the Hebrew manner of expression. 
And Middleton (Gr. Art. p. 164) remarks that throughout the 


whole of' this genealogy th^e is an use of the larticle, which is 
wholly foreign from the Greek practice, and which in some 
degree favours the historical account of the original of St. 
Matthew^s Gospel. The Greek usage, he says, would require 
*Afipaafk iyeyvfia^v 'IcraaK' o he 'IcroctJc iyeuuffcrey 'Iaircu/3' &c., 
thus introducing the article on the repetition of each proper name; 
the very reverse of which here takes place. 

— Toy 'Icraa/c] See Gen. xxi. 2: xxv. 24: xxix. 35. 

— TOU9 aHeX^uv] The brethren of Juiiah are mentioned, 
though not by niUne, in this genealogy, because though the Mes- 
siah was to arise out of the tribe of Judah, they were on an equal 
footing with Judah in respect of religious privileges. To them 
belonged the promises, their posterity had the law given to them, 
and though not returned from the captivity they had an equal 
interest in the blessing promised to the seed of Abraham, Acts 
vii. 8. See Chrysost* Horn. 5, on St. Matth. It was otherwise 
with Ishmael and Esau, though the one was the son of Abraham, 
arid the other of Isaac. They and their postmty were excluded 
from the privileges of the covenant, for which reason they are 
not mentioned in Messiah^s genedogy. See Chrysost. Hom. 3w 
oil St. Matth. So also Theophylact. 

It may be remembered too that St.- Matthew was an Israelite 
and wrote his Gospel for the Jews. The sons of Jacob were the 
heads of that people from whence Christ was to proceed, and 
heirs of the' promise ; and therefore St. Matthew would not, as 
Bishop Kidder observes, pass them by altogether. 

3. Tov <t>a/oec xal tov Zapa] See Gen. xxxviii. 27 : 1 Chroft. 
ii. 4: Ruth iv. 18. Zara is here mentioned to prevent any 
mistake. For as it was no uncommon thing among the Jews to 
have several children of the same name, we might have been apt 
to imagine, considering the circumstances of his birth (Gen. 
xxxviii. 28.) that this Fharez had been some other Son of Judah. 
But Zarah and Thamar being mentioned, the matter is beyond 
doubt. Wetstein thinks Zarah here mentioned, and the brethren 
of Judah V. 2. and of Jechonias v. 11. designedly, in order to 
answer an objection of the Jews, from not seeing any reason why 
Jesus was preferred to James, Jdses, Simon and Judas, xiii. 

— — Oafiap] It was not usual in the genealogies of the Jews to 
insert the names of women: and here perhaps they are only 
introduced because in the four cases mentioned the law was 
departed from, which was given generally to the Heirs of the 
promised blessing, that they should take them wives of their 


nearest kindred : or poesiUy to obviate any cavils of the Jews 
against the mean condition of the itiother of our Lord; their 
ancestors being descended from women whose manners rendered 
them infinitely meaner than the mother of Christ. For they are 
all branded in history with a mark of infamy ; viz. Thamar for 
incest, Rahab (if of Jericho) for fomication, Ruth for heathenism, 
and Bathsheba for adultery. This is Episcopius^s opinion (Opor. 
Tom. II. Part. S)* The former seems the more probable reason. 

4. ^Apdfi] See 1 Chron. ii. 10, 11. 

-— «'jAM<yci&x/3] In some, 'A^«iva&j/3, and 'Afuvaiofiy which last 
may have arisen 'from the termination of the preceding word 
'Apaiif or fix>m so many names ending in aM» Boboam, Joram, 
Joatham, Abraham ; or because it is unusual for a Greek name 
to end in /3; or because of the similarity of the letters in the MSS. 

5. 'Paxa/3] From Ruth iv. 21; and 1 Chron. ii. 11. we 
learn that Boaz was the son of Salmon. But that Rachab was 
the mother of Boaz, we cannot find aay trace in the Old Testa- 
ment: so that the Genealogist must have had recourse to 
tradition, or to the public roisters of the tribe of Judah and of 
the other tribes that adhered to it, which were kept even in the 
captivity, as may be collected from the Books of Ezra and 
Nehemiah, and from St. Luke^s telling us that Anna was of the 
tribe of Aser, and St. Paul that himself was of the tribe of 
Benjamin. See y. 14. 

It has beai a question amongst Interpreters^ whether the 
Rahab here mentioned is Rahab the harlot of Jericho (Josh. ii. 1.) 
or not. Theophylact was of opinion that she was not ; and his 
opinion has been embraced by several modem C(Hnmentators. 
That she was, as all the other women mentioned in this list, a 
remarkable person, can scarcely be doubted : nor can any motive 
be assigned which should have induced St. Matthew to menticm 
her in the genealogy of Christ, uxdess she were some person previ- 
ously spoken of in Scripture : but many reasons may be assigned 
why she should be intitoduced in the lineage, if she were the 
Rahab whose conduct is mentioned by Joshua. That die was 
one of the idolatrous nations with which the Israelites were 
forbidden to marry, Exod. xxxiv. 16 : Deut. vii. 3. hinders not 
her marriage with Salmon, she having become a proselyte of 
Justice ; the reason of that law being lest they should tempt them 
to id(datry, which reason would cease upon their owning the 
God of Israel : or the prohibition mi^t not take place till they 
entered into the Holy Land. 

But it has been inferred from Chronological reasons that the 


Rachab here mentioned must have been one who lived later than 
Rahab of Jericho. For, if not, the time betwixt Salmon and 
David must have been at least three hundred years, and only 
Booz, Obed, and Jesse intervene ; unless we admit that the s^ 
cred writers mentioned in the Genealogy such names only as were 
distinguished and known amongst the Jews, (see Bp. Gray^s Key 
to the Old Testament, Ruth, p. 163). Supposing, however, these 
to be the only persons intervening, and from their extraordinary 
piety, as Usher thinks, (Chron. Sac. c. 12) of a longer life than 
ordinary, Dr. AUix makes Salmon beget Booz when ninety-six 
years old, Booz beget Obed when ninety, Obed beget Jesse when 
ninety, and Jesse beget David when eighty-five. 

The civil records to avouch for the truth of these Genealogies 
being now lost, though at the time there was no difficulty with 
respect to those of the royal family in particular ; the later Jews 
unjustly cavil, and have broached the tenet that Rahab married 
Joshua; but unfortunately for their consistency they make her 
the mother of eight priests and prophets ; yet Joshua was neither 
of the tribe of Judah nor Levi, but of Ephraim, Numb. xiii. 8. 

'Pov$] The Moabitess. The son of a Moabite by an Israelitish 
woman could never be allowed to enter into the congregation of 
the Lord ; i« e. at least he was rendered incapable of being a 
prince in Israel, and perhaps even of being naturalized by cir- 
cumcision, (Deut. xxiii. 3). But from this instance it appears 
that the precept was not understood as excluding the descendants 
of an Israelite by a Moabitish woman from any hereditary ho- 
nours and privileges. From Ruth iv. 13, we find Booz thought 
himself obliged to marry her. 

6. o /SocriXcvs] See 1 Sam. xvi. 1, &c. These are omitted 
in some MSS. and versions, but probably repeated honoris causi : 
see 1 Kings i. 1, 13, 28, 31, 32, 3?, 38, 43, 47^ from which it is 
plain that the repetition is not unusual with the sacred writers. 

In this genealogy David has the title of King, because the 
Tesseradecads being adapted to the various states of the Israelites 
from Abraham to Jesus, David being the origin of the second state, 
was the first King of his family, and had the kingdom entailed 
upon his children. It is true, ten of the twelve tribes revolted 
fh>m Rehoboam, David^s grandson: nevertheless the promise of 
Grod remained sure : for an end was soon put to the kingdom of 
the ten tribes: whereas the kingdom of the -two tribes was of 
much longer duration, not to mention that the tribe of Judah, 
out of which Messiah was to spring, was one of the two that 
continued their allegiance to Davids family. 



— -SoXo^i^ra] Very many MSS. hare SoXoAtcSya, which 
Griesbach admits. Suidas icXiVerat ^€ 2oXo/ua!y 'S^Xo/jlUvto^^ koi 
2oXo/u<7i/095 Kal wpiyfrapo^^vTovwi 'SioXofJLWva^, *H 06 traXaia oia* 
Biixrf ^Xofiwvra iraXel, whence it has been inferred that it is 
not so read in the New Testament. — It is however found as an 
indeclinable in the old MSS. of the Old Testament ; and if the 
reading 2oXo/u»rra be admitted, the nominative will have the 
last syllable circumflexed, otherwise not. Serv. in Mn, i. 100, 
says Homerus et Sarpedonis declinavit et Sarpedontis. — Natu* 
ralis autem declinatio est Sarpedon Sarpedonis, — Hsi autem geni- 
tivum in dontis miserit, a circumflexo venit, qui est in ultimi 
syllabsi uominativi. 

-— *6/c Tfjs Tov Ovpiov] 2 Sam. xii. 24. In this expression 
there is a double ellipsis ; see Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 120 : scil. 
yvifcuKos, Bos Ell. Gr. 65 ; sub. wore, Bos 489. The relation 
is neither expressed nor implied in the phrase in the text; but 
supplied from a previous acquaintance with the subject. Thus 
also in Mark xvi. 1, Mapla rf tov 'IokcJ/Joi/, sub. /JLtirtip' and in 
the same manner, Acts i. 13, in '1aira))3o9 'AX0aiot/, sub. 1/I09* and 
Luke vi. 16, in 'loviav 'loireojSot;, sub. aSeX^v. Not very dis- 
similar is VirgiPs Hectoris Andromache Pyrrhine connubia servas, 
Mn. III. 320. So Terentia Ciceronis, Metella Crassi, &c. 

7.] See 1 Chron. iii. 10. 

8. 'A<rd^ 1 Kings xv. 8, 24 ; — 2 Kings viii. 16. 

— 'Iwpa/uL Je eyivvTfcre tov 'O^cai;] Ozias or Uzziah, 2 Kings 
XV. 32, called also Azariah, 2 Kings xiv. 21 ; — 2 Chron. v. 11 ; 
^^xxvi. 1. Here the verb yevvav must be taken in a more 
extended signification: for three Kings are omitted between Joram 
and Uzziah, viz. Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah, which last was 
the father of Uzziah : see 2 Chron. xxvi. &c. But omissions of 
this kind are not uncommon in Jewish genealogies : thus in 
Ezra vii. 3, five descents from Meraioth are omitted, as appears 
from 1 Chron. vi. 7> 9. So the writer of the first book of Chroni- 
cles, when he begins with the sons of Judah, (as he does iv. 1) 
omits Zerah, and sets down others who were not strictly his 
sons, though they were descended from him. So also 1 Chron. ii. 
1, 3, he reckons up all the sons of Jacob, and seems to design 
a particular account of the posterity of each of them, and does 
actually give an account of the posterity of ten of them, but yet 
he omits in this account Zebulun and Dan. 

It was a maxim of the Hebrews, that the children of children 
are reputed the children not only of their immediate parents, but 
of their ancestors : $nd these ancestors are said to beget those 


who are removed some generations from them : see an example in 
Isai. xxxix. 7) where the prediction was fulfilled long after the 
days of Hezekiah. 

The curse denounced 1 Kings xxi. 21 ; and 2 Kings ix. 8, 
against the house of Ahab to which these princes belonged, has 
been supposed a probable reason for their omission; since this 
curse was to take place till the third generation. They are 
therefore blotted out of the records of Chrisfs family, and over- 
looked as if they had never been. — So Simeon in Moses^ blessing, 
Deut. xxxiii. for his cruelty at Sichem ; Joab in the list of David's 
worthies for his slaying Amasa and Abner : and the tribe of Dan in 
Rev. vii. for their idolatry, Judg. xviii. 30. But without having 
recourse to this supposition, it may have arisen merely from the 
Evangelist^s wish to complete the genealogy in Tesseradecads, and 
to terminate the second with the end of the kingly government. 

9,10.] See 2 Kings xv. 7, 38; — ^xvi. 20; — ^xx. 21; — xxi. 
18, 24. 

11. loKrior C€ iyivin/i<r€ tov 'lej^oviav kqI tovt docX^ot)?] 
Here y^pvay cannot be strictly taken, if, as is frequently done, 
we suppose Jechonias to be the son of Jehoiakim, the son of 
Josias. See 1 Chron. iii. 15. But it does not appear that Je- 
chonias had any brethren : and Jehoiakim had two, who also sat 
upon the throne, Jehoahaz and Zedekiah ; the former before and 
the latter after Jechonias. In some MSS. and versions we find 
Iwria^ Se iyiwvfitre tov ^Iwayeifi, *\waye\fjL Se iyeviniac to¥ 
^Ityoviar xai tovv ceSeX^oi)? avrou^ which is evidently an inter- 
polation, and probably owes its origin to some over-zealous tran- 
scriber, who finding that there were only thirteen in either the 
second series or the third, thought it necessary thus to supply 
the defect. — In very early times, however, the Fathers found the 
same difficulties in this passage that we do : and Porphyry and 
the Manichseans made the objection ; which are strong arguments 
for retaining the old reading without any variation. 

The common supposition is, that Jechonias v. 11, and that 
V. 12, are different persons ; this Jerom^ expressly asserts : other- 
wise it would seem to be quite inadmissible, as in every case we 
find each person mentioned as the son of the preceding, and 
father of the succeeding one. Still less is the conjecture in 

' In Dan. i. In Evangelio secundum Mattheeum secunda riaxrapa 
^eicac in Joacim desinit fiho Josise^ tertia incipit a Joacim filio Joachim. 
And in Matth. i. Sciamus Jechoniam priorem ipsum esse quem et 
Joadiim, secundum autem filium non patrem. 

II 2 


Bowyer, koI tov9 aiekipoii avrcv T01/9 egri T1799 &c. to be ad- 
mitted^ which has no authority whatever; though Glass gives 
it that meaning: see Phil. Sac. p. 137- 

— «a2 TOW aSeXfpov^ll These words have been supposed to be 
an interpolation; and to come with more propriety after SoXa- 
0i^\, V. 12; for we find six of his brothers, sons of Jechonias, 
1 Chron. iii. 18. But here another difficulty might seem to occur; 
for we read in Jer. xxii. 30, speaking of Jechonias, " write ye 
this man childless: for no man of his seed shall prosper sitting 
on the throne of David.^ But this translation is faulty: the 
word being rendered by the Septuagint eKKtjpvKTis, which may 
signify stript or rooted up (see Schleusn. Lex. V. T.) deprived or 
alxlicated. And from what follows we could not infer that he 
was to have no children, but that his children should not succeed 
him in his throne and dignity. As Theodoret observes, the 
prophet declares the end of the kingdom of Judah. 

— iwl T^ fxeroiKealai] iiri about the time, not many years be- 
fore the carrying away to Babylon. Thus Porphyr. de Abstin. iv. 
17) i^€lpcf|<Tdvfl9 a¥tjp QafivXwvios eirl TwyiroTepwif fjfiiiv yeyovwi, 

^^/uLeToiKeaiai\ This word is not found in profane authors. 
It signifies the translation of the Jews from their own country to 
that of Babylon, which amongst the Hebrews went by the name 
of the captivity. The act of the removal or the beginning of 
the captivity is here only meant, and not the state in which the 
Jews remained during seventy years» — It occurs in the Septua- 
gint, where the corresponding Hebrew word signifies captivity: 
but it must be remembered that that version was made for the 
use of Hellenist Jews, who lived where Greek was the vulgar 
tongue; and therefore softer terms especially in the historical 
part might probably be used. 

The Babylonish captivity of the two tribes who adhered to the 
house of David, was begun by Nebuchadnezzar in the reign of 
Jehoiakim, whom Nebuchadnezzar bound in fetters to carry him 
to Babylon, but afterwards pardoned and re-instated. About 
nine years afterwards, in the reign of Jehoiakin, Nebuchadnezzar 
made a second descent against Judah, and besieged Jerusalem 
and took it, and carried away the king and all the nobles, and 
the great men and officers, and ten thousand captives, to Babylon, 
with all the treasure of the house of the Lord and the treasure of 
the king^s house, 2 Kings xxiv. 10 — 16. About eleven years 
after this, in the reign of Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar came and 
sacked and burned Jerusalem and the temple, and carried away 
to Babylon the remainder of the sacred vessels, together with 


all the Jews who remained in the country, except some poor 
people whom he left to till the land. Four years after this, he 
again invaded the land of Israe}, and seized upon all the Jews he 
could meet with, and sent them captive to Babylon. Thus was 
the captivity of Judah completed, and the land was made deso- 
late, none of its former inhabitants being now left in it. The 
seventy years of captivity were dated from the first transport- 
ation : — and it is of this the Evangelist here speaks. 

12. fieTo] After the translation of the Jews to Babylon. It 
seems here put in opposition to iiri t^; fierouceaiaf lRa[3u\wvo^ of 
the preceding verse. 

Jehoiakin was carried away to Bal>ylon in the third month of 
his reign, and the eighteenth year of his age, 2 Kings xxiv. 8 ; — 
Joseph. Ant. x. 7» 1* ^^^ Salathiel or Shealtiel was bom in 

-— * Zo/9o/3a/36X] Though it is the more generally received 
opinion, still it does not seem to be universally allowed that the 
son of Salathiel here mentioned is the same with the one men- 
tioned Luke iii. 27, inasmuch as the descent of Zorobabel is here 
deduced from David through Solomon, but in St. Luke through 
Nathan : and in ascending from Salathiel and descending from 
Zorobabel, the names are different in the two genealogies. 

It has been a question also, whether the Zorobabel here men- 
tioned is a different person from the one 1 Chron. iii. 19, and 
there called the son of Phedaiah. Those who suppose them the 
same have endeavoured to support their opinion by imagining 
that Salathiel died without issue, and that according to the laws 
of the Hebrews, his brother married his widow, by whom he had 
Zorobabel, and therefore Phedaiah was his natural and Salathiel 
his legal father. But this does not remove the difficulty ; since 
by the law and by the common mode of forming the genealogical 
tables, the name of the legal father would have been inserted in 
1 Chron. iii. 19- Thus, though Booz married Ruth by virtue 
of his being the nearest relation to Mahlon, her former husband, 
Obed the issue of the marriage was never called the son of Mahlon 
his legal father, but always of Booz : nor does it indeed appear 
that the children of such marriages ever were called the children 
of the deceased. In the present case also the names of the child- 
ren are different. And as the name itself signifies '* a stranger 
in Babylon,^^ and might be given to several children bom in the 
captivity, additional probability is given to the opinion of those 
who think the Zorobabel here mentioned a difierent person from 
the one in Chron., as well as from the one in St. Luke. 


— *A(iiovSi] An objection has been brought against St. Mat- 
thew for affirming that Zorobabel begat Abiud; whereas if 
he be the same as in 1 Chron. iii. 19. there is no mention 
of Abiud. It has been observed above that they are most 
probably not the same : still the objection is of no validity, 
even supposing them the same. For it is well known that 
many persons in the Old Testament had several names: and 
as this was common with them at all times, so it was especially 
about the time of their captivity, see Dan. i. 6, 7- l^^y ^a^ 
other names in Babylon, beside those which were used in 
their own land. And long before the time of the captivity this 
custom obtained: comp. 2 Sam. iii. 3. with 1 Chron. iii. 1. 
Abiud therefore might be mentioned in 1 Chron. iii. 19. under 
the name of MeshuUam. 

13] Of the ancestors of Jesus mentioned in this and the 
following verses we have no account in the Old Testament. 
A question therefore here arises, whence had St. Matthew his 
genealogy ? No doubt from authentic tables kept in the archives 
of the towns, but particularly in the temple at Jerusalem. See 
Nehem. vii. 64: Euseb. Eccl, Hist. i. 7* And from St. Luke 
we may infer the same, since all went to be taxed, every one 
to his own city^ ii. 3. That in our Saviour'^s time they had 
these genealogical tables of families and tribes, is evident from 
what Josephus tells us in his life, that he found the succession 
of his family in the public tables ; riiv fietf outf rod y€vov9 
ijfAWp otaco)(jiv, (is ip rai^ otifioaiaisi ce'XToift avayeypcLixfiivriP 
evpoVf ovrwi vapaTidefiatf toI^ oiafidWeiu ijfjba£ Tretpwfiii^oi^ 
yalpeiv (ppcura^. Indeed in preserving the line of their priests, 
their care was extreme; and there can be no question but the 
like care was employed to preserve the stems of the royal family 
of David, on which all their hopes of tracing the Messiah 

On returning from Babylon they saw, or certainly believed 
they saw, a purer spring of Jewish blood there, than in the 
land of Israel itself. Care was to be taken therefore to lay up 
among Uiemselves genealogical tables from generation to gene- 
ration, as faithful witnesses, and lasting monuments of their 
legitimate stock and free blood. It lay especially on the San- 
hedrim, to preserve pure families, as much as they could, pure 
still : and when they prescribed canons of preserving the legi- 
timation of the people, there was some necessity to lay up 
pedigrees with them ; whence it might be known what family 
was pure and what defiled. These, therefore furnished St. Mat-* 


thew widi the last fourteai generatioiis, and St. Luke with the 
first forty names of his genealogy ; at a time too when no 
doubt the tables were perfect. Hence the Apostle, Heb. vii. 14. 
appeals with confidence to the Hebrews concerning the lineage 
of Christ ; '^ for it is evident that our Lord sprang out of 
Judah.^ And it would seem highly improbable that St. Matthew, 
writing for the use of the Jews, would at the very commence- 
ment oi his Grospel have inserted any thing which could be 
liable to their cavils. 


To the enquiry how St. Matthew and St Luke are to be 
reconciled, we answer that the former gives the genealogy of 
Joseph, the latter of Mary. Christ having been promised 
as the seed of the woman and the son of David; that as a 
man, this as a king; it was necessary that satisfaction should 
be given concerning both. St. Luke therefore declares him the 
promised seed of the woman that was to break the serpent^s 
head ; deducing his mother'^s stock from whence he,* as man, 
was bom, from Adam to whom the promise had been made long 
before the Jewish people had any being. Besides, being not 
a Jew by birth, nor in any way obliged to any custom of theirs, 
when writing his Grospel for the use of the Gentiles, and parti- 
cularly the Greeks, who had the Septuagint Bible in their hands, 
in which the text in Isaiah is translated exactly as St. Matthew 
(i. 23.) had given it, and had a clear notion that the Messias 
was to be bom of a virgin ; he does not think it could signify 
any thing to them to give them the genealogy of a supposed 
but not a real father ; and therefore for the satisfaction of man^ 
kind he takes a different method from that which St. Matthew 
took for the satisfaction of the Jews, and gives an account of 
Jesus by the mother^s side. Whereas St. Matthew, a Jew, 
writing his Gospel for the use and benefit of the Jews, kept 
to the received custom of the Jews, who reckoned their gene- 
alogies by the male only and not by the female, and who perhaps 
had not so clear a notion that the Messias was to be bom of 
a virgin, and therefore derives his pedigree through the royal 
family of David to Joseph his reputed father, through whom 
he would have a legal claim to the crown, as the heir of those 
who succeeded the first-bom by right; Joseph^s marriage with 
Mary having given him a right to all the privileges. 

Though the difficulties of this perplexed . question are not 
hereby removed, they are diminished ; and at this distance of 
thne, for want of a fuller knowledge of the customs and modes 
of forming their genealc^cal tables we • cannot satisfactorily 


resoWe all the difficulties in whidi it is involved, yet we are 
assured that during the life of our Saviour no objection against 
his descent from David was brought forward even by the 
Pharisees, who had the best means of being informed on the 
subject. Nor was any opposition made to the Apostles calling 
him " the Son of David,'^ Rom. i. 3 : 2 Tim. ii. 8 : and there- 
fore whatever obscurities may have since arisen, we may reason- 
ably conclude that his descent was originaUy admitted to be 
fairly made out by the first Christians. The Jews, their co* 
temporaries, who were most nice and exactly skilful in things of 
this nature, and withal most maliciously bent against Christ 
and Christianity, never offered to quarrel against or invalidate 
the accounts they have given us of this particular ; which, had 
these been faulty, the Jews would most certainly have done; 
this giving them so vast an advantage against us. And this 
consideration alone is of that weight and substance, that so 
far as terms of moral- certainty can demonstrate any thing, it 
ought with every sober and judicious person to have even the 
force of a demonstration. The later Jews indeed have per- 
plexed the Christians with objections, but they have not been 
able to offer any proof against the main question, whether 
Jesus was of the family of David. Indeed some of our learned 
writers have from the Babylonian Talmud, a book of great 
antiquity, proved against the modem Jews, that the aniieni 
Jews did own that Jesus was of the house and family of 
David. See Kidder Dem. Mess. Part ii. c. 13. And it may be 
observed, that it is a very easy matter to perplex a learned 
Jew with many difficulties to be found in the Books of Moses, of 
Samuel, the Kings, and Chronicles, especially in matters of 
names and ntimbers; but he will not therefore doubt ot the 
whole, because he is not able to give a clear account of the 
difficult passages which are found therein. 

Yet however the genealogies are described, whether one 
belong to Joseph, the other to Mary, or both to Joseph ; it 
is from other parts of the Scripture infallibly certain, not only 
that Christ descended lineally from David according to the 
flesh, but also that the same Christ was begotten of the Virgin 
Mary, and not by Joseph. See Pearson on the Creed i. p. 202, 
Allix^s Reflections on the Books of Scripture, Part iv. c. 7* 

Much labour has been used to reconcile the apparent dis- 
crepancies of the two genealogies. See Grotius'^s Annotations; 
Lightfoot'*8 Harmony ; Whitby^s Preface to the Reader ; Kidder'^s 
Demonstration of the Messiah, Fart ii. ; South^s Serm. Vol. iii.; 


and Dr. Barrett in the Prolegomena to the Codex Rescriptiu, 
who endeavours to solve the principal difficulty by adppting the 
Genealogy of David as delivered 1 Chron. iii. He thinks the 
family of Salathiel (whom he makes the same in St. Matthew, 
St. Luke, and 1 Chron. iii.) divided into two branches, one of 
which is traced by St. Matthew, the other by St. Luke. See a 
summary of his argument and conclusions in Dr. Adam darkens 
Note on Luke i. 23 ; or Townshend^'s New Testament chronolo- 
gicaUy arranged, p. 54. 

16. Tov avSpa] Some take ay^p here in the sense of vvfitbto^^ 
Bs the Hebrews called those who had been espoused, husbands 
and wives : See Gen. xxix. 31 : Deut. xxii. 23, 24. The Latins 
also used the words gener, maritus, conjux, uxor, soror, &c. of 
those who were to be really such, though not already become so : 
and in v. 19) avrip must be necessarily taken in that sense. But 
here there is nothing to lead us to think of Joseph as espoused, 
which is the case in v. 19 : besides in genealogies of the Jews 
only those are mentioned who are married : and in v. 24, Joseph 
is expressly said to have taken Mary his wife. We may there- 
fore without any hesitation conclude, that av^pa is here used in 
the sense of husband. 

— Ma/iiaf ] This name is scxnetimes formed in the New Testa- 
ment with a Greek termination, and declined through all its 
cases in that manner. Sometimes it is written with the Hebrew 
temmiation Ma^eS/u, and is aKkirov, as the Greeks have no word 
ending in /<. Josephus uses Mapm/umtf or tAapiativrj. So for 
^A^paafi we find 'Afipaa/JLO^ or 'Afipaais or 'Afipcuififj^' for 'Aid/uL, 
"Aiofio^'^ ^/3eX, '^AjSeXoc be. Thus also in the names Annibal, 
Asdnibal, Amilcar, &c. we find the terminationB altered to adapt 
diem to the Greek, 'Avvifia^, 'AaSpovfia^, 'ApLlXxaSf &c» 

This name was common to many even at that time: to the 
sister of Lazarus ; to the mother of James and Joses; to the 
wife of Cleophas; to the mother of John whose surname was 
Mark ; to her who was of Magdala in Galilee ; to her who 
bestowed much labour on St. Paul r nor is there any original dis- 
tinction between the name of these and the mother of our Lord. 
For as the name of Jesus was the same as Joshua, so this of 
Mary was the same with Miriam ; the first of which name re- 
corded was the daughter of Amram, the sister of Moses and 

Besides this name of the Virgin, little has been discovered to 
US. Of her immediate parents the Scriptures tell us nothing : but 
from tradition we learn that she was the daughter of Joachim 


(St. Luke^s Eli or Eliakim according to some explanations of the 
genealogies) and Anna, of the royal tribe of Judah. 

— eyetfvrfSri] yevmv is used by the Grreeks when speaking 
either of Father or Mother. Thus Plut. Symp. ii. 4, Xijyovat 
TiKTOvaai TToXi) irpOTcpop tj yetfvwvre^ oi avSpe?. And Ages, 
p. 4f97> TO ytvwfiev cf avrii^ iraiSiov. See also Joh. xvi. 21. 

— o Xeyo/ievo^,^ Who is known by that name, and is really the 
Christ, Luke i. 32, 35. This idiom, though familiar, is not pecu- 
liar to the Hebrews, or writers of the New Testament. We find 
KoXew used in the same way in Hesiod. Theog. 410, ^iXf^i^ iceic- 
XljaOai oKoiTiv where Asteria is taken home to be his wife. And 
in Horn. II. ^. 268^ ocitrw oTrutefievai xal atlv KeKXtjaOai cucoitiv, 

— - X/oio-Tov] Not 6 XpifTToi* See Middleton Gr. Art. p. 166. 
See also Pearson on the Creed, p. Ill, &c. 

,17* ai y€P€ai] A few MSS. want at> which should be in- 
serted. See Middleton Gr. Art. p. 165. See also Glass. Phil. 
Sac. p. 131. The word signifies the series of men succeeding 
each other, so that the second was bom from the first, the third 
from the second, &c. It is thus used by Josephus, Ant. vii. 
6, 6, iirl Teaaapa9 'yci'fdy toi)? iralSas auTou ^aiXeuaciv t«i» 
'lapaeXiTwv : Ant. vii. 2, /iera tov KaTcucXvafiov oeKarij yeve^ 
irapa XaXoaioi^ ris tiv ^Ucuo^ dvrip. See also v. 9, 4 : vii. 5, 2. 
See also Pearson on the Creed, vol. ii. p. 75. Dion. Hal. reckons 
as many yeveai as there were successions of Kings. Philo in his 
life of Moses, i. ejido/jLfi yeved oStos eanv diro tvv TrpwTov, as 
ejrrjXvTrfs wv, tov (TVfxiravTos lovoaiojv €9vou9 dp'^^tfyerrj^ e'yei/ero. 
And Herodotus vi. 98, eirl yap Aapeiou tov *YffTaa7r€os, xai 
Sep^eto TOV Aapeiovy xai 'ApTa^ep^eo) tov Sep^ew, Tpitav tovtcwp 
ewcf^y yeveiwVy eyevcTo TrXew Kcucd .Ttf *£XAaoi j; ewl eixoai 
aXXQ9 y€V€d£ Tas irpo Aapeiov yevofievas* And i. 7? ap^airres 
6iri ovo T€ Kai eiKoai yev^ds dvcpHv^ €T€o nrevTe t€ xal irevTw 
KoaiOf irdif irapd *iraTpos eK^eKOfievos Tijv dp'x^v, 

— yeveal SeKUTeaaapes] It was no uncommon thing with the 
Jews, for the convenience of memory, to reduce numbers in 
genealogies to the same quantities: in conformity with which, 
St. Matthew has here brought the genealogy of Christ into three 
parts or classes of fourteen (i. e. twice seven j a number the Jews 
were fond of). And these genealogies have a marked distinction;* 
the first fourteen under the patriarchs and prophets, from Abra- 
ham till the kingdom was established in the family of David: 
the second under kings, from their state of splendour to the 
destruction of the temple : the third, under the Asmonsean priests^ 
from the misery of the captivity to rea^ glory again in Christ. 


And these three parts which answer to so many remarkable 
periods in their history, were every one of them early distin« 
guished by predictions concerning the Messiah, peculiarly inter- 
esting to them; the first by the promise to Abraham, that 
in his seed all the nations of the earth should be blessed; in 
the renewal of wliich promise Isaac was chosen before Ishmael, 
and in the bequest of which as an inheritance Jacob was pre- 
ferred to Esau : — ^the second by assurances to David, that the 
promised seed should spring from his loins; to whom the 
greatness of his character, offices and acts were revealed, and 
by whom as a prophet it was represented to Israel : — ^the third 
by marking an sera of seventy weeks, or 490 years, before the 
end of which time the Messiah should come; and foreshowing 
a sign of his advent in the appearance of his Messenger. 

18. Erasmus connects this verse with the pi'eceding, thus: 
From the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen 
gaierations : and the birth of Christ was in this manner. 

— '1 170-01; XpiaroTf] Many critics read Xpurrod without 
'Ifjo-ot;, on the authority of Irenseus, and the unanimous con- 
sent of the Latin MSS.. and Fathers. Of the Gree'k MSS. the 
Cambridge is the only one which omits 'lijaod, 

'-— yepmifjis^ Some read here y€i*ptj<7i9 and others yeveai^^ 
deriving the former from yei^i^afxeat and the ktter from yiviiaeai, 
and making nice distinctions which in other writers are not 
observed. Griesbach prefers the latter reading; and Wetstein 
contends for the other on the authority of the MSS. the only 
authority which ought to induce us to receive any alteration 
of the common text of the New Testament. 

— QOTW9 ^] Referring to what follows. See Glass. PhiL 
Sac. p. 438. fin taken aopl<nm9: and outws ijv for ai/ri;, as 
vii. 12 : ix. 33 : xix. 10. &c. or for roia 171', as Theognis 345. 
ahra yap ourt^ earL And Ocell. Lucan. c. 11. ouSe ovrws 
iarai yeyeai^^ Thus also Persius, Nee fonte labra prolui Ciu 
ballino. Nee in bicipiti somniasse Pamasso Memini ut 9ic Poeta 

It may be observed here that the mode of dating from the 
birth of Christ does not seem to have been adopted till about 
A. n. 730 : and it is now generally allowed that an error of 
four years was admitted in fixing the era from which the 
computation of the dates is made. 

*— fAVTifTTevO^iait^ y^p\ '^^^ absolute case : for yLvtifrrevOeltra 
Mapia evpeOfi' There are similar constructions in the Sep- 
tungint, as Gen. zliv. 4: 1 Sam. ix. 11. The Vulg. omits yap. 


But it i» commom in Greek, when the writer has shewn in 
what precedes that he was going to relate any thing, to begin 
a narrative with the addition of yap^ (as we do with the word 
now) which connects what goes before with what follows. It 
has the signification of nempe, scilicet. See Hoogeveen, Gr. 
Part. c. XII. sect. 2. § 1. It is not causalis but eoeplanativa. 
Thus Herod, in Life of Homer, 'H/oo^oroy o ^AXiKapvautrev^ 
ire pi 'Ofxfjpov yeveaio^ Kai liXiKiij^ xal fiioTijs race urropfiKC, 
^i/TiJcay iire^eXOciu eis to arpeKeararov, 'EttcI yap ii iraKai 
^ioXecuTi9 Ku/ijy iicTil^€To. And Hist. ii. 6. etTTi o erepou 
TOiovTov. 'AiyvTTTou yap (^vcri^ Trj9 x<oipfj9 €<m Toiiioew Very 
often ie precedes, as in the foregoing case. So also in iv. 14. 
Tov 0€ irepl avTov yikovov \oyoVy Xe^oi. 'Apurriffv yap Xeyovcri. 
And Xen. Hist. Gr. iv. 2, 9. (ppdaw oe Kal to 7r\f}0o9 exaTcpwv, 
S^vvekeyriaav yap OTrXtrac AaKeoaifioviwy fiev eiv 6^airi(r^tX/oi;9. 
Joseph. Ant. i. 2, 3. ireipaao/iai oe fiova Tci tUv cctto ^tjOou 
iieXdeiv. Tpa(f>€U yap outo^, &c. Also ix. 10, 2 : and B. ix. 
7, 3, 3. See also Matt. iii. 3. 

Espousing or betrothing was a solemn promise of marriage, 
made by two persons each to other, at such a distance of time 
as they agreed upon. The manner of performing this espousal 
was either by a wriHng, or by a piece of silver given to the 
bride, or by cohabitation. See Calmet'^s Dictionary, Art. Mar- 

— TrpJi; jj] See Hoogeveen, Gr. Part. c. xlix. § 4. Exod. i. 19. 

— • avveXOclv awTOi/y] Scil. eJy ofiiXlaVj €«s yafiovj eh evviiv. 
Thus Dion. Hal. A. B. iv. eU ofmiXiav avT^ avveXOelv. And 
Achill. Tat. i. otov ovp eh ya/iov eOeXaxriv aXX^Xoi^ (TvveXOelv, 
And Aristsenet. i. Ep. 15. Oottov aixK^na avvijXOov eh evv^v. Jose- 
phus has the word singly. Ant. xii. 4, 6. awepjfeTai Ttj tou 
aSeX<f>ov OuyaTpl. And Philo de Spec. leg. p. 780. o lepwTa- 
T09 McuiJffjyy— ai'd Kparo^ direltrev aSeXtprj avvepj^ea-Oai, And 
Xen. Memor. ii. 2, 4. (pavepol o eafiev Kal (TKovoufievoi i^ 
oTolwv av yvvaiKwv (ieXTiaTa tifiiv TCKva yevoiTOy at (TvveX' 
BovTe^ TeKvoiroiovfxeda. And Orig. c. Cels. i. p. 15. Ttj eavrov 
BuyaTpt 6 TraTvip av^pwv re Oewu tc auveXriXuOey concubuit. 
Plutarch uses avyeXOelv and avvoiKelv, which last is in Deut. 
xxii. 13. 

It was the custom of the Jews for the husband and wife, 
after marriage to abstain some time from cohabiting together. 
We have very iantient traces of this custom in Scripture, par- 
ticularly in Gen. xix. 8, 14, 15. from which it appears that 
Lofs sons-in-law who had married his daughters, had not coh»- 


bited with them. The espoused virgin commonly remained at 
her father'^s, or with her relations, till the time of the proof 
of her chastity expired. Thus Judg. xiv. 8. Samson^s wife 
remained with her parents a considerable time after espousal. 
And accordingly in the present instance we find the Virgin 
tarrying three months with her cousin Elizabeth, after she 
was espoused. 

— evpeOfi eyouaa] for ijv e^oi/cra, i. e. cT^c. See Glass. 
Phil. Sac. p. 221. So Eurip. Iphig. Taur. 777« 'fou ttot oifff 
€upijfi€6a* So also evpeOiivai is used in the sense of etvcuj 
Luke xvii. 18: 1 Pet. ii. 22. And Hierocles in Aur. Carm. 
Pythag. p. 85. ap^tf /mev twv dperwv ti <Ppotni<n9 evpiaKCTcU' 
Aristoph. Pax, 372. ap' oltrOa, Oavarov on irpoeTif} 6 Zeu^, 
OS av TauTfiv avopvTTwv eipeOij ; Or^ perhaps, it appeared she 
was pregnant, efxtbavti^ eyepero- 

— €v ya<rTpi ejfoiwa] Scil. to e/jifipvov, or tov yovov. See 
Bos, Ell. Gr. p. 88. Thus Herod, iii. 32. tov ie evfiwOeura 
ifi'jrtiiiiaat avTrj eyovarj ev yao'rpu Kal fjLiv iicrpoitTcurav 
airo0av€iv. And in Life of Homer, ii. avvefiti Tfjv iral^a 
fiiyeltrav avcpl XaBpaiQ}^ iv yatrrpl o^eiy. See also Gen. 
xxxviii. 18. 

— - €K TTvevfiaros aylov\ Explained by St. Luke''s ivyafU9 
uyf/iarov iTTitTKiaaei aoiy i. 34, 35. This miraculous concep- 
tion of our Lord, Bp. Horsley observes, is the foundation of 
the ' whole distinction between the character of < Christ in the 
condition of a man, and that of any other prophet. See also 
Pearson on the dreed. Vol. i. p. 260, &c. : Horsley^s Tracts, 
p. 354, &c. 

Wassenbergh (see Valck. Schol. Vol. i. p. 26.) thinks these 
words a gloss. And as it ought not to appear yet, by whom 
Mary was with child, till the revelation, was made, it might 
be suspected that these words were originally the marginal note 
of some well'-meaning injudicious person, who was not willing 
to leave the Virgin^s character in suspense for a moment, and 
had not patience to let the reader wait till the course of the 
narration, ver. 20, should clear up the matter. 

19. ^licaios] A religious observer of the law of Moses. See 
Luke XX. 20 ; for by the law it was infamous to retain an adul- 
tress. Bp. Taylor, Life of Christ, Sect. 2. § 5, a good man ; 
and § 10, a good, a charitable man. Abp. Magee, Vol. i. p. 482. 
being a just man, i. e. actuated by a sense of right and duty, 
he determined to put lier away according to the law, and yet at 
the same time not willing to make her a public example, he 


determined to do it privately. Chrysostom explains it by XP^" 
Tos and eirieiK^^f Horn. iv. in Matt. Aucaios ovif wv^ Toureari 
yprffFTOi KOI eirieucfjs. And StKaioi and j^pffaTot are by Aris- 
tophanes put 7ra/t>aXXi7Xctf(. Theophylact in loc. says ^Ikouk 
9|i/' ov yap ifiouXero airtiv^ etpoiy aXX €<f>ikav9p(t>'ir€V€To awo 
9roXX^9 'xpfiaTfyrffroi. So Clarke, Serm. Vol. ix. p. 125, and 
paraphrase, takes it in the sense of merciful and humane. But 
Whitby, who says it occurs above eighty times in the . New 
Testament, will not allow it to be once in that sense. 

— — irapao€iyfiaTi<Tai\ irapaoeiyiuiaTil^eiv and ^eiy/uLarli^eiv de- 
note, to point out any thing so as to bring it forward into public 
notice, and Sely/Jia as well as vapa^eiyfia what is thus brought 
forward. Hesych. Seiy/Aa' 17 ev^ei^t^, irapaoeiy/xaTicraiy 0aife- 
pHaat^ So Ezek. xxviii. 17* Jerem. xiii. 22 ^ Then each word 
came to be used in a worse signification, to affect any one with 
ignominy, i. q. aTfMa^€ii'. Chrysostom thus understands it, 
distinguishing it from the punishment inflicted by law ; Kahoiy^ 
ou Trapa^iyfiariaiAOV ixovov tip vwevOuvos fj Totaurij, aXXa xal 
KoXdl^eadcu ai/rfjv o tfOfio^ CKeXeuev, 'AXX' o 'lw<rtj<l> ou fiovov 
TO /met^oi/ cKeivOf aXXd koi to eXaxTov avve-jfiipffffe t^i/ 
auT')(ivfiv, ijiu yap fioyou ov KoXcurai^ aXX* oJSc TrapaZeiyfiaTitTcti 
ifiovXero. Polybius, speaking of Aristomachus, a tyrant, B. 11. 
60, ov vTTO^eipiOu yeifofievov, ovk kv Keyjfpeah eSei Trfv vvKra 
^TpefiXovfiei^oy airo0ap€tif, w^ 4>i;Xap^09 ^ijai, ir^piayotJ^eww 
c eU Tviv ricXoiroi/i/f^o'oi' koi ixerd Tifitopiai nrapaheiyfian^ 
^ofitvoy^ ouTw^ eKXnretv to (^rjp. See also in Legat. 88. 

— • €J3ovXf}0fi] Eustath. in II. a. 112, ovk airXcS^ 0iXw 
aXXa fiovXofiai' oirep eiriraai^ tov OeXw eariv' Kai^ov Tvypv 
toi^ ^vXofjLaty dXXd Kara ttoXv. And Ammonius, (iovXeaOat 
fuev iiri fjuivov X€KT€ov tov Xoyucov to ^e OeXeiv xai eni aXoyov 
^o>ov. The word implies deliberate counsel. 

Fhotius^s opinion, as we learn from his Letters, was, that 
Joseph did not suspect her of adultery, nor yet knew that 
she was €i; yaaTpl eyovtra €k TruevfiaTo^ dyiov, but fluc- 
tuating in uncertainty was meditating on the subject till the 
angel explained it to him, Ep. 181. ad Eulamp. 

— XdOpa^ Not, without having any witnesses ; but without 
accusing her and alledging any reason in the bill of divorce, 
which was to be put into her bosom before two witnesses 

m . . - . I I — » ,. I ■ . . I. ^, . » 

^ It occurs also in Numb. xxv. 4. which passage Philo (de Somn. 
p. 578.) makes use of, and commentiilg on it uses €i/Ber^ai and fwihT^ai 
m the same signification. 


'^^airoXvo'cu] For atroKveiv to repudiate^ the Sq>tuagint use 
ej^aTroariWeir. The law of divorce laid none under an obliga^' 
tion, but gave permission only to put away the wife. If a man 
took a wife and hated her, Deut. xxii. 13, he might bring her to 
trial, and upon conviction, to punishment :— -but if he love her 
for all his suspicion, and will connive at her fault, and not seek 
her death, he is at liberty to connive, and tolerated by the law 
so to do, and blameless if he did it ; Judg. xix. 2, 3. But if a 
couple were discovered in the act of adultery, there must be no 
connivance ; Deut. xxii. 22, explaining Levit. xx. 10. 

SO. ev0ujuLfi&evTo^'\ See Schleusner. It is constructed with an 
accusative in the profane writers as in the Evangelists. Thucyd. ii. 
40, KUi avTol fiTot Kpivofiev ye ti evOv/uLovfieOa opd£9 ra irpay- 
fiLora. Isocr. ad Nicoc. iii. eiretdar £e ivQvfAtfiw<Ti tov^ 0o/3oi;9. 
See also Acts x. 19* 

--*fdoi)] The corresponding word is continually used by the 
Hebrews: and sometimes, as here, to prepare the mind for 
hearing something wonderful and unexpected! We find ecce in 
profane authors signifying in the same manner something sudden 
and unexpected, as Virg. Mn. ii. 270, In somnis ecce ante oculos 
mcestissimus Hector Visus adesse mihi. 

— Kvpiov] Which Mill thinks has been transposed hither from 
V. 24. 

— jcar opap] Thus Gen. xx. 6; — ^xxxi. 11, xaff v'lrvov' and 
1 Kings iii. 5, ev vTrvfp* The phrase we find in other writers, as 
in Plutarch, Parall. p. 305, NedirXeoc/^ tov iraTpo^ aurov kut 
opap iwpoKOTo^: and p. 307) kot ovap tcwv avaXa^lv \epew9 
KonpiOv* So Jamblich. de Myst. iii. 3, J^iovvaov kqt ovap cTTf- 
0arevTO9. Sometimes the Kara is omitted, as Plut. in Pericl. 
p. 160, i; deo^ ovap f^avelaa. And Julian, oi/oe ovap (f>av€k aoeX* 
<l>o9. The common phrase in aomniSf occurs in Accius, Ennius, 
Virgil, &c. Cicero has secundum quietem. 

In the antient and purer times of patriarchism, as well as in 
the earlier ages of Judaism, the Deity frequently revealed his 
will in this manner, both to his own people and to some indi- 
viduals of other nations. Not only were Joseph, Jacob, and 
Abraham thus favoured ; but Laban, Abimelech, Pharaoh, and 
even Nebuchadnezzar received similar communications from on 
high. This, with every other miraculous evidence of Grod's 
superintendence oiver the Jewish Church, had been now long 
discontinued : and the Jews, who placed the greatest dependence 
on dreams, and had even formed rules and a regular system for 
their interpretation, had particularly regretted the loss of this 


medium of divine communication. Philo describes at length the 
difference between prophetical and monitory dreams. 

— i/lof] for v\e* So xxvii. 29? ^aipe 6 fiaatkev^ tQv *lowaUaw. 
And Horn. II. y. 277? Zew irarep — f^eXiov 09 irdpr e^p^t 
Kai waPT €7ra#cot/ec¥. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 70. 

— -TrapaXajScii/] When this verb is used in an account of a 
marriage, we leam from Xenophon, (CEcon. vii. 5,) that irapd 
refers to the parents, or those from whom the wife is received by 
the husband, ttclvu civ lyoecos <rov iruQaitifiVy irorepa avTos av 
ewaiSevaas ti^v yuvaiKa uxrre eivcLi oiav &7, 17 ewurrafAivtiv 
eXafie^ Trap a toJJ warpo^ Kal t^ fxtirpos ouHK€tv to irpotni^ 
Kovra avTrj. Kai t! av €<f}rf, to ^SdOKpare^, cviara/Jievfiv avr^v 
napeXafioVt 17 irti fiev ovirm Trei/rs kui oexa yeyovvla tiXOe irpos 
e/Afif TOP ^ e/uLirpoaOev yjpouov i^ti viro voKXfis eirtfieXeia^, Joseph. 
Ant. I. 19, 7> ^teXOovatis aXXti^ em-aerla^ t^v 'Pa^ijXav ira/9e- 
Xafiev. — Aa/jil3dv€iv is used in the same way Deut. xx. 7> kuI 
tU o avOpwiroSf aaris /mefivijaTeuTai yuvaticaf koI ouc eXa/Sev 
avT^Py where yvvaixa also is used in a similar manner to that 
in which St. Matthew here uses it ; only espoused. 

^-^ TO yevvffiev^ Thus also to yevvw/xevov ex trov, Luke i. 36 ; 
and John iii. 6, to yeyevtfiievov €k t^¥ aapxoi, crap^ ian :^— 4md 
1 John V. 4f, irav to yeyevfifxivov ec Oeov. See Glass. Phil. Sac. 
p. 54. In a similar manner Herod, i. 108, to yewwfievov i^ 
avTfji iiaipdupai. And Ter. Andr. i. 3, 14, quicquid peperisset, 
decreverunt tollere. In Josephus we find the King ordered those 
to be punished toi/9 o"co^eiv XaBpa ToXfuiaavra^ to TeyBev avToi^f 
Ant. II. 9, 1 ; and iii. 11, 5, av appev to TeyOev ^. Dion. Hal. 
A. R. I. TO yevvffiep ei? to tov TrorafUiov (idXXeaOcu peiOpop* 
In ApoUodorus iii. 5, 7$ Laius to yeppffiep cKOelvat SiSwai pofiel* 
See Pearson on the Creed, Vol. 11. p. 115. 

— - €K irp€v fjtaTos ayiov^ ix denotes the cause which gives 
birth to any thing, in which signification it is frequently used 
in common Greek. See Limborch'^s Theol. Christ, iii. 12, 9: and 
Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 464. For the different meanings of vpeufiu 
and irp€v/jia ayiop with and without the article; and on what 
occasions the article is taken or rejected, see Middleton on 
Gr. Art. p. 166 — I7O; who observes that when denoting the 
third person in the Trinity they are never anarthrous, except 
indeed in cases where other terms confessedly the most definite, 
lose the article. But where the influence or operation of the 
Holy Spirit are meant, the words are always anarthrous, the 
case of renewed mention or other reference being of course 
excepted. With respect to this passage, however, he adds it is 


imposaSde to prore inoootettablj that the Holy Spirit in the 
personal acoq[>tatioii is here meant ; inaamach aa the preposition 
may have occasioned the omiarion of the Articles. 

81. Ti^rrm] Used when speaking of either parent, though 
chiefly by the poets when speaking of men. Find. Ol. tii. 131, 
iwda 'Po^ fuyOM ritcw iirra nraiim* Od. ^. 174, ov t€k 
'OJwnrev^: Od. o. S49, Marrco^ ai riicrro TloXvfpeiied re KXei- 

TOP T€. 

^^^Kxikiamfs *n> ovofia cnrroS] for tMVTW, Luke i. 13, 31 ;-— 
iL 21^ &c. See Gen. xvii. 19: 1 Sam. i.x20: Ruth iv. I7. 
Eurip. Ion. 74, "Iwfa S airov KrUrrop 'Acria^or y0oyo9 '^Ovofia 
KekKifaBai dffo-mu xaff 'EKkiia: Soph. Phil. 613, /mavriv Hv rtt 
eiyevi^f Uptofiou ftiw vm opo/uia X liiw/ua^rro ''fiXaroy. Luctan. 
Ocyp. 13. Vol. III. p. 665, oifaitaaas fioo rwvoMa. See Glass. 
Phil. Sac p. 112 ; and Matthis Gr. Gram. p. 594.^ 

'Ii^roi/r] Not row 'IfftraSv. See Middleton, 6r. Art. p. I70. 
This was a proper name not uncommon among the Jews, parti- 
cularly for successful leaders. Thus we find in the Old Testa- 
ment it was given to those that saved and delivered the children 
of Israel out of the hand of their enemies, as to Joshua, which 
is the same as Jesus : Ecclus. xlvi. 1, 09 iyivero Kard ro ovofia 
avToi/, pLtytif iwlamTtipufiKXeicrwv airov: Its signification being 
similar to that of the Greek Gwrtip^ (Philo de Mut. Nom. p. 828, 
'Ii|mw$ a (xmrripui rov Kvpiov)- This latter was a title of honour 
given to those who deserved well of the state, and frequently 
joined with evepyerfjV' The Greeks also gave it as a title to 
their gods, whom alter any remarkable preservation they styled 
savioun, and under that notion consecrated altars to them. They 
alsomad^ it stoop unto their baser flattery, calling those men their 
saviours, for whom they seemed to have as great respect and 
honour as for their gods. See Pearson on the Creed, Vol. 11. 
p. 84, 86. Its meaning is such, that Cicero says it cannot be 
expressed by a single word; in Verr. 2, 63, £um non solum 

^ There are few instances in Scripture where men had names deter- 
mined for them by particular appomtment of Heaven^ and before the 
time of their birth ; and as such names appear to be very siffnificantj so 
the persons dlstin^ished by them were always remarkable for some 
extraordinary qnahties or events which their respective names were de- 
signed to denote. See 1 Cfaron. xxii. 9, 10 ; — 1 Kings xiii. 9, — Isai. xlv. 
S, 4; — ^Luke i. 13^ 17- See Stanhope on Ep. and Gosp. VoL i. p. 373. 

' Chrysost. Horn. 11. in Matth. p. 10, to *lri<row oyofia ovk iari¥ iWri^ 
vtKoy, dWd Tp *Y.fipamy fptov^ ovra AC76TO1 'If/crovc* o ctrrii/ eU rtjv *£AAada 
yXtoTTav ipfifivevotievo^y irtarrip* Swrfjp Sc diro rov aio<rai tov Xaov avT4fv. 

So also Tbeophylact ; and Justin Martyr, Apol. in Anton. Fiom. 



patronum istius insuks^ sed etiam amriipa inscriptum vidi Syra* 
cusU. Hoc quantum est ? ita magnum ut Latino uno verbo ex-- 
piimi non possit. Is enim est awrtip qui salutem dat. Tacitus 
Ann. XT. 7I9 Milichus pnemiis ditatus, eonservatoria sibi nomen 
Grseco ejus rd vocabulo assumpsit. 

Why our Lord might wcdl be called Jesus a Saviour, see 
Eadder^s Demonstration of the Messias, p. 3 ; who also compares 
the salvation and deliverance wrought for us, with those deliver- 
ances which were wrought of old for the people of the Jews. 
See also Pearson on the Creed, Vol. i. p. 113, &c. whose deriva- 
tion shews how Christ being called Jesus, was in effect an accomp- 
lishment of the prophecy that he should be called Emmanuel. 

-^airrof yap^ &c.] Compare Luke ii. 10, where we find one 
angel explaining the words of another. 

—'Toy Xaov airrov] By these words Joseph could understand 
only the Jews. For the benefit of Christ^s coming was not yet 
known to extend to the Gentiles. See Limborch. Theol. Christ. 
IV. 4. 3. Add Euthym. \<wif ie avrov <f>fiai T01/9 'lovoaiov?. 

— afiapTtw¥ ain-oiy] In some copies read ai/rov, referring to 
Xaw, But this kind of enallage of number is not uncommon 
when a noun of number has gone before. See Glass. Phil. Sac* 
p. 650. ^AfiapTia signifies the punishment of sins, as well as sins 
themselves; 1 Pet^ii. 24; — John i. 29; — ^ix. 41; — ^xv. 22, 24 5 
— &c. 

These words Joseph, in common with his countrymen, would 
understand in allusion to the misery which they endured under 
Herod and the Romans. We beUeve that by virtue of his 
precious blood Christ hath obtained remission of our sins; by 
the power of his grace hath taken away the dominion of sin; 
in the life ta come will free us from the possibility of sinning; 
and utterly abolish death the wages of sin. Hence he is called 
by Zacharias a horn of aalvcUionj by Simeon the aalvatum of 
God, by St. Paul the captain and author of eternal aalvaiiony 
by St. Peter a prince and a saviour. 

22. TovTo £e oXov] See also xxi. 4 ;-— xxvi. 66 ; — and Rom. 
viu. 36, €V€ica (Tov dayaToufieOa oXrjv nyv lifiipaWf for '/raaaw. 
And vice versa, nas occurs in the signification of 6\oi, as iii. 6,. 
iraaa f) ireplxf^po^y and viii. 32, imca ij ayekti for oKti* We 
find omnis used similarly in Latin^ as Caesar B. G. i. 1, Gallia est 
omnis in tres partes divisa, for Tota Gallia. 

The words rovro 5e 0X01; comprehend not only what is men- 
tioned in the preceding verses, but the whole particulars of the 
transaction ; and among the rest the circumstance noticed in the 

.CHAPTER f. 85 

latt Terse of the chapter ; because that circumstance was neces- 
sary to the accomplishment of die prophecy that a vhrgin was to 
fairing forth a son in her Virgin state. 

— &a irki>ipiu0fi] When events occurr^ unexpectedly, the 
Jews were accustomed to accommodate their prophecies to them, 
especially if there was any resemblance between the occurrence 
and the passage in the Old Testament. Hence irXjtpcoBiivai and 
TcXeoBif^ai are uaed, not only when what was predicted turns out, 
but when any thing dse occurs to bring the words into one^s 
memory, and strengthen and illustrate them. Still, however^ 
though the import of i ms frXtipmBtf .may in many instances be no 
more than that such words of the prophet nray be applied with 
truth to such an event ; yet in the events and circumstances of 
the life of Christ we have prophecies finally completed in him 
in a higher and spiritual sense : and the hand of Gkxi so mani- 
festly appears in them, that we cannot but -conclude that they 
were brought about according to his predictions^ and those pre- 
dictions are rightly applied. See Owen^s Mode of Quotation, 
Sect. 5 : Chandler's Defence of Christianity, p. 237 1 Michaelis 
(who contends for a single liter&l meaning) Vol. i. c. 5. 

<— TO prfiev] The Jews object that this promise being made 
to Ahaz as a sign, must have relation to a child bom in his time^ 
and therefore not to our Jesus^ bom above seven hundred years 
after his death. But this objection is founded on a mistake; 
this promise or sign being not given to Ahaz, who refused to 
ask a sign (Isai. vii. 12), but to the hmue of Davidy v. 13, 
which was then in danger of being ciit off, v. 2. The promise of 
a Messiah, therefore, who was to be of the seed of David and 
to sit upon his throne, was a great security that the house of 
David should not be extinguished, and so a proper remedy against 
those fears^ 

That it cannot be supposed to have been fulfilled in Hezekiah, 
as some of the Jews contended, and Trypho owns in his discourse 
with Justin Martyr, is dear; the sign being given and the promise 
made in the reign of Ahaz. Now Ahaz reigned sixteen years in 
Jerusalem, and Hezekiah who succeeded him was twenty-five years 
old when he began to reign^ and therefore bom several years before 
Ahaz was king, and consequently not now to be conceived when 
this sign was given.*— »See also Eidder^s Dem. Mess. Part lu c. 6, 
near the end. 

28. ij TTUpdevb^] The article in this place, says Bp. Middleton, 
as in many others appeared to our translators to be without 
meaning: accordingly, they render "a virgin." The article j% 



never without meaning ^ in Greek, though it maj not always be 
possible in a version adequately to express its force. The passage 
however is quoted accurately from the Septuagint, who have as 
accurately translated the Hebrew. The force of the article, 
therefore, in this place, can be sought only from the ^ebrew of 
Isaiah vii. 14. See 6r. Art. p. 168 : and Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 131. 
Dr. Owen says that the Greek 17 wafiBepov, as well as its cor- 
respondent Hebrew, is emphatical, and means not a virgin in 
general, but that particular virgin that was prophesied of from 
the beginning, and whose seed was to bruise the serpent^s head. 

— 6^€i] There is a reading Xi7>f^eraf^ but in no valuaUe MS. 

"-— KoXiaowri] Sub. oc ap&panroiy i. e. personal for impersonal, 
ic\ff6n<T€Tai ; see Luke xii. 20 : xiv. 35 : xvi. 9. Not uncommon 
in the sacred writers, that an active verb havhig no person before 
it, is to be understood as a passive or impersonal. The Septua^- 
gint, which agrees with the Hebrew, has iraXio'eiv, which reading 
is also here met with: but the best MSS. have KaXiaowru Justin 
Martyr has jcoX^srai to oi/o/uuz oi/toS. 

Looking into the prophets we find that being calledj or caUed 
by such a name^ does not infer that the thing or person so to be 
called shall be commonly known by that name, as a man is by 
the name by which he is known and distinguished from other 
men. It is enough that they shall be that which they are 
called, and that what is foretold shall truly belong to them; 
as will appear from the following places, Isai. i. 26 : Ix. 14 : 
Ixii. 4 : Jer. iii. I7 : Ezek. xlviii. 35 : Zech. viii. 3. There are 
many things said of our Saviour, which serve to describe his 
office, and acquaint us with his perfections and relation, and were 
never intended for his name, by which he was to be known 
among men. His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, 
the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace, 
Isai. ix. 6 : i. e. the Messiah shall be all this, though not com- 
monly known and called by these names. 

— -'E/A/uioi'oi;f}X] The Evangelist affirms, that our Lord^s being 
called Jesus was an accomplishment of the same prophecy which 
likewise foretold that the virgin'^s son should be called Emmanuel. 
This application deserves attention, being a clear proof that the 
writers of the New Testament, in citing and applying the pas- 
sages of the Old Testament, considered the sense of those 
passages rather than the words. The Evangelist here has inter- 
preted both names, Jesus as well as Emmanuel, to shew that the 
prophecy was fulfilled, not in the names, but in the signification 
of them ; the sense of Emmanuel being comprehended in Jesus. 

CHA.PT£E I. 37 

— ^|M0rpM9MvoM€iw] Polyb. VI. 969 iirwM xal wej^ovf iicki^ 

«r<X€«rrov9 6ijXo7» And 11. 16, to yap vrpaw H^epixfivevofievov i<m 
wipair iio TOV9 eirMKMwa rmv "AXmmv TpaytraXiripav^ iccXovai, 

24. SieyepOelf] i. q. iy^pBek^ which is the reading of one MS. 
— airo Tov vmov] In reference to Jopap aboYe. So also 

Acts XX. 9* 
—^KOi] Advarsatire. Kcu oi/ir, non tamen. 

25. iyipwaK€p] Some read iyvm. The word used similarly 
by Callimachiis Ep. 68, To xpm tft aweyWy 'AaicXiiiri^j to vpo 
ywaucms AfifMoiucffi Ajte<r«y at^sXer^ ap^oi^tFor TumaKew* And 
IflKUS. Or. II. p. SO, «rpiy ypiyoi tov ^fiMTepov Oeiov cnrrtfP* ti 
iaoi cveiyov yiypwrxairnK eirXifffia^ov ai/r^. See Gen. iv. 1, I7, 
25: xix. 8: &c. The Latins use cognospere and agnoscere in the 
same manner ; thus Ovid, Turpiter iUa vixum cognovit adultera 
virgo. Catullus 61, 14(7, Dicdbas quondam solum te noase Ca- 
tuUum, Lesitna. Csesar B. O. vi* p« 299, Infra annum vero vice- 
Bimum fcFminsB noHiiam habuisse in turpissimia habent. Justin 
xxviL 3, quam familiarius noverat. 

— €ws 4w] Scil. y/x/wNi. Thus 2 Sam. vi. ver. ult. koI tji 
MeX^oX 0vyaTpt Sooc/X die iyip^ro ir€Uiiiop iw9 rij^ lif^pa^ toS 
awoBopclv ai;njy. Matth. xxviii. 20, iym fjLeff vyuuiv eifAt ircurav 
TOT lifuiepas iuf^ Tfk trvureKeiof tcS aiwiHK- See also ii. 9, 13, 
15 : V. 26. — Fnnn this expression we can draw no inference as 
to the terms on which Joseph and Mary afterwards lived. Suidas 
wys TO €«09 vapd Tfi ypa<f>ri eiri Tod SitiveKow iroXXoicc^ €upi(TKO/i€¥ 
Keiftevov* Theophybbct in Coir. TOvritrriv ovk ifniyfi auTrj ovSe- 
wore. To yap iwsj irravOa ov toSto ifixfKuuei, ori ^XP^ ^^ '^^ 
TOKov OVK iyvWf fierd ^e roSra iypw. aXXa tcaOaira^ oioemr^ 
ovr^ ryiw. *lii»jaut ii iyjBi roiovrov if ypa<p9J» m to, ovk, eire- 
arpeylfcv o xopa^ ek Tiiv jci/Sarrov, iws ou i^ijpaiSfi ^ yij* ovt€ 
yap fcera TauTa i;w«<rr/M>{ra, &c. Chrysost. Hom. 142, 1} irapr 
Oivo^ Kol fierd to tckm irapBivoi ifkeiv^v^ ex tov T€ic€iv m 
^niumOeioa Tijv wapBeviop. Epiphan. Haeres. xxviii. p. 65^ dii 
yap oTi KByptrrag Ttj irapBev^^ oXms €vpiarK€Tai $ieTd to yeyemi* 
Kcvai fi 7rap6e909 aj(pauTo^. Pearson also contends for the per* 
petoal vhrginity of Mary, Vol. i. p. 272. See also Bp. Taylor's 
Works, VoL xv. p. 21. and Life of Christ, Sect. 6. Kidder's 
Dem. of Messias, Part 11. c 3. But since the Angel commanded 
Josq>h to take Mary 09 hia wife, without any intimation that he 
sbould not perform the duty of a husband to her, it is not easy 
to conceive that he should live twelve years witli her, and all 
that.wliile deny that duty which the law and the canons of the 


Jews command the husband to pay his wife. Leaving this ques- 
tion however to those who affect to be curious beyond what is 
written, we may safely conclude with St. Basil, that though it 
was necessary for the completion of the prophecy, that the mo- 
ther of our Lord should continue a Virgin until she had brought 
forth her first-bom ; yet what she was afterwards it is idle to 
discuss, because it is no manner of concern to the mystery : 
^^XP^ y^P *^^ Kara t^v oucoifo^iav inn/ipeaiai arayKa'ta i| wap^ 
Bevioj TO ^ i<p€^ff9 aTToXwpayfjLoyifrov r^ Xoytp toS /uvanqoiov 
KaTizKeiylfw/uLeV' Basil. Homil. de Nativ. Dom. 

^^ cuirtji Tov irptaroTOKov] Wanting in one Gr. MS. and the 
Coptic Version. In Scripture this word admits of different 8ig« 
nifications. Sometimes (and most commonly) it denotes the 
eldest of two or more children, as Eliab is called the first-bom 
of Jesse, 1 Sam. xvii. 13 : and at others the first that is bom, 
without regard to any ebe, as Exod. xiii. 2. sanctify me all the 
first-bora. In some places it imports figuratively what is most 
dearly beloved l^y ps, in which sense God frequently calls the 
IsraeUtes his first-bom: and in others what is most remarkable 
for greatness or excellency, as God promises David, Ps. Ixxxviii. 
279 to make him the first4x>m of the kings of the earth. 

Virg. Eel. I. 45. Hie mihi responsum primus dedit ille petenti. 
and JEvk. i. 1. Trojae qui jMimus ab oris. Servius says primus 
post quern nuUus. 

-— €icaXe(r6] via. Josephs 

Chap. II. 

Tov ^e 'Iffaov] Beza and Schmidt render Si by ergo: it 
being illativa^ not adversativa. 

— yewffiivTo^l Not long after the birth of Jesus : the 
time not being accurately marked. This must however be un«> 
derstood of Christ^s nativity; as also Herod'^s question voi o 
XpiaTo^ yevvarai ; See Pearson on the Creed, Vol. 11. p. 116. 
Benson in his Chronology of the Life of Christ, p. 7^- shews 
that the Magi came to Jerusalem before the presentation of 
the child Jesus in the temple, but did not meet him there : but 
followed him to Bethlehem. See also Taylor^s Life of Christ, 
who with many commentators had adopted that arrangement. 

— ev Bi;0Xfie/u] Sub. iroKst, as Acts xxii. 3. ky Tapatp r^y 
KcXiKiav ; Acts xxvii. 5. 619 Mi/pa r^ Ai/icias. A small town 
(John vii. 42.) in the tribe of Judah, distant from Jerusalem 
to the south, about six Roman miles, Euseb. Bi/dXecM fpvXrh 
'lovSa^ AtKias airoOev tnifijeioi^ r Trpo^ tcl I'oria: ^led Beth* 


Idian Ephrata, Gen. xxxv. 19 : Mic. v. 2 : and BtfiKeifi 'loHop 
Judg. xix. 18. to diatinguish it from another town of the same 
name in Lower Gralilee in the tribe of Zebulon, Josh. xix. 15. 

— 'louiam] As there were two Bethlehems, Jerome thinks 
that St. Matthew would probably discriminate this by its tribe 
and therefore^ reads 'lov&x, as it is described in the Old Testa- 
ment. But this is against all MSS. authority. It is so written 
in V. 6. But, Lightfoot obsenres, in this verse the Evangelist 
teUs us it was in Bethlehem of Judea to distinguish it from Beth- 
lehem of Galilee : and in v. 6. he says it was in the land of Judab 
to distinguish it from the lot of Benjamin. 

• — * i;/u€/i>a<ff] These words wte suspected by Mill to have 
been interpolated : they are wanting in some MSS. The expres- 
sion is frequently used in the New Testament, where in commoa 
Greek jfpovo^ or Ktupo^ would be used; though we used 
by Plutarch in the same manner, CamilL i. 37) irtiyyave vocrwv 
wepi Tois lifiepa^ eiretvo^- 

— 'HpwSov] Herod the Great, who was tetrarch and after- 
wards King (rf Judea: son of Antipater the Idumssan, and 
therefore of the seed of Esau. See Prideaux, Connex. Vol. iv. 

— xov ficunXewi] Scil. t^ 'loiroaia;. 

— Ma7oi] This name was given by the Persians, Chal- 
daeans, and Arabians, to those philosophers among them who 
applied themselves to the study of the works of nature, and par- 
ticularly of astrology, and were besides the priests and ministers 
of religion. Hyde in Hist, of Relig. of the antient Persians 
derives this word from Moghy which signifies a priest. Apu- 
leius in Apol. i. 147* Persarum lingufi Magus est qui nostrft 
sacerdos. Hesych. lULoyot^ tov Oeoaefi^ kuI OeoKoyov xal lepia 
oi Tleptrai Xiyovo'i* Suidas, fiayoi irapa Uiptrcus oi (fuXofToffxH 
Koi d>i\o0eot» Porphyr. de Abst. An. iv. 16. wapd ye firiv tok 
Ylipaai^ oi irepl to Oeioy (ToKf>oi Kal tovtou d^pdirovre^ Mdyoi 
fxiv Trpoaayopmioyrcu' toSto yap J17X0I icard t^v ivi-jfwpiov 
iiaK€KTO¥ 6 Mayos. See Xen. Cyropasd. iii. 3, 34 : iv. 5, 51 : 
IV. 6, 11, &c. Cicero de Div. i. 23, 41 : Pliny Hist. Nat. xxx. 
1, &c. : Broughton^s Dictionary of all Religions. 

The word is reserved by the Syr. Arab. Ital. and generally by 
all Latins. The French read it Sages in the sense of our English. 
Lightfoot (nimis hfic in parte credulus ; Wolf) translates it $Qr^ 
cerers or magicians. See his reasons. Vol. i. 436 : but these 
would rather be yoifre^. 

Had they been Kings of Arabia, as some have imagined from 
Ps. Ixxii. 10 : and Isai. xlix. 7 • Ix. 3 : the Evangelist would 


scarcely have omitted the drcumstance, nor would Herod pro- 
bably have let them go alone to Bethkhem, or laid upon them 
his commands to return and give him an acooimt of the child: 
nor can we conclude that they were three in number, as has been 
supposed from the threefold offering. Nor could they be Jews, 
as has been strangely supposed, the posterity of the captives who 
did not return home when permitted by Cyruses Decree, now 
coming as ambassadors to do homage to the Messiah ; for they 
must have known the prophecies relating to the Messiah, and 
could have no need to enquire the place of his nativity. It 
is most probable therefore they were Gentile philosophers : and 
it seems not unreasonable to mxppote that God had fiivoured 
them with some extraordinary revelations of himself, as he did 
Melchizedec, Abimelech, Job, and others, who were not of the 
family of Abraham ;. and as we dnd v. 13. he did afterwards 
interpose to prevent their return to Herod: and that whilst 
proofs were given to the Jews, that the Messiah was come into 
the world to fulfil his high office, some notice would be vouch- 
safed to the Gentiles also, to whom he was to be a light. 

About the time of our Saviour^s birth, there was an universal 
expectation throughout the East, that in Judssa one was to be 
bom, who should become universal monarch of the world. Sueton. 
Vesp. IV. Percrebuerat Oriente toto vetus et constans opinio, 
esse in fatis ut eo tempore Judseft profecti rerum potirentur. 
Tac. Hist. V. 13. Pluribus persuasio inerat, antiquis sacer^ 
dotum libris contineri, eo ipso tempore fore, ut valesceret 
Oriens, profectique Judceft rerum potirentur. See also Jose- 
phus, B.J. V. 5; vii. 31. which compare with the two preceding 

Among the Jews this expectation, whidi we may trace to the 
days next to Antiochus Epiphanes, took its rise from the propho^ 
cies concerning the Messiah, contained in their sacred Books. 
It was now the settled judgment of the chief priests, the Scribes, 
and the learned in their law: they who made the study of the 
Scriptures their chief business, who were the depositaries of the 
traditionary explications of the pro{^ets, were unanimous in this 
belief: the expectation was national, DaniePs weeks having so 
clearly defined the time of the coming of the true Messiah. Hence 
it was doubted of the Baptist, whether he were not the Mes* 
siah, Luke iii. 15 : hence it was that the Jews were gathered 
together out of all countries unto Jerusalem, Acts ii. expecting 
and coming to see, because at that time the term of revealing 
the Messiah that had been prefixed by Daniel was come : henee 


it was that ihae was a great number of ftlse Christs, (Matt. xxiy. 
5, &c.) taking the occasion of their impostures hence, that now 
the time of that great expectation was at hand and fulfilled, and 
in one word, ^'they thought the kingdom of Grod should pre^ 
sently appear.*" Luke xix. 11. 

Among the Arabians this expectation was probably derived 
from the promise made to Abraham, whose descendants they 
were by Ishmael. Of this promise they preserved a traditiotial 
knowledge, as is evident from Balaam^s prophecy. Numb. xxiv. 
17- which Philo says was understood of the Messiah. And 
among other Eastern nations it owed its original to their com- 
merce with the Jews and Arabians, but especially the former, 
who in their several captivities being dispersed through the 
East in numbers sufficient to gather themselves together and 
defend themselves again^ their enemies, spread the knowledge 
of their pro{diecies together with their religion wherever they 
came, and scattered the advent of their great King. Besides, 
we are told, that Zoroastres or Zerdusht, the celebrated reformer 
of the Magian discipline and worship in Persia, was servant to 
the Prophet Daniel, who had particular revelations made to him 
concerning the coming of the Messiah. If so it is not impro- 
bable that the expectation of his arising in Judea, should have 
remained so strongly imprinted in the belief of the disciples 
of Zoroastres, that on the appearing of a new star, some of 
them should have been moved .to undertake this journey, in 
order to be witnesses of the truth of its accomplishment. 

With the same tradition the Greeks and Bcmians came to be 
acquainted by means of the Jews in Asia Minor, and the Greek 
Islands, who had turned into Greek verses, the better to remem- 
ber, what they had learned from the prophets touching the 
Messiah. These verses were called Sibylline, i. e. prophetic, 
from a Hebrew or Chaldee word of the same sound, that signifies 
to prophesy. They are of a different nature from those pur- 
chased by Tarquin, and burnt with the Capitol in Sylla'^s days ; 
and ire thought by some very learned men to be a Jewish com- 
I)08ition designed to propagate the belief of the Messiah, and 
to prepare the way for his reception by the Gentiles. See Chand- 
ler^s Defence of Christianity, p. 8, &c. 

— airo oifaToKwp] The East ; as Polyb. x. 10, 6, mkiy 

irepw^ofietniy doXarrn M^v owo atfaroXwv koI fJL€<rff/uifipi(K. Here 

to be joined with Mayoh i. e. Magi Orientates : as jElian. 

V. H. II. 33u X.eppoiff}auH ^ di avo KWoov. So Matt. xxi. 11. 

li7<rov5 o Trpofptfrri^ o dwo HaJ^apir : xxvii. 57- avOpiowo^ irXoii* 


cTios airo 'AptjAaBaias : Acts xvii. 13. oc airo OeororaXoi^ar^ 'loi/- 
^aioi: Heb. xiii. 24. oi airo TiJ9 'IraXtof. So also Virg. 
Georg. III. 1. Pastor ab Amphryo, i. e. Amphrysius. 

The country probably was Arabia, where it appears the 
Magi were as numerous as in Persia. See Lucian, Vol. ii : 
Pliny Hist. Nat. xxv. 2 : xxx. 1 : Slanley^s History of Philo- 
sophy, p. 1171- Arabia was to the east of Judea, Tac. Hist. 
V. 6: Terra finesque, qu& ad Orientem vergunt, Arabi& termi- 
nantur: and the inhabitants are constantly called men of the 
East, Gen. xxv. 6 : Judg. vi. 3 : Job i. 3 : 1 Kings iv. 30 : 
Jer. xlix. 28. The offerings also seem rather those of Arabia 
than of Persia: 1 Kings x. 2: Isai. Ix. 6 : Pliny Nat. Hist. vi. 
28 : XII. 24. This Justin Martyr in his Dialogue with Trypho 
mentions. And supposing these men to be Arabians harmo- 
nises with some considerable things in Scripture; as the first 
proselyte to the Jewish church, mentioned in Scripture, was 
Jethro, an Arabian, of the seed of Abraham by Keturah: it 
agrees also with the prophetic Psalm Ixxi. 10. and with the 
rule and dominion and homage that David and Solomon, types 
of Christ, had over and from that country : and much of Arabia 
was the land of Canaan, as well as Judea. See Lightfoot, 
Vol. I. p. 437. 

. They have sometimes been supposed to be Chaldseans: but 
these are called in Scripture the families of the North : Jer. i. 
14, 15 : vi. 22 : xxv. 9 : Joel ii. 20. Others have supposed them 
to come from Mesopotamia, Persia, Parthia; and an opinion 
has been hazarded that they came from different and distant 
regions of the East, because avaroXwv is in the plur. numb. 
But this word is as common in the plur. as the sing. Whatever 
opinion we adopt as to the place from whence they came, we may 
consider them the prelude to the calling of the Gentiles : sent 
to excite the attention of the Jews to their Messiah, and to shew 
that all nations would be included under his dispensation. 

2. fiaaiXw TW¥ 'lovSaiwp] Meaning hereby the Messiah, 
. whom they supposed to be sent to rescue the Jews from the 
slavery of the Gentiles under which they groaned. 

— 'lovSaiwv] Aft^r the separation of the ten tribes ufider 
Jeroboam, they were called the " house of Israel,^'' and the two 
under Rehoboam << the house of Judah."" But after the Baby- 
lonish captivity the name of Jews (louSaiiH) was given to those 
who returned to Palestine, of whatever tribe they were: and 
afterwards all who professed the religion of Moses, of whatever 
tribe, or wherever living, were so called. 


-^ TO¥ offTepa] What this was cannot be afloertained. Some 
have supposed it a new star : others that light which appeared 
to the shepherds at Bethlehem on the night of the nativity. See 
Lightfoot, Vol. I. p. 437: others a phsenomenonof the same nature 
as that which conducted the Israelites through the wilderness. 
See Taylor^s Life ot Christ, p. 1, 4. § 8 : others that it was 
a comet ; amongst whom is Origen, against Celsus i. p. 45. r^ 
ye yet touwtov yeyoviuai^ oiroioi koto. Koipop yivofiewH jro/u^Tcu* 
He tdls us that the antients held the opinion that great changes 
were portended by these bodies. Csesarius, Qusest. 45. says iri 
oi ovK cuTT^p, aXku voepa tk koI XoyiKfj vinipr^€ ivvafii's o t£p 
Mayaw KaBfiytfrtjii, i^ airtf^ ^iraiieuofuLeOa riji iK€i¥ou tciwlgaeti^ 
T€ Ka\ (rraa'€6a9^ and afterwards he adds wrTtip M«f (pcuvofievo^f 
ayy€\o9 ii voovfi^poi. In the same way Chrysostom Homil. vi. 
in Matt. p. 37- and Theophylact in c. ii. Matt, attempt to shew 
OTi ov rw¥ iTiiKKwv 6(9 o cuTTfip ovTos fiv. /tioXXoy ^6 oi;£e 
aariip aXXa ivvofxU ri^ aiparoi, Ignatius seems to have had 
a more correct notion, Epist. ad Ephes. p. 331. aarvip iv ovpav^ 
€\aM^f^w virep irdirras tov^ irpo avTou, Kal ro (f>m avrov avcK" 
XaXtfTOu fiv, Koi j^evtafULor ^apei^ey 17 Kaiw>Ttis avrov tois opw<riv 
avriw ra ^€ Xo»ra vdvra aarpaj a/xa 17X101 koi (tcXijvi; j(ppo9 
iylvovTo Tip currepi' avroi ci ^p vTrepfidXkwv avTov^ r^ ipavw' 
Tapani Te 17F, nroO^v tj Koivorfii 17 ipatvojuivti. So also Euseb. 
Dem. Evang. ix. p. 261. Sivot Kal ov cvtnjOti^f ovii riov iroXkwv 
KOt ymcpljULWv €&, aXXd tk Kaivo^ ical veo9 cuTTtip eirKpavel^ r^ 
fii^, ati/ULeiov j^ivou (pwrTfjpo^ iiiiXov KaTaXd/uLyj/atTo^ r^ irairri 
Koafuff 09 17 V o X^MTTOs Toi7 O^oVf fiiya9 Kal veos dtrT^p, ov r^v 
€uc6va avfifiokuou^ o ^avek totc toic Mo'yocff iireff^pero. It 
clearly could not be one of the heavenly bodies, because it moved 
by intervals, whereas they move perpetually : their motion also 
is from east to west, whereas the motion of this was from north 
to south. They never hang over one country more than another, 
much less over any certain place; this shewed the place of 
Christ^s nativity, and the very house of his abode. Whatever 
it was, its motion was undoubtedly miraculous, and the Magi 
knew the meaning and design of it, and the course they were 
to pursue; most probably because they had learnt it by a 
Divine Revelation,^ by which we find them afterwards guided, 
V. 12. For we can scarcely suppose thajt they could infer from 
the rules of their art what it portended, though their profession 
leading them peculiarly to the study of astronomy, they would 
plainly perceive it to be some new appearance. And Balaam^s 
prophecy, which some have thougljt a ground for drawing the 


conclusion, though applied to the Messiahy by Jewish and Christ- 
ian writers, was too indefinite: the star and sceptre being only 
metaphorical expressions. 

Those who are inimical to Christianity are unwilling to allow 
that at the time of our Saviour^s birth any star appeared out 
of the usual course of nature, because of so miraculous a thing 
they find no account handed down : hence they have had recourse 
to all manner of strange suppositions. But Chalcidius in his 
Comment, on the Timaeus of Plato vii. 126. mentions the tra- 
dition of this star, and the journey of the Magi. 

Shuckford (Connect. Vol. ii. B. 8. p. 282.) mentions an opinion 
entertained by the antients, which Warburton seems not to allow, 
that their great men and heroes at their death migrated into 
some star : and in consequence of that they deified them. Thus 
Julius Caesar was canonized because of a star that appeared at 
his death, into which they supposed he was gone. See Sueton. 
Jul. Cses. Lxxxviii. : Virg. Eel. ix. 47: Hor. Od. z. 12^ 47- 

— iy Tri avaTokri] In the East : not with reference to the 
Magi, but Jerusalem. The words of the English translation, 
according to their usual acceptation, do not convey the idea 
intended. For ^^ to see a star in the EasC^ means to see it in 
the east quarter of the heavens : whereas the meaning here is 
clearly, that when they were in the East, they saw the star. 

— 7rpoaKvvfi<xai\ To pay the homage of prostration. Justin 
VI. 2, 3. expresses it by adorare : and C. Nepos by venerari, 
as Vit. Con. iii. necesse est enim si in conspectum veneris, 
venerari te regem, quod ^poaicwciv illi vocant. This mode of 
salutation was common in Persia and all the countries of the 
East. Herod, i. 134. ivrvyyavovret o dXXijXoiai iv Tti^i 
ooourif T^€ a» rt^ oiayvoiti el oiuhoi eUrhf o\ ivrvyyavovre^* 
airrl yap rod trpoaayopeiitiv aSXti\ov9y <f>ikeowTi rdiai <rr6fiaa'i» 
tfif ^6 ^ oirepoi^ vircieiirrepot oXiyipf tos irapetd^ ^iXsoi/roi. 
jyv oe TToW^ ^ ovTcpoi ayevpi(rT€po9t irpoairiTrrwy irpoaKvvei 
Tw irepov. The Jews also paid civil adoration both to kings 
and prophets, either by bending the knee, or by prostration, or 
falling down before them. See 1 Sam. xxv. 23, 41 : 2 Sam. i. 2 : 
ix. 6 : xiv. 4 : 1 Kings i. 23. So the whole omgregation worship- 
ped the Lord and the King, 1 Chron. xxix. 20. Thus also they 
reverenced the holy prophets, 1 Sam. xxviii. 14 : 1 Kings xviii. 
7 : 2 Kings i. 13 : Dan. ii. 46. The first Christians made no 

, scruple of this ceremony, where divine worship did not interfere. 
So in Sozomen, a Christian ir/Mxrcxvyi^re, prostrated himself be- 
fore the King of Persia, Kara to vevofiiafievay, as the law and 


eustom required: but i»hen this was demanded as a proof of 
his having forsaken Christ, he strenuously refused. In the same 
way, we learn that they reverenced as was customary, the Roman 
Emperors, and even their images: but when those of Heathen 
Crods were intermixed, as a snare, by Julian, they made the due 
distinction. It has been therefore supposed that the Magi paid 
Jesus the honors usually paid to kings. The word itself and the 
posture being used to express divine worship as well as civil honor, 
will not prove any thing in the question, whether Christ was 
adored as God: but Whitby remarks the very early opinions 
of Christians entertaining sudi a belief; as Irenaeus, Justin 
Martyr, Tertullian, and Origen. And this opinion has been 
supported by the consideration that the Magi had received some 
divine revelation, and also that it is not probable they would 
have undertaken such a journey merely to pay honor to a secu- 
lar king. 

It may be 'Observed that the Greeks and Romans never paid 
this honor of prostration to any mortal, but confined it to their 
Gods : as Eurip. Orest. 1521, irpotrKwi a ava^ vo/ULotai fiap- 
/Sapotai TTpoavrrpwtf. Phccn. 300. yovmrerel^ iipa^ irpwnrtTvS 
a, aifo^j Tov oiKoOep vofiov <reftowra. Livy xxx. 16. speaking 
of the Carthaginian ambassadors. Qui ubi in castra Romana et 
prstorium pervenerunt, more adulantium (accepto credo ritu 
ex efi regione, ex qu4 oriundi erant) procubuerunt. 

In V. 11. this vpo(TKvvff(Tis is described by the verb iritrrciv^ 
as also iv. 9 : xviii. 26. In Luke v. 12. wpoaKuvelv is expressed 
by a circumlocution viirreiv eTrl trpoawirovf and Mark v. 22, 
iriirreiv trapd tow wo&iy tifos. See Gen. xliii. 26: xxxiii. 3, 
6, 7 : 1 Cor. xiv. 26. 

By the writers of the New Testament the construction is 
sometimes made with the accusative, as is the case always with 
the early Greek writers : as Matt. iv. 10. Kvpio¥ top Qeou aov 
"irpoa-KwiitreK- So Luke iv. 8 : xxiv^ 52 : John iv. 23, 24. So 
Joseph. Ant. xx. 7? 3* But more frequently with the dative (as 
V. 8, and 11: also iv. 9: viii. 2: ix. 18: xiv. 33: xv. 25: 
XVIII. 26 : XXVIII. 9, 17: Mark v. 6: xv. 19 : John iv. 21, 23 c 
ix. 38 : Acts vii. 43 : 1 Cor. xiv. 25 : Heb. i. 7*) ^^ which it 
seems to follow the Hebrew, or perhaps the Macedonian and 
Alexandrian dialect, as we find Polybius and some of the later 
writers using the same construction, v. 86, 10. t^ yap oiKiff. 
rcLuTTi- fAaWov ael wcSy o« icora KoiKtfv ^piap oy(\oi TrpocKwovai' 
Ludan Navig. xxxviii. o\ fidpfiapoi wpafrKweiraxrap tifuv. 
-fiUaii. V. H. I. 21. *l<rfifivia^ aicryivti^ ywph irm Hepaiy ficunXei 


irpoa-tKiivfiaev. Sometimes it is placed without a case, as Matt« 
XX. 20: Johniv. 20, 22, 24: xii. 20: Acts viii. 27 : x. 26: 
xxiv. 11. And sometimes it is joined with efiirpoaOet^ or 
evioirioVf Luke iv. 7- 

3. erapa-xOij] By a single word St. Matthew has given an 
accurate description of Herod, who now a Septuagenarian and 
sick, indulged his fears and suspicions that Jesus, like other 
princes, would seize by force his destined kingdom, and reduce 
his enemies. 

The word properly and primarily signifies the motion of 
troubled water (Ezek. xxxii. 2: Isai. xxiv. 14), and then trans- 
ferred to persons whose minds are disturbed by fear, sorrow, or 
any other perturbation: hence in St. Luke i. 12, we fitid cTa-' 
pay9ri koi, (pofio^ iiriireaev iir avrov joined: and Luke xxiv. 38, 
T« Terapay/mevoi ecrre, but in v. 37t ^trrorfievre^ he koi €juL(f>ofiot 
yevofxevoi. In Ps. liv. 2, eXvTnjOriif koi eTapayQriv are joined^ 
Aristoph. Equ. 358, koi Nuriav rapa^w, which the ^Scholiast 
explains by <po^riaw. 

— waff a *l€poff6\vtJLa\ Metonym. for all the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem.. And iratra put for oKti* 

'lepoaoXv^ia being neut. plur. sub. 17 ^0X19, Bos Ell. Gr. 224. 
See also Middleton Gr. Art. p. I72. In Cicero we find once also 
Hieroaolymam exportari .... Hieroaolymis captis ; pro Flace. 28< 
We find the feminine also once in Tacitus. 

They dreaded a rumour of this kind, considering the jealous 
and cruel disposition of Herod. Besides slaughtering their San«^ 
hedrim (Joseph. Ant. 14 and 15) he had bairbarously executed 
his wife Mariamne, caused h^r two sons Aristobulus and Alex- 
ander to be strangled in prison, and probably about this tim^ 
executed many of the Pharisees on account of some predictions 
they had given out that God was about to take the kingdom 
from him. Another cause also of fear might be the remembrance 
of what had occurred in the beginning of Herod^s reign, when 
the Parthians under Pacorus invaded Judea, and carried off 
captive Hyrcanus and Phasael. Herod fled to Mark Antony, 
and by the help of the Roman arms kept possession of the king- 
dom, notwithstanding the faction of Antigonus, who had the 
greatest part of the Jewish nation on his side. In the intestine 
war which then occurred, Judea was brought to the brink of 
destruction: Jerusalem was taken, the temple plundered and 
ravaged, and a dreadful slaughter ensued on both sides. But 
many causes no doubt combined to agitate both the people of 
Jerusalem and Herod: for a belief seems to have been enter- 


Uined amongBt them, that the reign of the Messiah should 
commence with a train of calamitous visitations, such as insur- 
rections, wars, earthquakes, famine, poverty and plague, &c. 

4. TOV9 'Afy^i€p€i9 Kal TpafAfUiaTeii^ The members of the great 
Sanhedrim.^ 'Ap^^iepei^ is frequently used in such a manner as 
to include not only the high-priest, and his deputy the Sagan, 
but those also who had enjoyed the dignity of the high priest- 
hood, which had now become elective and temporary ; and the 
heads of the twenty-four courses ; in which signification we find 
it used also in Josephus, Ant. xx. 8, 8, and B. J. iv. 3, 6, 8^ 
See 1 Chron. xxiv. 6 : Nehem. xii. 7? ^^9 ^3* ^"^ when the 
discourse is of the Sanhedrim, 01 ap^^iepel^ will signify those 
members of it who were of the priestly or Levitical stock. In 
Matt. xxvi. 3, we find a very clear distinction between o\ 'Ap- 
yf€p€i^ and 6 Apyiepev^. 

-^- Vpa/ii^aTeis tov Xoov] The Scribes were persons some way 
employed about books, writings or accounts, either in transcribing 
or explaining them. According to these various employments 
there were several sorts of them. Most authors however reduce 
them to two general chisses, civil and ecclesiastical scribes. Of 
the former there were doubtless various ranks and degrees : see 
Jennings^ Jewish Antiq. Vol. i. p. 390. The ecclesiastical scribes 
who are frequently mentioned in the New Testament, were the 
learned of the nation who expounded the law, and are therefore 
sometimes called vofuLoitidaiccLKoij Luke v. 17* The vo/ulucoI so 
often mentioned in the New Testament, and rendered lawyers, 
were the scribes (see Matt. xxii. 35 coll. Mark xii. 28), which 
was a general title of all who studied and were teachers of the 
law and of religion, Isai. ix. 15. They were the preaching 
clergy among the Jews, and while the priests attended the 
samfices, their peculiar business was to instruct the people. It 
appears, however, that what they taught chiefly related to the 
traiditions of the fathers ; that it was about external, carnal and 
trivial rites; and that it was very litigious and disputatious. 
Theophyl. in Matt. 11. p. 12, ypafjLfxareh tfaap ot ii^aKoXot 
TOV \a0v9 tiairep ov^ lifiei^ Xeyofieu ypafifxariKov^. And in xxiii. 
p. 140, ypafifiaT€i9 TovricTi tov \aov ctoaaKoXoi, They are 
here called ypafifiaTel^ tov Xaov to distinguish them from the 
secretaries of particular men, as Baruch the scribe of Jeremiah, 

^ Herod is said by many authors to have slain the Sanhedrim; but 
this is neither to be understood of the whole Sanhedrim^ nor if it were 
to be understood of the whole^ would it denote the total subversion 
of it 


and Seraiah the scribe of David; 2 Sam. viii. 17- See Prideaux^s 
Connections, Fart ii. 

It was part of their office to take care of the preservation of 
the purity of the text in all Bibles that should be copied out: 
that no corruption or error should creep into the original of the 
sacred writ. 

— eiri/i^af ero] Ammon. ipwray koI wvOavecdai Siaipepet^ 
ipmrav fiep e<m to OeXeip KeipaXauo^ Xa^lv airo^aw ^ ¥tu 
Koi oi. Ilvvdav€a0OLt ^e to Kara &c^o^i/ a^uwy trparyfui, cSou, vth 
evoXefnitrare ; 

— irap avrwv] Wanting in some MSS.; and therefore Mill 
supposes them transferred from v. 7» probably an oversight of the 

Lightfoot thinks it no improbable conjecture, ^hat in this 
assembly called by Herod, there were present among others, 
1. Hillel, President; 2. Shammai, Vice-President; 3. the Sonaof 
Betira, Judah and Josua ; 4. Bava ben Buta ; 5. Jonathan the son 
of Uzziel the Chaldee Paraphrast ; 6. Simeon the son of Hillel. 

— -o Xpt<rro^] See chap. i. v. 1. 

— yeifuarai] Some take this for y^wtj0ii<r€Tatt or fieXXs^ 
y€vvda0ai. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 308 and 200. << Where 
according to the prophecies must the Christ be bom ;^ see v. 1. 
So 1 Cor. XV. 35, vik eyeipovrat oi veKpol; Schmidt and Bo- 
senmuller say it is fut. mid. contr. and has the force of fut. pass* 
But it seems quite as suitable to the sense, to consider it as a 
pres. tense. 

5. €¥ Bi}dX66M] See v. 1. This was the birth*place of David, 
1 Sam. xvi. 1, 4, from whom the Messiah was to be bom. And 
from the writings of the Jews as well as the Gospels, it is evid^it 
that the universal expectation of the Jews was, that the Messiah 
should be bom at Bethlehem. See Chandler^s Defence of Christi- 
anity, p. 124. ' 

— -jia ToS wpo(pnTov^ Micah v. 2, which the Jews in <»iir 
Saviour^s time evidently explained of the Messiah, and which 
is still preserved in the Chaldee paraphrase, which translates 
it thus: Out of thee shall come before me Messias, that he 
may exercise dominion in Israel. It is so expounded by Babhi 
Solomon, and David Eamchi. 

This prediction was most manifestly and remarkably fulfilled 
in the birth of Jesus, when by the providence of Grod it was 
so ordered that Augustus shoidd then tax the world, to which 
«)d every one should go up into his own city. Whereupon 
Joseph, and Mary his espoused wife, left Nazareth of Galilee 

CHAPTER li. 49 

tkeir habitation, and went into Bethlehem of Judea^ the city of 
David, there to be taxed, because they were of the house and 
lineage of David. And while they were there, as th^ days of 
the Virgin Mary were aooomplished, so the proj^ecy was ful- 
filled. But the providence of God is still the more remarkable, 
if we consider farther, that Augustus Caesar had decreed twenty- 
seven years before the birth of Christ, that there should be an 
enrolling of the whole empire, and proclaimed it in Tarracon, 
a dty of Spain, after he had conquered and reduced the Can- 
tabri: for he conceived that to be a fit time when the empire 
was at quiet. But finding afterwards a breaking out of some 
stirs, he deferred it to this time when our Saviour was bom. 

6. y^ 'laiia] Here taken in the sense of city, as in Jer< 
xxxvi. J: xli. 22, the Septuagint render the Hebrew word which 
signifies dty by 7$. So 1 Maccab. v. 68. See Matth. xiv< 84, 
where y^» Fci^ecrapeT must be understood of the dty which in 
V. 35 is called roiros: and yij 2,oiofAWf, x. 15, and xi. 24. It 
is not uncommcm in the Greek writers to give the name of y^ 
to a dty and contiguous country ; thus Hesiod ipy. kqI tifi. 161^ 
roik flip iif> iirrairvXip Oifiri, KaSfititii 70/17. And Sophi use^ 
yaia TlfXoTr^ia^ yOova^. Eurip. in Supp. 410, calls Thebes 
KoJyuoi; ydovut and in Phoen. 252, iirranvfyyo^ 7a. And iGsch. 
iirr 9fi^. 101^ Ti pe^ei^i vpoSwreit rav tcw ycb^l where the 
Schol. explains ya¥ by iroXiv, So Virg. Mn. xi. 245, qua 
ooncidit Ilia telltM. It is by some taken in the sense of Canton 
or tribe ; which seems to be Lightfoot''s opinion ; he taking it 
for 6v 7^, the preposition being understood. Wassenbergh, (see 
Valckenaer^s Schol.) takes it in the sense of tribe ; observing 
however that x^P^» 7^^ yQ^v^ are sometimes used by the Poetn 
to denote a iAty. 

— oi^fiHi i\axi(m{\ According to the Septuagint, which 
nearly agrees with the Hebrew, the words of Mieah are kol av 
BffiXeejuL, o oUoi Exf^paOa, oXiyoerTO^ el tou elvai iv \iKiaciv 
'lov^a, (oXi7ocrTO( speaking of the smaUness of number; St. Mat- 
thew^s iKaxyn-fi of smaUness of bulk or dignity). The easiest 
solution of the difiiculty which arises from the variation seems to 
be, to read the words of the Prophet with an interrogation, so 
that it may correspond in sense with the Evangelist. So Acts vii. 
50: Isai. Ixvi. 2. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 411. Art thou little 
to be numbered among the thousands of Judah ? An interroga^ 
tion which implies a strong negation : as Dion. Hal. A. R. i. 16^ 

fioipa nrls oin iKayy^T"!* ^^^ ^7' /^^"^^f^X^^ ^ ^^'^ eAa^iorriyi/ 
Pkoipop* Herod, iv. 95, 10, ov t^ dcrdei^eaTary aotptaTij Owfla- 



'^oprf, Cicero calls Ddotams homo minimi stultus:— «nd Gra- 
tius Faliflcus CynegeC. 311, At vestrum nf!h^ mle genus, hon 
patria Tulgo Sparta suos et Creta stios pr^mittTt alumnos. See 
also Marshes Michaels, p. 313, and the tiotes. Bp. Kidder, after 
Dr. Pococke, takes the passage difFeretitly. See Dem. of Mess. 
Part I. p. 99. 

— -cr Toh fiytpjocip] In the Septaagmt iv j^iXlturiy, but (he 
meaning is the same. The tsraeUtes fit to beiar armit, were hy 
Jethro^s adrice to Moses, Exod. ?tvii). 21, classed into tetis, 
hundreds and thousands, each of which had proper officers who 
commanded them. But each thousand being formed of the in- 
habitants of a particular district, it naturally followed, that of 
these thottsahds, dotne were more remarkable than others fo): their 
power, riches and influence. Those composed of persons of 
greatest rank and influence, were called leading oi^ ruling thou- 
sands. It is evident, therefore, that the scribes gave a just 
representation of the prdphet'^s meaning— ^Thou art by no mean^ 
the least amon^ the rulers: thou art the greittest in point of dig^ 
irity even among the principal thousands of Judah; for &c. See 
also Glass. Phfl. Sac. p. 862: and Chandler^s Def. of Chris, p. 128. 

Isoc. Panath. 421 ^ jj H itoXk rj/j,wp ^yt/itiv Karaaraffa twv 

ouK etntopovvTWv rcJ irpdy/xara fULeretrrtjctev^ Dioii. Hal- 

A. R( t'l. 864, speaking of Suessa, says tjv A<nrep tiy^fuov toS 

-^ ^f eXewerai J shall be bom. See Gren. xvii. 6: xxxv. 11: 
Isai. xi. 1. 

— ^ i;7oi/yuevo9] Thus Herodian i. 31, ewiariXkei roTy tSp 
i0v£y tiyov/uLCuatv. Fhilodtratus Apol. Epist* i.xix. 406, vvv ie 
pAvov vfia^ eiratpelv Jtaxpo^ avSpas re Todt tiyovfievav^.' Philo 
in Life of Moses, i. p. 608, calls the King of Eg^t ^efuiu. 
tgAtov^ oV¥ 6 T^ ytapa^ ^yefxwv i^pSpaTroiil^eTo. 

— iroi/tAai/ci} A common metaphor, by which kings are called 
shepherds of the people; as Homer'^s 'Ayafiifivova iral/uL€va Xawy, 
H. )3. 243: and Xeil. Cyropsed. tin. 2, 8, ott vapawX^aia epya 
icrri vofiew^ dydOoC xal fiacnXito^ dyaOov. AnaCreon Od. lx. f, 
ov yap awtifiipav^ Tlot/jLaiveis iroXii^rat. Eurip. in frag. Temen. x. 
jf/JiJ oi rip (ri'paTfiXarfjv'O/uLtoi SUaiov ovTa iroijjiaiv^iv arpatov. 

It appears from this and several other quotations from the Old 
Testament which We find in the New Testament, that the sacred 
writers did not always think it necessary to transcribe exactly 
the passages they cited ; but satisfied themselves with giving the 
tense rather than the words. In St. Matthew the quotations 
generally agree with the Septuagint. 


7* icoXeVas] for TrpotrKokiirai* 

•*— ^leptfiam] OKpifiaSv is similar to atcpifiik ij^erai^civ, r. 8 ; 
i- e. ii^ifreivf e^e/neorair. So Isocrates uses o\ ra i/teipt^w aicpi^ 
fiaSnrrm for wcptfiik efcro^oirrct. The word signified to get 
exact iiifbniuition in eonsequence of enquiry, or means used on 
tbe part of the informed. Thus Theodorel, Therapeut* Serm. xii. 

fioSrraSf anaairreiif tUiffafiiey. Theophylact^ cacpi^m cum^iaQev. 

-«— roir xpopow] 2.& the day and month: ia order to ascertain 
as nearly as he could, the age of the child. 

— - ^iiv/i€MK;] Glass, says apparere indpientis, Phil. Sac. 
]x 188. Some take it for ^pivrcs* 

8. Tnfat^ffa^] This cannot be taken in the sense of TrpoTrifiyf/avp 
or seodSng an escort, in <Mrder to do honour to the Magi; as 
appears from the eontext; Herod acting secretly. 

-*^cirpi)8aJr sferacroTe wept to5 iraiilov'ji Sub. ru. Isocr. in 

Areop. XiOK acpifiw €^€Ttt^«iir ra afuufniftara. In Busir. airpi/3e-« 

anpop il^9Tal^eiv, Polyb. v. 81, 7' ^^ '^^ W icaKSi ej^firaKepai. 

Demostb. adv. Lept. p. 364, ei ^ Ttf avro oKpifim tf^cTtureie. 

"--^eirai;] See Hoogeveen Doct. Part. chap. yi. sect 14, §1, 2« 

-— oirwf] See Hoogeveen Doct. Part. chap, xxxvi. sect. 1, § 4« 

9. o €UTTffp] There is a similar passage in Virg. Mn. ii. 692, 
de ccbIo lapsa per umbram Stella facem ducens multfi cum luce 
ciicurrit. lUam summa super labentem culmina tecti Cemimus 
Idaei daram se condere Sylvfi, signantemque vias. So also Apoll. 
Rhod. IV. 294, tells us of a similar appearance to the Argonauts 
till they came to the Ister. And when Timoleon sailed to Sicily, 
Diod. Sic. IV. says it SKti^ <r^ vvkto^ irpafiyeiTo \dfi1ra9 KCLOixivni 
KOfra TQv aipavov, iii^fs ov <rvpi^ tov otoXov eU Tfiv IrraKiav 

— -ir/oo^ev] Here has the force of the simple verb nyeVy---^ 
TTpo in composition being often redundant, as in irpo'iairreiv Horn. 
IK a. 3, where Moschop. observes jj irpo treptao'^ w iv Ttp wpo^ 

— *6aw] See Hoogeveen Doctr. Part. chap. xix. sect. 1, § 6. 

'•'^eaTfi] In some MSS. itrraOfi, Ammonius irraOtipai xal 
O'T^vac Siafpepet. crraffripai flip yap iari to v(^ erepo^ ariipai 
^ TO KQT iSiap opfifjp Kal "rrpoalpeaip* oJop ecTaOfi o apoplas v(pf 
iTepovj eaToBfi 1/ pwroi. ''Etrrri ii o apOpooiros ci avTov. See 
also Thomas Mag. in v. ffTaOijpai. But the sacred writers do 
not adhere to these distinctions, saying in the case of a disease, 
i(PTfi ti pvai9 TcXf aifiaros, and of men, orrodciv o Itjaovs, o 
Zcucxaio^f o Her/w, Luke viii. 44: xviii. 11, 40: xix. 8: Acts ii, 
14: xvii. 22, &c. 



"-^iiravov ov\ Scil. to5 tottoi;, rw tAxov^ ov, &c. 

10. iyapvfaav yapav fieyaXti^ atpoSpa] These words are 
emphatical beyond any in our language : they not only eyaptfaai^ 
j(apaVf but xapdy ^eyaXriPj and even this cffK^pay the highest 
superlative. See also Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 266. See also some 
others, Matthiie Gr. Gram! p. 597* 

11. i\66vT€i ei(] for eicekBovre^. See viii. 14, coll. Luk. iv. 38. 
— *e2pov] Almost all the MSS., versions and fathers have 

€7^1^. The sense is the same; and ^vpov may have arisen from 
ver. 89 iirav oe evprp-e, 

— vecroyrej irpoaeKvintnav] See ver. 1. 

— Ofjaavpovf^ signifies any receptacle, as Ps. cxxxiv. 7$ o^ 
e^dywp av€fUL0v9 6/t rctf^ 0ijaavp£u avrov* Hesych. Offtraupo^y eh 
ayaXpaxwv kqI j^tj/jiaTwv^ \epSv airoOetn^ o7ico9. Josephus Ant. ix. 
8, 3, Kevovvre^ tov Oijcraupw (i.e. ^iXivov Oijtravpov^ which he. 
had before mentioned), and Kcvaxra^ rov^ tov Qeov BtfO'avpoik. 
The Latin word Thesaurus is used in the same signification^ 
Livy XXXI. 12, Pecuniam Loeris ex Froserpinss Thesauris nocte 
quam sublatam. Virg. Georg. iv. 228, servataque mella The-. 
sauri8.r Eurip. Ion. 923, oT^uot fueya^ Oijaavpos m avoiywrat 
KaKwv, Herod. 11. 160, ^(pijfjiaTa (puXaatrofieya iv Orfaavpoiai 
KarayaloiiTt. Philo de Migr. Abrah. p. 406, o ^ tov avpavov 
avoil^a^ Oryravpov, Ofutftpel kqi €Wivi<f>€i to. dya9d oBpoa. Pausan. 
B. VII. in Boeot. p. 6979 Oriaaupov re dvOpiiwutv wv itr/uLev lUivvtK 
irpwTos 6s vvocoj(ijv ypvifxaTwy (pKoSo/uufcraTo, Epiphanius ol 
fiayoi iivoi^av to; irij/oa? ^ tous Qtyravpov^. 

''^ wpoaiiveyKav Swpa] The eastern people never came into 
the presence of their prince without ofiering him gifts, which 
generally were the choicest productions of their country. And 
modem writers assure us that the custom is still retained, ^lian 
V. H. I. 31, IlepGucos vofJLOs nrepl tov owpa 'srpoa'(f>epeiv t^ /3a- 
(frXe?. No/uiof otrro9 UepaiKO^ ev Tot9 /uciXio'Ta vir avrwv 
<l>v\nTT0/JLWPO9, orav el^ TUpaai eXavvti ^aiKev^, irarrc? oirr^ 

ilepcrat kuto. t^v eavrou ovvafitv eicao-ros wpoaKOfiii^ei /cat 

ovofidl^eTai Swpa. Seneca Ep. xvii. Reges Parthos non potest 
quisquflifii salutare sine munere. See Gen. xxxii. 13: xliii. 11, 25: 
1 Sam. ix. 7, 8: x. 2?: lEngs x. 2, 10: Ps. Ixxi. 10, ISi 
Isai. Ix. 6: Prov. xviii. 16. 

— iwpd\ by way 0/ presents. See Middleton Gr. Art. p. 173; 
'who tells us tAat nouns in apposiikm^ not explanatory of the 
preceding noun, but of the end or object, to which the person or 
thing implied in it is affirmed to be subservient, are always 
anarthrous: the omission of the article being a consequence of 
the subintellection of the participle of existence. 


— '^vcrois \ifiav0v9 Kai (rfiipvav] From these presents it has 
Leen supposed that the Magi came from Arabia, because the 
Queen of Sheba, who came from thence, pade similar presents 
Co Solomon, 1 Kings x. 2. Pliny Hist. Nat. 12, 13, principalia 
in ill4 (scil. Arabia Beatsk) thus et myrrha. 

The opinion of some of the antients that in these presents 
they had a mystical meaning, and designed to signify their 
acknowledgment both of the divinity, royalty, and . humanity 
of our Saviour, is little more than the sport of a luxuriant 
imagination. They might however be a most seasonable provi- 
dential assistance to furnish Joseph and Mary for a journey into 
Egypt, where they were strangers, and had to abide some time. 

— -Xi/3ayoy] Suidas XijSavttiror xal X</3ai/ft)T09 o Kapiros Toi 
\ifiav0v9 Xijiavo^ Se avTo to oivipov. Ammonius Xlfiavos Kotvtih 
Koi TO Sevdpow Kat to Ovfiid/uLeuov* Xt/3ai/(WT09 oe iiovov to Qufjuw^ 
/mvotf. Hesych. Xi/3aiio9, to SevSpoVf xal to opoi* XifiavwTo^ Scf 
o Kapwo9 airroS, elSos Ou/uLiifAaTos. So also the Schol. on Aristoph. 
Plut. But Sophocles, Aristotle, and .others, and more especially 
the Septuagint, have used Xi/3ayo9 for Xtfiavarrov* 

12. j(p9ffiaTi<T6€wT€s] TheophyL ad loc. wapd toS Oeou 
avoKokuyl/tw h^afievoi. And Justin M. in DiaL Tryph. «rar 
avoKd\vyj/i0 KcXcwr&evTe^. Phavorinus, ypfmaril^^iv XeycTat 
eirc OeHu, to ei otctkiyetr^ai tTtl avOpdirwy. Hesych. Xpfi/iuiTl^^ei, 
aTTOKpiverai, XoXe?, Id. ej^f/fuLaTiaOri' frpoefpfjTevOfi. The active 
being used when ^leaking of the gods who give answers to those 
who consult the oracles: and the passive of those who receive 
the answers; though it may be doubted whether the passive occurs 
in this signification in any writer except Josephus and the New 
Testament. So in Latin, moneri and admoneri are used of those 
who receive- answers from the gods, or to whom they suggest 
any thing, particularly during deep. 

Josephus, speaking of Jaddus the high-priest being warned 
m a -dream. Ant. xi. 8, 4, says to ^ptifiaTiaQeu ai/r^ vaai 
Mvwras, kOi woitja'a^ oaa Kara rotJy iirvovi aii^ irapifyyeXff. 
And ui. 8, 8, speaking of Moses eit ti^v cncrivfiv eunw, ^"XP^" 
uaTt^eTo^ wept wu iieiTO, wapd tov Oeovl whence perhaps 
-wapd toS Qeov may be supplied here. So Philo in life of Moses, 
B. III. p. 688, ovK amf^uiiae yprnxaTurai Kopais op(f>aua7s^ XPf 
fidTtaas a <^vml wXeop n wapiayev, vi KaTd SucaaTtit^ vofiov^ 
^ also Luke ii. 26: Acts x. 22: Heb. viii. 5: xi. 7* 

ovoica/ux^ai] to bend back their course. Sub. ipoiLov at iairroi^^ 
Boss EU. Gr. p. 72, and 77 • D^od. Sic. 111. 55, avwcdixy^fai iraKt¥ 
«<9 Ai/3iA9/v : Acts xviii. 21, waXuf le dvaKaii^w irpos vfids Of 

54 ST. MATTUfiHT. 

the use of /K17 and not cvk in this phrase, see Hoogeveen, Doctr. 
Part. c. XXVII. Sect. 1. § 11. 

13. ^aiv^Ttu] la historical narrations, the prses. frequently 
used £ar praet. perf . or impeif. And this enallage is very common 
in profane historians. See GUsa. Phil. Sac. p. 308. 

•*«- els AiyvTTTBv} Egypt was the nearest province to Beth- 
lehem, so that he could reach it in a few days. After the 
death of AnAony and Cleopatra it waa reduced into a Roman 
province, and Herod had not such influenoe with the goverooiB 
of it, as he had with those of Syria, whose dependent he in 
flome measure was. Many Jews had aettled there, and in 
Ptolemy Philometor^s reign, a temple was buxlt there on the 
modd of that at Jerusalem, by^ Onias. 

-— Itrdi 64cei.] Remain there. So ijv, ver. 15. Also Mark i;c. 
S: Luke i. ^: ii. 6, 49: John vii. 42 Eutbym. aUei^ Starpi^. 

— €W9 <w] See Hoogeveen Doctr. Part. c. xix. Sect. 2..§ 5. 

— mkk^i] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 278. 
-— ToS mvrakiffai] Sub. ipcKOj or ygipiv. 

14. i/t/icTOf] Sub. iiOf or ewio'TaaifS' 

15. iwt Ttfi TeKevTfii 'Hfmiov] See Hoc^veen Doctr. Part, 
c XIX. Sect. 1- § 4. A few montfaa afterwards Herod died,, ip 
the thirty^seVentb year from ins being declared King of the 
Jews by the Romans: thirty4bur years after the expulsion of 

— *- Tfjs reXevT^] SdL inw fiiauj as Horn. U. «-. 7379 ^^^rom 
T^eyrtj. 60 the Latin finis vitse et finis simply. Eustath. 
en Horn. Od. o, p. 02. 40, reXevr^ ^ wapd toTs prakaicSs to 
TcXos ToD ipyov, kqI TcXevray to efe tcXoq tx ••y^^iif.-^noi c€ 
*/6 fkcff *OfjL9ip^ ntpira fuev kux tov Bdvarw reXeyr^ ^a»^ 
cXcTiev, Kal reXevTav tot fiim^, cai ifiavra tijmi. varepoy ii 
KaTeKpoTfjae TcXevrtiv airXw^ Toy ^dvarov Xtf'yeo^af. 

^*-* iva ifkripv/mi See i. 22. 

— &« 701/ frpo^ifriw] It is not said by what prophet this 
is spoken, nor is it material; for there is hardly any prophet 
who does not say the substance of what is here affirmed; men- 
tioning frequently the bringing the children, of Israel out of 
Egypt. The allusion probably is to Hob. xi. 1, but the irords 
in the Septuagint are kclL i^ AiyvirTou MCTSJCctXco-a tra Tcicm 
ovToS. Bp. Chandler supposes that calling out of Egypt is a 
proverbial expression for being delivered from imminent danger. 
See Drfence of Christianity, p. 214. 

— e«caXe<ra] The words run in the time past, npt only be- 
cause ibis is the wi^ of poetical predictions, to speak of those 


(bings as already done, which shall be as certaiqly accomplished 
^ if they yrere sJready done ; but because they had already been 
fulfilled in the jtype. For Israel^ of whom these words were 
sp^JLen by the pi^het, was a type of Christ, to whom the words 
ajre app^^ by the Evangelist. And the Jews^ as Dr. AUi^ 
observes, have no catise to blame the Evangelist for ascribing 
the^e thingji. to the Mes^as, which in their literal sense belong 
^so tp the people ^ Isfraid^ k being the nlaJ(^ler of their nation 
so to dp. See also Kidder Dem. of Mess. Part ii. p. 7^ 77' 7^* 

16. ii/ewai'xBpt] Properly signifies to be played with ; to be 
tireal^ fts ia ^ild ; here to be deceived. The Latins use illudare 
in th^ 9ame manner. C. Nep. in HaAni(). c. x: Oicero pro 
Quinct. XVI. 

-^ iOusMoOpi Xifnv] In ^8t;b. iii. 5, and v. 9, w^ have Haman*s 
ragse against Mordecai expressed in similar terms, iOvfAiiOri \iav 

WTotrreSXa^ aWtXf] Thus Flut. vrepl vaii* dywy' xiv. 30. 
9r4M^9 aViXe roff QeoKpirov. See also Matt, xxvii. 19: 
Mark vi. 17: Act^ vii. 14. where the accusative ^ter airocr- 
T€iAas is waiting. So Mfitt. xiv. 10, xal Tre/uiyf/cts aireice^kzXicrc 
T^ *haivini¥ iv ry if^vKoKf^ which compare with Mark vi. 27, 28, 
vhend tbe ocensative is supplied. So also Herod, i. 127, 'A<r<- 
TAtdy^ Si * • , J. m^ylfos ayyeXoif eiCfiXes airov. Joseph. B. J. 
1. 1^. 7t 'AyrtoMtos iicireVV^cv otrXiriis proWoi)? iiev aVeKT^fi/e^ 
s-oX^Qi^ J^ eTpt^e. Aod i. 33^ 7? vopaxpijua nrifM^^qi^ rqis 
i9fnnf>6fUHfs ^irfiicre^re rop 'Avri'^aTpoy, The Latins use mitto 
in a fomilar miMiner ; Justin v. 9, miaerunt qui evim interdpec 
rent See Bos JSIJ. Qr- p. 10. 

It has been a subject of wonder that Josephu^, who relates 
at considerable length the actions of Herod, and even teUs us 
of th^ Jinui^c^ of .some youths when he was only Governor, of 
Galilee, and the cry of th^ir mothers for justice against him 
for it, should yet say .nothixig of the slaughter of these innocents. 
But U would be unreasonable to make the ^ence qf the Jewish 
Historian an ol^ection to the credibility of the Evangelist, when 
there i^ equnl a^d ev^n si^erior reason to confide in the fidelity 
of the laU^r; and pfgrticularly when we con^der that Josephus 
w^ no friend Jto jCbristianity, we must allow the omission can 
scarcely nford any .;u*gument against this part of the Gtiqpel 
narrative. Besides, it may be ob^rved that Bethlehem was 
but A 8i9^U pl^ce; and therefore in a reign of $o much cruelty 
such an event nught not be very much noticed. That ^erod 
was abundantly capable of such barbarity, he has proved hj 


those atrocities which he has related. Hence Yossius has observed, 
post tot crudelitatis exempla ab Herode Hierosolymis et totii 
passim Judaefi edita, post sublatos diversis suppUeiis tot filios, 
tot uxores, proximos et amicos, non magna res fuisse videtur, 
sustulisse quoque unius oppidi aut vici et adhasrentis territorii 
infantes, quorum strages in loco perexiguo non admodum magna 
esse potuit, cum non omnes sed mares tantum, et qui intra 
bimatum essent, fuerint caesi. And Tacitus^s observation is 
very applicable, Ann. vi. 'J, Neque sum ignarus, a plerisque 
scriptoribus omissa multorum pericula et poenas, dum copia 
fatiscunt, aut quae ipsis nimia et moesta fuerant, ne pari tasdio 
lecturos afficerent, verentur. We must bear in mind too, that 
Josephus wrote in the fifty-sixth year of his age, i. e. ninety-four 
years after the fact, and therefore could not remember it himself; 
and possibly might not know of it : not finding it in the Memoirs 
of Nicolaus Damascenus, of whom he made great use in com- 
piling his History, and whom he himself charges with having 
palliated and disguised some of the most notorious and extra- 
vagant of Herod^s cruelties. Though Macrobius has confiised 
two stories, he in some measure confirms the truth of this, 
Batum. II. 4. Cum enim (Augustus) audissct inter . pueros, 
quos in SyriS Herodes rex Judseorum intra bimatum jussit 
interfici, filium quoque ejus occisum, ait, melius est Herodis 
porcum esse quam filium. And Celsus, one <^ the bitterest 
enemies of Christianity, who lived much earlier, though he men- 
tions the report in a scoffing manner, does not venture to deny 
its truth, which h6 would gladly have done, had not the fact 
been unquestionable. See also Warburton^s Divine Legation, 
Vol. IV. p. 281, &c. 

-r^ ap€cXe] Hesych. avelXevj e<p6v€va€V' 
* — avo cierod^^ Sub. ^^povovy unless it be from to dcer^, 
biennium : as Longiis, Pastor, i. p. 5, ti^ri £e hiercXk xpovov 
ciucvovfkivov. And 2 Mace. x. 3. /utera hi^rti ')(povov. See Bos, 
Ell. Gr. 316. But Fischer de Vitiis Lexx. N. T. shews that 
airo SicTov^ is (agreeably to the Hebrew mode of speaking) for 
dwo SiCT&Vj and therefore to be understood of the infants them- 
selves, and is neut. gend. There is a similar expression, airS 
iiKo<ra€Tov99 1 Chron. xxvii. 23 : diro Tpterov^, S Chron. xxxi. 16. 
The word is one of the aira^ Xeyoficva^ and according as it is 
explained, will include or exclude those of the second year. Our 
translators take it in the sense of bimulus ; Hesychius and Fhavo- 
rinus that which Kves a whole year, Si oXov rod erou^^ as Aris- 
toCle uses Sierll^eiv to live a whole year. Hist. Aniipal. ix. 41, 37* 


where speaking of some wasps he says ai Jierf^owri, they do 
not live a whole year, but die in the winter, ^^leria is used 
Acts xxiy. 27 : and xxviii. 30, for the space of two years, as 
the etjrmology would imply. And we may conceive that such 
a tyrant as Herod would endeavour to make sure work, and so 
might be induced to slay all in Bethlehem, a year or more old, 
even to the time of the starts appearing. In whatever sense 
we take the word, we cannot from this collect how long after 
Christ^s birth the Magi came to Jerusalem. 

— Kara top ')(p6vov\ Scil. tov ^kuvojuituov atrrepo^. 

17* TOT€ irr\fipwOfi\ Then that happened which gave a more 
full completion to those words of Jeremiah xxxviii. 15 ; (^lepeimlau 
wanting in a few MSS.) See Kidder Dem. of Mess. 11. p. 79, 80, 
81. The words in their literal and primary sense refer to the two 
tribes of Judah and Benjamin, which were carried away captive 
by Nebuchadnezzar, and in their way thither passed through 
Ramah. See xlvii. 1, 3, 3, 4. 

The Evangelist does not say Ipa irXfjpo^Ori, but rore ewXripdOrfi 
which may also be understood thus, such another scene of sorrow 
appeared then upon the murder of the innocents, as that was 
which Jeremiah mentions upon another sad occasion. This is 
a way of speaking used in the New Testament. What the pro- 
phet Isaiah says of the hypocrites of his time, xxix. 13, is applied 
by Jesus to those who were like them. Matt. xv. 7» 8. Again 
the words of the same prophet which were spoken to those of 
his own time, are said to be fulfilled in those who lived in our 
Saviour^s, and are accommodated to them. In them is fulfilled 
the prophecy of Isaiah, says our Saviour, Matt, xiii* 14. comp. 
with Isai. vi. 9' St. Paul applies the same words to the Jews 
of his time, and at the same time allows them to have been 
spoken to their fathers. Acts xxviii. 25. See also Matt. xiii. 
di, 35, oomp. Ps. Ixxvii. 8 ; and Matt. xxi. 13, comp. Jer. vii. 
11. And this is a liberty to be allowed to, and that is taken 
by all writers. St. Matthew was a Hebrew, and wrote for the 
use of the Hebrews, and in their style and manner of writing. 
And among their writers nothing is more common than such 
accommodation of the text upon all occasions. See Chandler'^s 
Defence of Christianity, p. 213. 

18. 'Pa/ma] A town on the confines of Benjamin, not far 
from Bethlehem in Judah : the birth-place of Samuel, 1 Sam. i. 
19* Josephus mentions it, woXei tipi twv ovk a<pavwv ^PofiaBwyi 
Toivofiaj aTaiiov^ aireyoiucri *l€po<ro\vfi(ov TCcraapaKoura. The 
Hebrew word in Jcr. which we translate in Ramah^ maybe 


pranslated on high; and O;-ige0 aod Jeroi^e thought it. ahoul4 
be so translated. Hesych. 'Pq/^up i/^/zaXv- Luther has rendered 
^t in the prophet auf der hohe; and in the Gospel auf dem 
gebirge. But the Seventy thought differently. And the 
mention of jElaqbel as lamenting on this occasion gives a pro- 
bability ;to the common version of the prophefs expres^n. 
Otherwise it would have been more natural to exhibit Leah 
the mother of Judah, than Rachel the mother of Benjamin .as 
inconsolable on accpuivt of 9. massacre perpetrated in a city of 
Judahy and aimed qgainst one of l;hat trib^. 

— 0itf|/f) liKoiaOfi] Referred not to the place where ;the 
voice was uttered, but to which it came: so as to signify 
that it spread far and wide. 

-— Ofijvois Koi KkavQfAQ^ Koi o^i;/YA<k] In a few copies Opijyos 
Kqii are wanting. All the three words are in the Septuagint, 
though there are but two corresponding words in the Hebrew* 
And in most of the antient versions the same words are wanting. 
Justin M. against Trypho, and Jerome omit them. But almost 
all the Greek MSS. retain them. Joined together, they express 
the greatness of the grief, as Plato de Repub. xx. o^vfi^ov^ ^ koI 
irr^uayfiov^ Kal dfiijli/pi/s koi oKytioova^ otei ep tim aXXi? irXeuw^ 
evpijtrciv; pi/S/a/AW9« 

— < 'Pa^f X] Her tomb was near Bethlehem* See Gen. xxxv. 
19: xlviii. 'J: 1 Sam. x. 2: whence the slaughter of the Beth- 
lehemites might be called the slaiJ^hter of her children : and 
more espedaUy as the two tribes of Judab and Benjamin formed 
one people and kingdom. Besides the slaughter was not con- 
fined to tihe town of Bethlehem^ but extended to the coasts and 
confines thereof. 

— ^ Kkaiov<ya] For K\aiov<ya r^vj i« e. i^Xa)/<re. In the sense 
of defleo^ deploro, it has an ace. case after it, or the prep, ewh 
as Luke xix. 41, %icKawT€v eir wrti Xeytoy, Josephus always 
uses the farmer. J^nd in Homer we find, II. 1;. 210, r»v ^ 
vvp €T€poi ye <f>SXqy ,wiuSg, KKavaovrcu. And a)< 77^9 r^ ae 
ff a/ma kKuuo Kal ifi ufipLopoy, ajfvviieyij K^p. Flut. Alcib. p* 210, 
ra /i€v cutfTov irdOff icXavaav kcu oko(f>vpd^e9fo^, 

Rachel may with congruity enough be brought in weeping 
upon this occasion for her children, by way of a prosopopseia ; 
nothing being more common than for writers to bring in a person 
qpeaking, who is not really any individual concerned in that matter. 
Thus is Ephraim brought in bemoaning himself in that very 
chi^tcr to which the Evangelist refers. 

•w-oi/K ^cXe] Which Palairet renders by non potUit; as 


Longufl Pastor, iv. p. 133. e^cAflcAr rSr wepifioi^ gig {AcAat. 
Lysiaa Orat. xii. p. 200, ouKedikmrs v^iOwdai cm^M. V'mJL 
NefQ« oEvSifma r owe i0e)iMi Tmmcus iremv sr^io^ov iu/fiot fwiiAir 
^fmw» A Uw MSB. beiie W9d ^^jja^p. 

-*- on ovK dcri] Western and sevoral oosunentatorg hene 
understand Xeyovaa^ as in Gen. xxxvii. 35, nau ovk i/Uke vapor 
raAcftodoii X«7a»i^ on.. But on may be taken in the sense of 
nam. Hoogeveen says this is for &a to fu? elvai. See Doctx. 
Part. c. xxYii. Sect. 3. § 14. 

— oi/c wrl] See Viger. Idiot, c. vi. Sect. 4. § 12. Thus 
Thucyd. xx. 44, twv ovk ovrtav XiiOti oi iwiyiyifOfi9uoi Tttn^f 
iagrrau On which the Schol. adds tw» reOvtjKOTwif^ And 45, 
Tov yap OVK 0¥Ta iiras fiim6i€P eircuimv: SphoL tov t^^koto* 
Pbilo. eliraTe^ ^i i riBy^^v.; ti nip ovk irri, iei^mre njoi tow 
v^Kpov. Philostnst. £p. vixi. oi Se pjt^ev ovr^ oicotm aicri, riiwe 
ay dew iwirr€ ovk n\ah So Cic. Md Att. xil 19, Longum illud 
tempua quum non eroy magis me juoret, quam hoc exiguusa^ 
quod nihi itamea nimium Wngum yidetur. It is more complete 
in S€q[>b. Trach. 164, w^ ir outc m. And Diog. Laeit. vijj. 2. 
i$ ouK €T fjVf V iroin-eXiS;. iirfpyeytipoKw^. And in Anthol. Gr. 
1 1 J. c. 31. £p. 11, «0 irurepf oiroi er ^<, ikiXat .^ iptov tkfmo. 
iroXi^irTci /H^ OTTo^diMcyiir Kvaueofs dcufaro^. And Josephus 
in Vit. ciuKirt wri ineff tifiMWm 

19* T€\evT^^aMroi\ Sub. row filav or almua, 98 £Lenxl. vii. 
154, KXcov^/ooc; rekevriiaavTos tov /3ior. And i. 82, vpiy tar 
rekeMrrjiaayra xoXw tow aldva midomcu. See the particuUr 
account which Jo«ephus has given of the terrible death of this 
tyrant, whom Grod so remarkably made a terror to himself aa 
well as to all about him. Ant. xvji. 6, 5, and Bell. Jud. i. 33. 5, 
6, 7) 8. Eusebius thought it ao great an illustration oi the .Goqael 
History that he haa inserted it at large in Ecd. Hist, i* 8, 
with great exacti^ess. 3ee Frideaux^s Connectitms, Part u* and 
£chajrd?s £ccl. Hiat. i. 

20. 'nmppX^fi^ TO irat^ifip Koi iropevoi;] Por naptiKoflwv to 
woi^oK *irop€vov. 

— tcAmj/itoo'i yap o\ ^ifrowFTCs, &c.] Prom these words 
being in the plural number, it has beea supposed that Antipater, 
Herod^s son and heir apparent to the crown, is probably joined 
with his falser. He was a person of such cruelty and ambition, 
that io .dflar the way to the crown he had procured the deaths jof 
his two elder brothers : and therefore might be supposed .to ha»e 
been active in seeking the destructicm of the Messiah, and advis- 
ing the jslaught^r oi the infants. He was put to death by his 


Sadler for conspiring to take away his life : and five days after 
ibis execution Herod himself died. But as the Evangelist has 
hitherto spoken only of Herod, and the Hebrews often use the 
plur. numb, when speaking of kings and great men, (see Matt. ix. 
8: Luke xix. 33: Acts xvi. 16, 19) it seems best to take it 
in that sense here. 

— ?j|To5ur€y T^v ^hoC^^I ^' ^' ^'^V^' ^^ similar phrases 
Exod. iv. 19 : 1 Sam. xxiii. 16 : 1 Kings xi. 40. So Xenoph. 
Cyrop. IV. 6, 2, tov yjovov iiot xal (pIXou iraica aipeiXeTo- t^v 
^v^ijv. • Herod, i. 24, •Xio'aetrOat ^17/uara fiev irpo'ievrd tr^i, 
^i/jfiji' 5« icapavT€Ofk€Vov. 

22. /SacriXcvci] To be taken in the sense of apyfei^hy which 
word and el^ovcnajCsi Suidas explains it. Archelaus was not a 
/Sao-fXevr, but iQvapyrf^* And fia<xi\€v9 and fiaatkeveip are used 
Co express any command, Hom. Od. a, 394: iGsch. F^s. 24. 

By his last will, Herod divided his dominions between his 
three sons; giving to Archelaus Judea together with Idumaea 
and Samaria: Antipas he appointed Tetrarch of Galilee and 
Ferasa: and Fhilip he made Tetrarch of Itura^a, Batansea, 
Trachonitis, Auranitis, &c. This was ratified by Augustus, 
except that he would not give Archelaus the title of king, but 
only that of Ethnarch. Of all the sons of Herod, Archelaus 
is said to have been of the most fierce and bloody temper : and 
so great was his cruelty and barbarity that in the very beginning 
of his reign he massacred three thousand Jews at once in the 
temple. His subjects joining in grievous complaints against 
him, he was banished in the tenth year of his government to 
Vienna AUobrogum, {Vienne) in Gallia Transalpina where he 
died. Sec Jos. Ant. xvii. 15, 2. His kingdom then became a 
Roman province, and was annexed to Syria. 

— — a¥Ti *Hpfti^oi;] Thus Xen. Anab. 1. 1, 4, (iaaikevcei dirr 
cKeiPov. And Herod, i, 108, on iiiWei oTtj^ dvyarpos twrov 
yovos ^curCKevctiv avr cKeivou, 1 Maoc. xiii. 32. efiatriKevcrev 
avT avTov : 2 Kings xv. 7^ ejiacrtkevaev 'iwaddfJL 1/109 avrov avr 

— ejcci] i. q. iiceitre. So Xen. Hist. Grsec. vii. 1, 16, cirei ie 
cXOorrey. Folyb. i. 26, 1, tov iroXe/iiov €K€i irepicrTrav, Flu- 
tarch de Orac. Defect, p. 437, ^^ei fia^ll^eiv* Appian de Bell. 
Fun. p. 71j a<fHKo/jL€vwv €K€i irpia^etov €k Kapj(ri^ovoS' Matt, 
xvii. 20 : Luke xxi. 2 : * John xi. 8 : xviii. 3 : xix. 42 : Rom. 
XV. 26. 

■— eJy ret /Jieprij &c.] v. 16. eJs to, opta, Antipas endeavoured 
to supplant Archelaus, when application was made to Rome to 


confirm the will of Herod: and he went to Rome with a view 
of obtaining the kingdom which had been left to hkn in a former 
will : and in this he was supported by the interest of the whole 
family. Though he did not succeed, the attempt was such as 
could not but widen the breach there was before between them, 
and left no room for any farther correspondence : so that Joseph 
was in no danger of being given up to Archelaus. 

23. kat ekOwv] Eleganter abundat. Arrian. Diss. Epict. iii. 
SI) aXX' iXOovreK oKavtrare fiau ayoXia Xeyovros* And iv. 13, 
xa! iXOmt^ iraptucariOou fioi aavTou ctwop. 

— jcar^ffiTO'ev} he fixed his habitation : in opposition to rrtt-^ 
poiKeiP to dwell for a time only. 

-"^ €iv woXiv] for ey iroXei. Thus S Chron. xix. 4, jrar^ 
KTi(r€v €19 *l6^(;<raXij/A« So Mark i. 9 : ii* 1 : xiii. 16 : Luke xi. 
7: Acts viii. 40: xix. 22, &c. And ^lian V. H. vii. 8, 6(9 
'Eir/Sarava airida¥e> Anthol. 6r. i.. c. 68, Ep. 1, nU aiyeipor 
ixeivav So! Tt Kara <f>Xoioy ypd/A/A eicoXa>/^€ Xeyeiv, Joseph. 
Ant. XX. 1. 1, KOTciXaiutfiavei trraaiaaam'a^ tov9 ei9 nji^ Tlepaiav 
KaToiKcSrras 'loviaiov^' Thus Cicero in Aul. Gell. Noct. Att. i. 
7- In praedonum fuisse potestaiem sciatis, for in potestate. 

— JNa^a/oer] A small town of Lower Gsdilee^ near the 
frontiers of the tribes of Zabulon and Issachar. 

— OWW9] See Hoogeveen Doct. Part. c. xxxvi. Sect. 1. § 4. 

— Std Twi^ irpo(p9iTwv] There is no prophet where it is ex- 
pressly said that the Messiah should be called a Nazarene: 
and therefore St. Matthew does not dte any particular prophet 
for these words, as he had done before, but only says, this was 
spoken by the prophets in general. Jerome comm. in loc« ob* 
serves,, pluraliter autem prophetas vocans ostendit se non verba 
de Scripturis sumpsisse sed sensum. In Judges xiii. 5, we 
find ore Na^p Oeov itrrai to TrcuSapiow. Comp. ver. 7) and xvi. 
17* Jerome places the Book of Judges among the Prophets; 
and so perhaps did the more antient Jews. The texts are 
amazingly apposite: and Samson, it is allowed, was a type of 
Christ : he was bom to be a Deliverer. 

— Na^otpaio^] ^^ The I'^azarene.'" See Middleton Gr. Art. 
p. 173. There is some variety among the learned about the 
various senses of the word; but in this diversity Bp. Kidder 
shews, that as they agree to the Messias, so they were fulfilled 
in our Jesus. See Dem. Mess. 11. p. 66, &c. 

The Israelites despised the Galileans in general, but espe- 
cially the Nazarenesy who were even subjects of ridi<;ule to the 
Galileans themselves. Hence Nazarene was a term of reproach 

62 ST, wArrHEw. 

{irotrerbially giren to any despieable worthier fellow : and tfaere^ 
fore since the prophets in many places in their writings have 
foreteid, that the Mes6i£^ should be rejected, despised and 
traduced, Ps. xxi. 6: hcTiii. 9, 10: Is. liii. 3: Zech. ix. 9: they 
hare in reality predicted that he should be called a Nazarene. 
This is the common interpretation of the passage. The joint sense 
of many Scriptures is thns referred to, in John vii. 38 : James iv. 
5. See also Bp. Chandler^s Defence of Christianity, p. 220, &c. 

*— Kkffi^eTat] Snstatb. on II. ^. 60, KexXi^fMcu dprl tav etfit 
KeiTOi. And among the sacred writers <' to be called"^ and 
*Uo be'^ is one and the same thiflg. The Hebrews express 
trord and thing by one and the same name ; and nothing is 
more common with them than to express themsebres as in this 
instance. Still, however, the word may here retain its proper 
signification : For this name was given to Jesus by way of scorn 
and contempt, Mark i. 24: xiv. 6^: John xviii. 6, ^: Acts vi. 
14: xxiv. 6. 

Chap. III. 

je] Is Wanting in mimy MSS. and versions. But Griesbacfa 
retains it for this reason, Norn cur adderetuf, causa erat nulla. 
Contra vero fadle potuit omitti in principio non Anagnosmatis 
s(dum, sed icetpdKaidu etiam, a quo narratio incipit plan^ alia, 
cum antecedente nrinime cohasrens. And it might be omitted 
also by those who doubts or denied the genuiiieness of the 
two first chapters; as was the case with the Hebrew copy of 
the Gospel used by the Ebionites, which began eyiuero iv nreut 
ifyjipai^ 'lipdSov fia&t\ew9 rfji 'I<M;^c(i$ ^Xdev'lfoawvfii ^Ttril^wv 
^irTt&fin iJLiiTavolat iv r^ 'lop^vrj ^ofafiip, 8cc. See Epiphan. 
Hcer. XXIX. But for this there is not one concurrent testimony 
from MSS., versions, or antient authors. And there is internal 
evidence besides of the vitiation of the Ebionite copy, from the 
very nature of the additions and alterations it contains. See a 
summary of the evidence in favour of the two first chapters, in 
a ^< Vindication of their Authenticity^ by a Layman, p. 32, &c. 
See also Abp. Magee on the Atonement, Vol. ii. p. 436, &c. 

— iv *raif fifxipai^ €«ceii/ac(] Here for iv eKehtp xpovtp, whilst 
Jesus was living in obscurity at Nazareth, where he dwelt tiH 
he entered upon his public ministry. Thus Diod. Sic. xx. p. 835, 
iv ^ rai? auToi^ vifiipait Kactravipo^, &c. and Arrian. Exp. 
Alex. ii. 20, ^Kov Si iv Toi^ avrai^ ijimepais koI iK *PaSov rptfjiki^. 
So Virg. Mn. n. 340, Mygdonides ilUs qui ad Trojam forte 
diebus Venerat. and Livy xxvii. 15, lisdem fere dicbus. 


This is a common mode of beginning a narration both in the 
bid and New Testament, Gen. xxxriii. 1 : Exod. it. 11 : Isai. 
xxxTiii. 1: and from its frequent use sometimes considered a 
Hebraism. But the expression occurs in Dion. HaL it. p. 320» 
anrap to iovKov avrwv atpatpovrre^, iv i-ai9 tifiipant eteehai^. 
Yet it has been contended that profane aatbors use this expres- 
sion, when there is only a short interyal between the time of 
the occurrence, and some erent or time prerioualy mentioned: 
but that the Hebrews use it when speaking of any interval, 
even of several years. 

— irapayiiMi-cu] which Schmidt trandates by prodiit, Beza 
by adftiit, has the force of preterite : and itapaylvercu Knpvtrcrtav 
is used for the simple word eici/pi/^e, as, xi. SiS, iXBwv KarrtfKna^ 
for KOTtpKffC^ simply. 

--^'Imdpviji 6 BowTC(rTi}9] So called to distinguish ham from 
John the Apostle. The name is given from Us office, and is 
equivalent to St. Mark^s o jSa^rfi^ow, vi. 14. Joseph. Ant. 
xviii. 6, 9, 'IdMwtfi o emKoXaiffjLevoif /Soirrutn}?* Chrysost. 
Horn. 6fl. in Act. orav (iatrri(rT^v elitin, wA^ef evBim •fii/ 
'lufamfffit evvoeici. Theophylact interprets 'Ikodpftft by Oe^ 
X^pi^y in cap. i. Marc. p. 311. 

How John passed the former part ct his file. Scripture is 
sUieiit. The antient tradition, which rests on no good authority, 
may be seen in Calmet'^s Dictionary. 

— Kvipiff<Twiii\ See Mosses Sermons, Vol. v. p. 297- Aueto- 
ritate quasi public& proclamare jussus* See Wolf. Ciur. Phil. 

Prob^' notetur quod <ro Kfipicaeip, Kffpvyfia, inipy^ semper in 
Nov. Test, de prseconio verbi Divini et operum divinioihim, aoei;- 
pitur. Contra tepei^^ iipeut, \epaT€Vfia^ leparevetv et simili% 
nuflquam de praedioatione verbi ant actione Nov. Test., sed semper 
de sacerdotibus Vet. Test. Mosaicis, qui saerificiisoccupati fuenmt, 
accipitur. Interdum etiam de sacerdotibus Ethnicorum Numinum> 
ut de sacerdote Jovis, Act. xiv. 18. Nuspiam vero nt dictum est 
de ministris Nov. Test, in propria significatione reperitur: m'si 
qtiando typic^ vel de Christo agitur vel de Christianis. Schmidt. 

^— et^T^ iptjfifp] Scil. ytop^i y^9 i*®* ^Q ^^^ cities and towns 
Off the wilderness^ some of which were probably within the ter- 
ritories of Hebron, the place where John was bom, Luke i. 8(K 
We might therefore perhaps understand that tract of land which 
Ues between' Ziph and Maon. Some have supposed the country 
which lay on each side of the river Jordan, on the confines of 
•AnoR and Salim, to be meant : but it seems not unreasonable 


to suppose that he might teach first in the former district, and 
afterwards at Mnon. See ver. 5. 

By eptiJULo^ we are hot to understand a region uninhabitable 
or uninhabited. No more seems to have been denominated by 
it than a country fitter for pasture than for agriculture, moun- 
tainous, woody, and but thinly inhabited. Thus the wilderness 
of Judea seems to have comprehended the mountains and part of 
the plain along the Jordan ; and also especially the hill country 
south of Jerusalem. Jos. B. J< in. 10, 17) (The Jordan) 
Siarepivei t^v Fevviia'ap fieativ, eireira ttoXKiiv au<ifi€Tpov^eva9 
ipfffiidv ei9 Tt/y 'AatpaXTtriw ej^ettri Xi^vtfv. In the time of 
Joshua (xv. 61, 62) this wilderness contained six cities and 
many villages. The Talmud also makes mention of its cattle, 
trees, com, &c. 

Nabal dwelt in the tDUdemeaa of Faran, 1 Sam. xxv. 1, 2: 
Joab had his house in the toUdemeas, 1 Kings ii. 34: David 
passed much of his youth in the wUdemesSy \ Sam. xvii. 28: 
Mattathias retired into the mountains opti^ and called upon those 
who would remain firm to follow him : many who sought to live 
according to the law, 1 Mace. ii. 27$ 29, went into the wilderness, 
iprifiov. Here the words seem synonymous. 

2. /Acrai/ociT^] signifies to change one'^s mind and sentiments, 
to have them really altered, so as to influence one^s subsequent 
behaviour for the better. Phavorinus defines it ^ wpos to Kpeiaaov 
€WifrTpo^flf Kai yvfiala airo vraur/iiaTiov ewl to eyavrtov dyaOop 
etritTTpof^Yin Aretas, /Aeravoia €<m juLeTcuTTaats dwo twp yetpovmv, 
Koi /utera/SoXij iwi to fiikriov. The author of the questions 
ascribed to Athanasius explains iieTavoeiv by juL€TaTi6j6(r0ai Toy 
podv dfro Tw kcucov irpo9 to dy€iBov. And Lactantius expounds 
lAeravoia by resipiscentia. Aul. Cell. xvii. 1, Foenitere turn 
dicere solemus, cum quae ipsi fecimus, aut quse de nostra voluntate 
nostroque oonsilio facta, ea uoIhs post incipiunt displicere, sen-* 
tentiamque in eis nostram demutamus. 

This is the substance and result of his preaching. There 
is an old tradition among the Jewish Doctors, that repentance 
is necessary before the appearance of the Messiah. And the 
Jews own that their impenitence is the cause why he does not 

The corrupt state of the Jews at that time is described by 
Josephus B. J. V. 13. And in Ant. xviii. 6,2, he gives the 
following account of John the Baptist, where he stiles him 
dyaSoy avopa koI Tov^'lou^iovs K^Kevoirra dpertiy iiraaKovtrriKf 


j(po9fuvov9f /SairTKr/u^ avveii^ai, oirw yap koI ti)v (iairrunp 
ajToSeKT^p avT^ ^pav^laOaij /a<7 ^^' '^^y dfiapraoiav nrapavr^cret^ 
dXX' €(fk ayveiijf. roS <Tw§jLaT09f are Stf Kai r^s ^wxifi iucaioavvri 
9'po€KK€Ka0ap/A€Vfi^. Kol Twv oXXmi' <TV(TTpe(fH>y^vwv, nal yap 
ipOtjaaw ivl irXeitfToy rj} aKpocuxei tUv Xoywu, ieiKraif 'HpiiiijVf 
&c. . 

^ nyy uce] Pret fonn with pres. signification, as John i. 34: 
V. 35. 

*— 'f/ fioffikeioL rmv ovpauiv] frequently taken as an iv Sid 
iwHPj fox ti fiaatXeia aupayio9 or oipavla, 4M xiii. 42, 17 Ka/uuvo^ 
iri/pos for mfooicaa or irvpwofgsl Luke xvi. 8, oucovofiot rij^ 
aSutkK fot aSurov: Eph. ii. 3, retepa .^r^ opyijf itae obnoxii: 
John x^ii- 12, o vloi r^ dwwKeiaf for axoXioXoSff. Thus also 
Aristoph. £qu. 7^1 » fiop^i^ tov Opdaovs for 9paaela» It may 
b^ here observed, that the sing* ovpavoi is used to express the 
Hebrew dual, the sky :— — the plur. oipapolj to express the He* 
brew reduplication, i. e. the highest heavens, or the throne of 
God. . 

This manner of speaking is taken from Dan« vii. 13, 14, 
where, after the description of the four earthly and tyrannical 
monarchies, viz. the Babylonian, Medo-Persian, Grecian, and Syro- 
Grecian, and the destruction of them at last) the entrance and 
nature of the reign of Christ is described as it is, universal 
over the whole world, and eternal throughout all ages. 

The words properly signify the Gospel dispensation^ in which 
subjects were to be gathered to God by his Son, and a society 
to be fcnrmed, which was to subsist first in more imperfect 
circumstances on earth, but afterwards was to appear complete 
in the world of glory. In scHne places of Scripture the phrase 
more particularly simplifies the former, and denotes . the state .of 
it on earth ;-'-4nd sometimes it signifies only the state of glory : 
but it generally includes both. It is plain that the Jews under, 
stood it of a temporal monarchy^ which God would erect; the 
seat <^ which they supposed would be Jerusalem, which would 
become instead of Rom^, the capital of the world. Both John 
the Baptist then and Christ took up this phrase and used it 
as they found it, and gradually taught the Jews to a£Sx right 
ideas to it. See also Beveridge Serm. 88. 

3. 0VT09] Here some have supposed that John speaks of 
himself Scixruccos. Thus Solon in Diog. Laert. xi. p. S6, ^Q 
varpU, OVT09 /ueir SoXow eToi/xo^ toi Kal Xoytfi xal epytp afxvpeiv. 
And Ajax in Soph. 446^ avSpoi tov^ airaKrai/Tes Kparrjf where 



the Schol. a^Spas tcHS^" ieucruwi eu^ri rou incS* Still it is 
perhaps better to understand them as St. Matthew''s words. 

— o ptfi9\i\ foretold, Icmg ago announced. 

*^ viro 'Ho-aioi/] xl. 3. The words here do not agree eith» 
with the Hebrew text or Septuagint. In its primary and origiiud 
signification, the prophecy seems to relate to the return of the 
Jews to Jerusalem, after they had been set at liberty by Cjrrus : 
but it also bdonged in a typical sense to John the Baptist (John i. 
23), considered as preparing the Jews to receive Jesus Christ, 
either by exhorting them to repentance, or by testifying' that 
Jesus was the Messiah. See John i. 31 : Luke i. 76, 77 • Matt, 
xj. 10. — For i/iro some MSS. and versions read ^. 

— 0wyij] See Middleton 6r. Art. p. 173. Sub. vapeari or 
wcaverai- Clem. Alex, in Protrept. vxi. calls John 0airfy irapa- 
KktiTUctij wpaeroifauii^auaa eip awnfpiav^ ifnov^ irparrpeTrowra ek 
K\»ipoyofULlwf oipavHy. Greg. Nyss. Homil. 14, in Cantic. i. p. 687» 
o fieya^ *lwainnfi ipwrrfieU os tm tltij ^Hotnjv eavTou KorwvofiaaeVf 
eveiSav tw \oyau itpoipatxoi iv, Greg. N^z. Orat. xx. p. 155, 
o ineya^ r^ aXtfieiai: Kiipv^^ 17 irpoipofMK tov Xoyou <fHi>vfi, 

*— ero^iao-artf] See Luke iii. 4 : and Allix^s Reflections upon 
the Books of Scripture, Part iii. c. 12. Arrian Hist. iv. 30, 
Kal 17 arpaTid avr^ (viz. Alexander) o^OTrotelro irpoaw iocKra, 
wiropa aXXa)9 ovra to. Tavrti ywpia. Joseph. B. J. in. 6, S^ 
o ^Oirococ ra re (Tiodkia r^ XeaKpopov tcaTsvOvveip, mt yOcifuiXoi^ 
TO, ovafiaTo^ koI rds ifULiroiiov^ 6X09 irpoavaKovrew, w£ fin 
TdkaiirwpoiTo ovtnropwp to rrrpaTevfAa, And v. 3, 2, r^ Se 
oXi| ouvofiei irpoa€T€^€v e^o/uoXc^civ to fJiij(pi tw tcc^^ov? ciaa" 
Tiffuu KaTophjftivrai Se iravrii iptcov^ xal ir€pi(f>payfUiTos o<ra 
Kiiicmv wpoaveaT^crarro Koi Siv&pnnp oc oucifropev, i/X^ t« lifiepou 
t5s iiera^i wcM-ifv eioroireicn|9, dwirXj|<rftf tuaev rd koTXxi kqi 
jfapacpioofi Tod tottov, tw Si m'€Tpm^i9 €^ox^^ ctSiptp Karepr 
ycl(pfxevoif jfiofiakov i'lroiovv wdvra top ytipoy, Justin 11. IO9 
Montes in planum deducebat, et convexa vallium sequabat. Ovid. 
Amor. II. 16, 51, At vos qua veniet, tumidi subsidite montesy 
£t faciles curvis vaUibus este viss. 

— T/ii/3oi/s] Philo de Agr. rp</3o9 e<rrlv tj TerpififAewi irpos r4 
atfdpanrwv xai viroi^vymv \tnnj\aT09 Kal a/uo^ifXaTos o&k- 

4. avTos ii o 'IwdvvffsJi Here 6 'Iwdvtni^ has been reckoned a 
Gloss by Venema. It is wanting in many MSS., and is not 
necessary for the sense. 

— TO evSufia ai/ToiJ] Here avroS redundant. The Jews used 
to wear hair or coarse garments in times of sorrow and humiliation. 
Matt. xi. 21. The Nazarites did the same till they bad fulfilled 

CHAPTER lit. 67 

tbeir yow. The prophets of the Old Testameiit $iao wore n 
tough dress, made chiefly of the skins of sheep, ob appears from 
2 Kings i. 8 : 1 Kings xix. 13 : Zech. xiii. 4. And it appears 
from the reUtioa of trarellers, that a similar dress is worn bov 
in the East by those who affect a greater d^ee of sanctity. 

— -aW T/M^eSr ira/t(i?Xot;] awo here and in similar cases indi- 
cates the materials of which it was made. Fanlinus thus describes 
k, Vestis erat curvi setis conserta Camdi, Contra luxuriam molleto 
duraret ut artus, Arceretque graves oompuncto corpore somnos. 

--— ^aiyifv S^pfAaTi¥tpf] Sudi as EUas wore, 3 Kings i. 8, aviip 
oo^vs, xal ^fivfip SepfiaTimiP W€ptJ^wrpiMiKK r^v w^vy avnnf, 
ical elirsvy 'HXiov o QetrfiiTffs oi/roc itrri. Others wore them of 
linen, silver, or gold. In Ep. to Heb. xi. 37, we read that some 
of the prophets wefMrjKBov iv /Atikmrcu^j ev alyeioi^ iipiioat. 
And Clem. Rom. who imitated the writer of this epistle, says 
of the prophets ei' ^pfxcuriv alyeioit xal /uiyXarroUy ical TpijfSv 
KOfiflXeiiav irXey/uLacriv irepie^artia'av. See also Josephis B. J. i. 
24, 3 : Ant. xwi. 7, 3. 

^^^oapvv] Enallage for 6(r<f>V€ts- 

— axpiSe^] The Septuagint use rifV axpiia* Epiphanius ob^ 
serves (H«r. 30, VoLii. p. 65,) that the Nazarssans in their gospel 
read iyxpij^^ wafers made of honey, Exod. xvi. 81 : Numb, xi; 
8. Isidore of Pdusium understands OKplis^ to mean the tops 
of trees, which are called oKpe/jLOveS" Buoer reads xap/^er, sqnails, 
a soa-fidi forbidden by the law, and which could not live in the 
meit Jordan. H. Stephens axpe&€%9 wild pears. But there 
cannot be mucii doubt that it was die animal so named that 
is meant here. The Jews were allowed to eat locusts, which 
were by the law considered clean, Levit. xi. 21, 32. Pliny tells 
us the Parthians and Ethio^Mans used them for food. Hist. vi. 30: 
XI. 39. It appears from Aristophanes, Acham. 1129, that the 
lower orders used to eat them, norepov cucplies ^Siqy ecrttv fl 
vf^Xoc; where the Schol. iicurvpei tov Aaftayov m aKpiSa9 
iorOiovra, fj on irpoT€pov eurekel iyp^To Ttf ctaiTfi, And it 
seems they were a common meat, not only in the eastern and 
southern parts, but in Palestine itself. Dr. Shaw teUs us, that 
when sprinkled with salt and fried they taste much like the 
river cray^fish. And the months of April and May are the time 
when these insects abound: see his Travels, p. 356. Sec also 
Haselquist^B Travels. 

— fxeki aypiov^ Some have wished to read here jmeXayplavy 
a kind of herb growing in the wfldemess. Others, because 
honey made by bees is in St. Luke xxiv. 42, called fieXia-a-ioi^ 



KifploVy have supposed /ueXi aypiov to be what oozes from certain 
trees and is concreted. Diod. Sic. xix. 94, ifwerai irap avrw 
T& nn'trepi diro Twii cevopiopj koi /acXi iroKv to KaKaufuevow aypiov, 
^ j(p£vTai ver^ /uieff Hai-o^, And Suidas, ofcpU' el^ l^wufpiov" 
liaOte ce aKplSa^ 6 Trpo^pofio^f koI /jlcXi aypiov^ tnrep airo tw 
ievSpwp ein(Tv»ay6iuL€Vov Mawva to?9 iroXXoi? Trpoaayopevercu. 
Josephus B. J. IV. ^^ speaks of honey pressed from the palm 
trees near Jericho, as little inferior to the real : and Pliny N. H. 
XXIII. 4, of honey flowing from the olive tree in Syria. But 
this is not so probable as the genume honey. It mi^t be wliat 
he found in the holes of rocks and trees, from wild bees. Thus 
Ps. Ixxx. 16, Honey out of the stony rock : so Deut. xxxii. 13L 
Theophyl. in loc. fieXi aypiov y to wo aypitov fxeXiaawv ycwp- 
yoifuwovj €V ccvopoK eupuTKOfA^vov koI TrcTpat?, 
— < irSiTa^ for oXiy, as Matt. ii. 3. 

5. 'lepoaoKvfiaJi See Middleton 6r. Art. p. 173. See aho 
Matt. ii. 3. 

r— Kal Treplywpoi^ Kai especially, wepixwpos, scil. yij. Gen. 
xiii. 10. Not the whole tract of country along the Jordan, but 
a certain tract called the plain of the Jordan. 

6. e/Sairrc^oi'To] Lustrations were in use among the Greeks 
and Romans, before sacrifices,' solemn prayers, games, and other 
festivities: and those who had committed any crime, in order 
to expiate the offence, were wont to perform ablutions. Plant. 
Aulul. III. 6, 43, eo lavatum, ut sacrificem: iv. 2,5, Nunc 
lavabo, ut rem divinam fadam. Macrobius Sat. in. 1, Constat 
Diis superis sacra factumm corporis ablutione pui^ari. Ovid. 
Fast. II. 36, Omne nefas, omnemque mali purgamina causam 
Credebant nostri toUere posse senes. Gnecia principium moris 
fuit. Ilia nocentes Impia lustratos ponere facta putat. Ah 
nimiom fadles, qui tristia crimina csdis Fluminea tolli posse 
putetis aqufi. Schol. Soph. Aj. 653, iOos ^r xoXaiot^, are ii 
^pov avOptiwov If oXXas <r0crya^ iirotov¥y i&ari am-oPiTrreiv tos 
jfcipas €t9 KoBaptxiv tov fuouTfjLaT09. See also Virg. J&n. n. 7^9: 
IV. 635: Ovid. Fast. iv. 313: Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 282: Pers. Sat 
IX. 1& Among the Jews also, from whom no doubt they passed 
to the heathois, ablutions were in use, and according to the law, 
Numb. xix. 7* ^^h. ix. 10: Judith xii. 7* ^ - ^^- ^8- See 
Barrow^'s Doctrine of the Sacraments. And Josephus B. J. ii. 
8, 7> mentions the abluticms at the initiation of the Essenes in 
his time. 

' But here the Evangelist speaks of a bi^tism not io be repeated: 
the tnces of wbich rite are foi^ in the baptism of proselytes. 


by .which Grentiles were admitted iolo the Jewish church and 
religion, and purged from the undeanness . of idolatry. And 
the expositors of their law agree that this ceremony passed upon 
the whole congregation of Israd just before the law was given 
at Mount Sinai. The Jews therefore must have weU understood 
this ceremony as emblematical of a change of religion; so that 
when John calls upon them to be baptized, it was for the purpose 
of becoming members of another church, \mder another dispen- 
satirni different from that of Moses. And hence it has been 
wondered that the people so readily flocked to him when he 
intipduced a baptism so different from the known baptism cf 
proselytes. But it should, be remembered, that at the coming 
of the Messiah they thought that the state of things was to 
be changed; and that, from the prophets, who with one consent 
describe the times of the Messiah as a new world. 

There was, however, an essential difference between the 
baptism of John and that of .any other teacher. The baptism 
of proselytes was an obligation to perfoi^n the law, that of 
John an obligation to repentimce. The law required the wash- 
ing of polluted persons from legal undeanness: the bi^tism 
of John required the purification of those who were legally 
c^ean ; and they who were baptized professed to renounce their 
own legal righteousness, and acknowledged themselves to be 
obliged to repentance and faith in the Messiah to come. 

*lop^»ni] Several MSS. and some versions add iroTajui^' an 
addition scarcely necessary to be made in a Gospel written for the 
use of Jews. 

— €J^oiJLoKoyoupL€¥oi] Used in the sense of the simple verb, 
as .in Jos^h. Ant. vui. 4, 6,. il^oiAoKoybviUvwv ra; aftapria^ 
airwVf .Koi tou t£v irarpmw vofiifiwv mLpa^curet^* B. J. v. 10, 
.5, H^wjuoKoTfiiiravTo i\ owep ^av, ioSkot. Philo Alleg. i. p. 55,. 
Tov fMv ovv i^ofAokoyovfievov o 'Ioi;&x9 (rvfifiokov. And avko9 

This is to be understood according to the tenour. of the. 
Baptist^s preaclung; not that they did this man by man, .or 
by some auricular confession .made to John, or by openly 
declaring some particular sins : but when the doctrine of John 
exhorted them to repentance .and faith in the Messiah, they 
renounced and disowned the doctrine. of justification by thdr 
works, .wjierewith they had been, beforetime leavened> and 
acknowledged and confessed themselves, sinners. 

7- ^apiaaiwv, &c.] See an account of these sects in Beau- 
aobre^s . Introduction to . the Jieyr Testament; or Prideaux> 


Coimectionf, Vol. u:z JeAning^s Jewish Aatiqulties, Vol. i« 
p. 487: Mofllidin'8 Bod. Hist. Vol. i. p. 42. 

Suidas ^baptacuoim atpopur/iiepoi irapd to fiepi^eiv koI aKpopi}^€iP 
eavTov^ T&v &KKuf¥ cnrarr^v eiv t€ to Kadapwrarop rev fiiov Kai 
axpifiiirra'tor, Kdl ek Ta Tod vofum kvroKiAaTa, Alberti Glees. 
^apiaaifK, iiaKejfwpurfUPOs* 

-! — iirl ro ^irriaiM ai/rov] for the pufpose of being baptized 
bj him. See va. ll, 13: Luke iii. 7* ^he sense which has 
sometimes been given to ewU of opposition to John^s baptism, 
is totally inadmissible' For though iirl when joined with the 
ace. of the person, has that sense, yet with the twc. of the things 
it never has. Thus Joseph. Ant. ii. 6, S^ ^Koficv ^ pvif iit 
ayopdp (tiTov, for the purpose of buying eorn. So also xii. 
2, 10, atrevScDv ^ tirrvjfeip Toh iirS t£u ^hpoaoXvfiwp I^Kown 
vp€a(ivT€poi9 ewl Ti;y epfiipfeiap t£p pofiwp^ Xen. Cyrop. !• 
65 12, ti\9o¥ iw apyipiov. (Econ. 11. 15, e^i vvp i\66vT09 <roVf 
ned foi opToi wap ifiov ec aXXoae fjyfifftiififiPy o^oQep aot, ^ff 
XaPeiP* Polyb. xxiX' 8, 7» Tot)« ivl rd '^^pfuxara trapopta^^ 
Arrian. Indie, xxiii. 1, ol ii €0' viiop exfidpTes, vlp^vopro* 

It is manifest from the reproof of the Baptist, that they did 
not come with true faith, or else that they fancied baptism alone 
could procure them the remissibn of their sins, Matt. xxi. 96: 
Luke vii. 29- Or perhaps more pobably they desired his bap- 
tism only as the ceremony of admission into the Messiah^s 
kingdom, with a view to avoid the impending destruction which 
they supposed would fall on the enemies of the Messiah, whose* 
kingdom, according to them^ was to be established by fbrce of 

-— yppTifiara iyilpwp^ Brood or offspring of vipers. Ye are 
not the seed of the promise, but the seed of the serpent. Our 
Saviour gives them the same title. Matt. xii. 34: xxiii. 33. Thus 
also Soph. Trach. 1115, ieiPtis iyiiptfi Qpiiifna* Chrysostom 
Horn. XII. in Gen. H Qeta ypa^tj rdv twp aXoywp *trpoaifyopia^^> 
'jroWajfov ii xal t&p Of/plwp, rolf Xoyta rertjjLfjfAivoi^y iTriTiBfiai* 
irori flip kvpq^ xoXoi/cra diet to apaUr^vprov kcu irafiip * vori H 
ivirovs Old ti Xdypop' irore &i opovs iid ti^p aypwfioavptjp xal 
t^p ipomp* TTori ii \e0PTa9 xat irapidXeis, itd to apvaxTiKOp teat 
itXeopeicTucdp* irori d<xirlia9 iid to iokepip* irori ii o0eif kttl 
i'XjBig iid TOP idp kqi Ti^p ^n-OPtipiap* 

-*^i;ir^j«i^cv] The Septuagint translates the same Hebrew 
word by ivoieucpveip, 2 Chron. xv. 3, and iiidcKetVi Job vi. 24: 
Prov. iv. 4. Wetstetn says ieiKPvetp dicitur is, qui digitis rem 
monstrat quam oculis subjicit: viroietKPv^tv vero, qui rationed 


cauBasque exponit, quibas aliquid fiudendum suadet PoljK ii. 
2S, 3, ifapauTuca fiev jfpvtriov irpoTeivawT€i ttX^os, m to /ulcXXoi^ 
o€ tfvooeucivi/Tcv TO fUy^Ooi Ttjv *P»fMiimp eviatiicpia^ koi to 
7X^09 Ttiif virapj^oyrwv airoU ayaOwv^ iau Kpaufcrwai^ And 11. 
33, 1, Twv y{Ktapj(W¥ inro^tj^dvTwv, li? &? mtiurOai tw aywvcu 

This perhaps had better not be considered a negative^ or 
declaration that none had warned them to do this : for doubtless 
the prophets of the Old Testament and their own conacienoe 
must warn them to avoid impending wrath. But it is a who 
of admiration like that of St. Paul to the Oalatians iiL 1. 
And thus Chrysostom ex|dains it, el ii rit fierd wcpifieiav 
vpotnyei rots Xtyoiiivoi^j koi eyioa^iif Tffif e^iri/ui^o'iK escipaae, 
QauMLoyov yap airovSf ori oyjfe ycXiu '/rore rd divvaTa avTois 
<r)(€ioif etpoi ^oKwvra lyjvnjdifffair, raura tXeyt- See also IsaL 
xlu. 19: xlix. 31: liii. 1: Ix. 8: Ixiii. 1: Matt. xxi. 10: Luke v« 
31: ix. 9. Virg. Georg. iv. 446, Nam quis te, juvenum oonfi- 
deo t issime, nostras Jussit adire domos ? quidve hinc petis ? 

— ibyy^lv diro] A.Hebraism. Thus Ecclus. xxi. 3, m airo 
irpoamirov oif^wif if)€Sy€ diro diiapTtais* 

The infin. (for iifa ipvytire) used in a similar manner 1 Cor. v. 
9, eypayf/a v^¥ jul^ avvavapiyvvuQai ^opvoH' ^P^- iv. 1, 
frapcLKoKi v/AOt dj^iw9 irepiiraTfia'at, 1 Thess. iv. 10: 1 Tim. i. 8; 

— Tfif fiMiouafff o/>7$f] impending; as its connexion with 
fpvyeiv would imply. The words have the same signification 
9s St. PauFs T^ff ipyth W* ipxotiiwfti. 

'Opyfi here signifies puni^ment; as in Philo de Great. Princ. 
p. 727> iuL€i}^ovo9 opyfj^ af to5 ruy\dv€iv hrnv. and de Jud. p. 733, 
S^paxm ouK iXioVf iro0ey; dXk' opytft aj^ta. Dem« in Phorm. 
p. 913, v^7y opyrj fieydXff teal rifiofpla vtroKeirai. Pausan. 
VIII. 3, dniipTa irapd tAv 6ewv ri/xi} r« owriv dyaBott, xai 
o&nfo'ao'i waavTw^ opyri. See Reiske^s Ind. Dem. 

These words respect the very last words of the Old Testament, 
where Malachi is propWsying of the Baptist, and his beginning 
to preach the goqiel, ^'lest I smite the earth with a curse,^ 
and denote the most miserable destruction of the nation (called 
by St Luke xxi. 83, opyti iv r^ \a^ roir^) now almost ready 
to fall upon them, if diey should disobey the gospel, which 
was now the last means offered them for their conversion; and 
which came to pass when about forty-four years after this they 
were destroyed by the Romans. So 1 Mace i. 64, opy^ /uLeydKtf 
iwl 'IcpaiiX <r0o3pa. 

8. iroufcrare] Aristot. de Plant. 1. 4, rwv (pvrwv Tiwa fiev 
'KoiouiTt KapvoVj Tiva ie QV\ty fi% treot ical rlva eioff opv&v* icai 


Tlva'juiiif *troioi<t%v eXaioi'> riva ii oi^i- Kui Ttwa fiiv ^rofoucri' 
(piXXay ' Tiva ie ' ov. And ii. lO^ ievipa oe otra yevvioimu iw 
v^Ti o^d^i iroiovai Kapiroy yXvKvv. Cicero pro Planoo, 
ferre fructus ex republic&. 

— vrbcifcrare xapirov^ aji'iovs rij^ fjieravoias] Similar to Acts 
xxvi. 20, afia t% juLeravoia^ ^py^ irpatraovra^* See Luke 
xxiii. 15: Acts xxv. 11, 25. In many MSS., versions and 
fathers, icapvrop a^iov is read. The plural may be owing to 
the transcribers, or perhaps introduced here from Luke iii. 8, 
where it is the correct reading. Yet in St. Matthew vii. 16, 17» 
the same phrase occurs four, times in the plural number. 

— d^lou^] Such works as ought to proceed from a penitent mind. 

— • T^9 /Lt€Tayoia$] See Middleton Gr. Art. p. 173. 

9* fiv ^^ffT^ Xe«y6iv] The two former words are generally' 
considered redundant (though Whitby will not allow them, nor 
fi^ ap^fiade in St. Luke iii. 8. to be so) and ' the expression to 
be equivalent to fitj \iyf/T€» So Mark x. 42, oc Scxovvre^ o,prj(eiv' 
for o\ a^oirres, coll. Matt. xx. 25 : 1 Cor. xL 16. And Hist. 
Sus. 5* o\ hoKovyre^ Kv^pvav for ol icc;)36praii^re9*--*~'Wet8tein. 
translates them, Ne animum inducite, sic apud vosmet cogitare. 
And Lightfoot, who says it is a common phrase in the Talmud,' 
Be not of opinion. 

-^ \iyeiv €v iavroh'l The Septuagint translates the same* 
Heb. woi^s by Xiyeti^ iv iavrw Esth.* vi. 6, and &avo6iv, 2 Sam. 
xxi. 16. 

— - ware/oa] See Middleton Gr. Art. p. 173. 

— iraripa i^oii^v tov 'A/3paa/u] The Jews and particularly 
the Pharisees cherished the preconceived notion, that as Jews 
and descendants of Abraham they alone were pleasing to Grod ; 
and that to the exclusion of the Gentiles, they should have the 
good things and honours of the kingdom of the Messiah, which 
they fancied was to be established on earth. Justin -M. Dial, 
with Tryph. p. 369, utroXafifiavorret oti iravr^D^ roJy crtto t^ 
<nropa99 "^^ Kara trdpica too 'Afipadfi oi/<ri, kup afiaprtoKoi 
tSo'i Koi aiTicrrot koI awcidels w/909 Tov OeoVy i} ^aik^ia i; 
dcctfM09 jodifcrcrai. A remarkable passage occurs in the Talinud, 
in which it is said << that Abraham sits next the Gates of Hell, 
and doth not permit any wicked Israelite to go down into it.^ 
These Jews might perhaps pervert the promise in Jer. xxxviii. 
34, &c. to support this vain and dangerous confidence in oppd.* 
aition to such a multitude of most express and awful threateniBgs; 
particularly Deut. xxxii. 19, &c. 

. -*- €jc rwv \i9w¥ TovT&iv\ dca-Tucws, here on tlie banks c^ the 
Jordan. See Luke xix. 40. 


Some take ibi^ figuratively, (aa Ignatius, £p. ad Magnes. 
p. 95, Justin Martyr; Clemens Alex. Protrept. ad Gentes, p. 3;) 
of the Gentiles who are stony-hearted towards the truth, and 
worship stocks and stones, God is able to raise up children to 
Abraham. But it is rather to be interpreted litterally, for the 
crying down of their idle boasting : that it was but a vain prop 
whereupon they leaned, to think that it was enough for them 
that they were descended of Abraham; for God by his cxnni-. 
potent power was able to make as good and towardly children 
to Abraham as they were, even of stones. So Chrysostom, 
Horn. II. in Matt, /u^ vo^il^erif iptjai^f ori iav v/uL€i^ air6\tj(7de, 
amuia iroi^o'frr€ to¥ trwrpiapyfi^' wk itiTi tcSto, ovjc i<rru 
T^ yap Ocf! ivvUTov icai dwo XiOww avOpwrov^ aurf SaSvai^ 
car ei£ Ti}y avyyevetav €K9iviiy ayayelt^f iirii kuI i^ ^PX^ 
oirr«i9 eyep€To» To yap ex Xidcuy avOpioirov^ yeveadat, 6fioiov 
fly T^ airo t$9 fiiirpa^ exeti^ r^ aaXtipa^ vpoeXOeiv iraiiiov* 
And similarly Theophylact in c. ixi. Matt. p. 19. 

— iy^iipcu] An allusion to Isai. li. 1, 3, 3, 4. See Gen. 
xxxviii. 8, ayafmyrov tricipfia r^ aSeXip^ aov- And • Matt, 
xxii. 24, \ 

10. ^^ 8e Kal] See Hoogeveen Doctr. Partic. c. xxii. § 4. 
Kal in some copies is wanting : but it should be added, as usually, 
placed after liSij ii. So Herod, ix. 95, ifSij Se xal toS^ iKOvara. 

'-—If a^iyfi] Hesych. iiarofwi weXccvr* Some by the ax 
understand the Word of God and the publication of the Gospel, 
from Jer. xxiii. 29$ after the Septuagint, and from Hos. vi. 5, 
others Christ himself. But most understand it of the judg- 
ments of God. Greg. Naz. Or. xxxix. p. 633, d^iytf etrrl r^ 
a0€pair€vrou >l^vj(ji^ jj etcroM^ Kai fierd T^y Koicpoy* Theoph. 
in Matt. c. iif. aJ^ivtfy Xe^et njy tov Xpurrov Kpiaiv* iiySpa &e iya 
iuuTToy iifiwy' o ovv fiii irwreviraSf eyreuOev tiSti auroppil^os 
airaTefiyrraif Koi civ yieyyay eM/SaXXerai. See also Chrysos- 
tom Horn- II* in Matt. 

— If d^iyfi wpo9 pl^€iy] A proverbial expression to denote 
that puni&liment is close at hand. Ecclus. x. 16 : Dan. iv. 20, 23. 
So that by the ax being now laid to the root of the trees may be 
understood the certainty of their desolation and its nearness : in 
that the instrument of their destruction was already prepared 
and brought close to them ; the Romans that should ruin their 
city and nation being already masters and rulers over them. 

— Twy iev&pmy] In the Sacred Writings men are frequently 
compered to trees, Ps. i. 3: Ixxiii. 5 : Dan. iv. 11: Matt. vii. 17: 
Luke xiiL 6, 9: John xv. 1—7: Rom. xi. 17: and Jer* xxvi. 
32, iv a^iyoii n^iownv eir' ai/rify, tk Kowroyres ^u\a. . 


^**« M^ 'froioSv Kakov Kapnvy] for ^1} ipipoiff see v. 8. Hooge- 
veen Doct. Part. c. xxvii. Sect. 1. § S9. 

— eKKamrerai] Alberti and Gnevius think this and /SoX- 
XertiM put for eKK O 'irt t t rO cu and fidXXeaOcu iei, as WXcTiac H^ 
siod €py* 30, for wiXetrOcu &19 and i} 'yXcvTra r^ injpuKi Tovr«w 
rijULvercu for nfiveaOcu iti. So Callim. Hym. in Dian. 16B, 
Airri; ^ es 'trarpi^ io/iou ipyeaC oi ie <r c0' ejpi^y Ilarrer ofiMOf 
Kokeovaif av S 'AiroXXc^ri wapiteii, for iXevafi, KoKiaavciy wa^ 
pitrei^B Ephes. v. 13, ^}avepovTcu and Apocal. xvi. 15, iiou 
ipxpfniu m KkiiTTtfi* But the Hebrews use the present to ex- 
press things that are sure and very near; and therefore these 
presents have the force of futures. 

11. fiairri^w] St. Mark uses a different tense i. 8. This 
is the answer John made to the question whether he was the 
Christ or no. John i. S6. 

"•— ev iiart\ for viari simply: as Luke iii. 16: Acts i. 5: 
xi. 16, without the preposition. Herod, iii. 104, has €f viari 
XiK/09 avTfm i<m fipeyeaOcu Tifvurai/ra. In other simihur 
phrases we find iv retained ; Luke xxiii. 9, eireptirq, aurov ip 
Xo'yoi9 iicayoic. Musaeus 158, Oufwv ipwroroKOUTi irapairXayJ^cti 
€vi $kvBoi^» Find. Olymp. «. A. vxi. hviloi^ avvonf ev avKoiu 
See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 460. 

That the baptism of John was by plunging the body, seems 
to appear from what is related of him, viz. that he hapH$sed 
in Jordan ; that he baptised in Enon because there was muck 
water there; and that Christ being baptized came up out of 
the water: to which that seems to be parallel. Acts viii. 38, 
Philip and the Eunuch went down into the water j &c. Some 
complain that this rite is not retained in the Christian church, as 
though it something derogated from the truth of baptism; or 
as though it were to be called an innovation, when the sprinkling 
of water is used instead of plunging. But this is no place to 
dispute of these things. See Wall on Infant Baptism. 

-— €19 fi^ravoiav] w here points out the final purpose. Gro- 
tius translated it super professione poenitentiffi quam vos facitis. 
St. Mark calls it fidirrurina fieravoiav. 

— - o oiricrw fiou ipi)(pfieyoi] for iXevcrofxevofj as John i. S7 ; 
or perhaps he who is now coming. John entered upoa his 
ministry about six months before Christ. This name o epj(i^ 
fieroff was one by which they called the Messias at this time 
when DaniePs weeks were now nearly completed, from the full 
and sure hope and expectation they had of his being at hand. 
Thus John sent his disciples to enquire av el oep^o/mcvo^; John iii. 
31, o iO^wOey ipyofierot > John iv. 25, the woman of Samaria 

CMAFTBE nu 75 

knew iri Mi<r(rius €pj(rnu. And when Jesus entered Jerusa- 
lem, the multitudes cried out evXayfUJiivcfs o epj(oiiePos iv r^ 
awifian ToS Kvplov. Apoc i. 4, 8 : it. 8 : xi. 17^ o wv xal o ^v, 
Kal o ipyofievo^" 

— oropov] In the sense of St. John^s a^co^- Herod. Tin. 86, 
o a Ow <T<p€a^ €VK cfa Kiv€4iVf ipds, avrii ucaifo^ ehai tUp 
imuTcd 'M'poKaTiiaOtu, 

-^^ ivoiiifiaTa] In the New Testament iiroSfffuux is used in 
the same sense as aai^aXioir: and the Septuagint translates the 
same word sometimes by i'jroififia, sometimes by o-aF&xXioir. 
Among the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans, this was the ofBoe 
of the lowest slaves. Lucian. Herod, v. Vol. i. p. 835, 6 Si rt9 
/uLoXa oovXucw^ apatpei to traviaXtor ix toS ttoSos, w iraraicXi* 
t^(Hfto ^01}. iEsch. Agam. 917> virai ti^ apfivXat Avot Tayo^^ 
itpiiovXo¥ ififiao'iv iroii^. Chrysost. Horn. xvi. on John, to 
'yap tiiroifiiia XSaeUy Trfs iayarffs iichfoia^ eari. Among the 
Jews howeTer we find the disciples doing this : and in the early 
ages of Christianity we find the same custom. From an Epistle 
in Euseb. Eccl. Hist. iv. 15, we find that it had been done to 
Polycarp ; and that now, when about to sufier martyrdom, excf- 
paro t6u\ iftoKvmv eavroy^ /uiy vpoTepop tovto irot&Vy dia to aei 
eKOtrrow twv trttfTmv (rrrovial^eiVy ooTif Tcij^iov tov jfpwros 
airrcSi eipa^tiTUL 

— *^ /3ao^a<rai] Though properly used to signify the carry- 
ing great wdghts is here equivalent to <l>ip€iv» 

— TTvevjULaTi ayup] See Middleton Gr. Art. p. 173. By this 
is not meant the grace concomitant to our Christian baptism, 
but his sending down the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit, as 
is plain by our Saviour^s own exposition. Acts i. 5. For *< John 
indeed baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with 
the Holy Ghost not many days hence ;^ where using the very 
same words with these of the Baptist, and applying the bap- 
tising with the Holy Ghost plainly and undeniably to his send- 
ing down the Holy Ghost on the day of Pentecost, he has given 
a sure, plain, and undoubted explanation of these words. 

The descail of the Spirit upon the first converts was called 
baptism on account ot the multitude, variety, and greatness of 
the gifts with which it was attended; in so much that the 
mincb of those on whom he descended were as fully replenished 
with his gifts as their bodies were covered with water in bap^ 
tism. TheophyL in Matt. c. ixi. p* 19, rotrreWi^ KoraxXwei 
i5/uay d^6yej9 Toit tov Trv^vfiaTOi yaptau 

76 ST. MATTH8W. 

— ical irvpi] Thefie words are wanting in Mark i. 8 : John i. 
33 : in the almost parallel words of Jesus, Acts i. 5 : and here in 
several MSS. : they are however found in the. older oneav and all 
the antient versions ; and in so many of the Fathers, that Mill 
in his Notes entertains no doubt of their being genuine, though 
he had previously oonden\ned them as spiuious. 

it has been sometimes thought that the words wevftart ayi(p 
KOI irvfA are an e» iia ivwVf as St. Peter^s &a ^i^iys nal dper^ 
2 Pet. i. 3 : and Acts xiv« 13, ravpovi «caf ariyLfkora^ i. e. ifrrefi" 
/uihfovi. And Virg. Georg. ii. 192, pateris libamus et auro, i. e. 
Aureis. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 19* 

Possibly the Baptist might have in view Mai. iii. 2 ; where the 
Messiah is compared to a refiner^s fire, on account of the judg- 
ments he was to inflict on the Jews in consequence of their un- 
belief. This verse may perhaps represent the manner in which 
Je9us will admit his disciples : the next, that in which he. will 
judge them at the end of the world. 

12. ov] redundat. See vii. 24 : viii. 15 : Mark vii. 20 : John 
U 33 : Acts XV. 17- 

— ^ ou TO iTTuov] The expression taken from the prophetical 
writings. Sec Levit. xxvi. 23 : Isai. xli. 16. Hesych. tttvoji, 
6piva^9 ^vXov €V tp oia^oY'i^oiKrc tov &Itov otto tov ajfvpov. 
Theoc. VII. 166, auOi^ e^oJ va^aifii fieya irriov. Schol, iraif 
06 Xu^/iWVTat Kal awpeuwai tov irvpov, icaTa fiiaov irtiyvvovai to 
i^iov. Alciph. III. 26. aprc /uot Trfv aXa» itcuccStjpmfTip teal 
TO frriov aworide/xii^ip^ o hefncirrtfi iireirTvi- 

See Pearson on the Creed, VoU i. p. 451, where Uie several 
figurative and parabolical descriptions of the ofiice and dignity 
of the Son of Man as Judge, are enumerated. . See also Glass. 
PhU. Sac. p. 1119. 

— liCLKadapiei] 1. fut. Att. for itcucaOaphei. See Matt. Gr. 
Gram. Xen. QScon. xviii. 6, Kadapovfxev tov aiToy, Xucfmvre^ 
. « • . TCK ayypa. The word in this verse is used in the sense 
of XuTfiov ventilare, vannare. 

^^ Ttiv akiava* The Attics used oXcds : a place in the opw 
air, for treading out the com. It is evidently used here for 
what it held, and chaff together. 

•*— avvo^ei] (Tvvayeiv is properly used when applied to men, 
cattle, aad animate things: auyKOfii^etv when speaking of the 
coca, &c. Deut. xi. 14. 

• — T^v oTToOiiKiiv] Many MSS. with the Syriac add qutov. 
Middleton, Gr. Art. p. 175, says the article alone has in such 



instances the force of the possessive pronoun ; but the Syriac, as 
the genius of the language requires, generally has the addition 
of the pronoun. Its insertion or omission in passages of this 
kind is a fruitful source of various readings. 'A^odi^ litterally 
signifies any repository, in which any thing aworiderai: here 
a subterraneous cavern, in which the people of the East laid 
up their com, wine, oil, &c, Q. Curt. vii. 4: Plin. H. N. 
xnii. 30 : Hor. i. Od. 1 , 9, proprio condidii harreo Quicquid 
de Libycis verritur areis. 

— a-xypov] signifies not only chaff properly so called, but 
also the stalks or straw, and whatever though it gtew with the 
grain is separated from it. See Xen. CEcon. c. xviii. Eustath. 
an 11. 6. p. 575, ovK airXa99 aj(i;pov, aXXd to toS ayjipov Xex- 
TOTOTov lo/r 1} ayvfi oriKoi- Etym. Mag. 17 iraXa/uif; if oXXofoy- 
Oeiaa a\vpw Xeyerai. In Exod. v. 7$ it is used for the straw 
which Pharaoh would not give to the children of Israel. And 
Jos. Ant. II. 13, 4, uses it in the same way on the same occar- 
sion. And so does Philo in Vit. Mos. i. p. 608. 

The wicked are often compared to stubble which shall be 
scattered with the wind, or burnt by fire. See Ps. xxxiv. 5 : 
Job xxi. 18 : Isai. xxix. 5 : v. 24 : Hos. xiii. 3 : Mai. iv. 1 : 
Exod. XV. 7- 

13. Tore] Does not accurately mark the time, but merely 
during the time that John was baptizing, as Mark i. 9^ €v 
e«c6iVat9 Tah 17/16/0019. Our Saviour was baptized and entered 
on his ministerial functions, when he began to be thirty years 
of age, and that according to a legal ordinance. So ^so did 
the Baptist begin to preach, when he began to be thirty, which 
was about six months before this. 

It may possibly be made a question, why the Evangelists 
have given us no account of our Saviour^s life from the twelfth 
year of his age till he began his ministry. But when it is con- 
sidered that the end of the Sacred Penmen was, not so much to 
gratify our curiosity^ as to consult our profit, we cannot but 
admire the great wisdom of Grod by whose inspiration they wrote,, 
in passing by the less active parts of our Lord^s life, which would 
certainly have swelled their Gospels to immense volumes, fit 
for the perusal of none but the studious, and such as had 
plenty of time at their command; whereas now takjng the four 
Giospels together, they make but a small book ; and separately 
no more than little manuals, that may be carried about with 
us wherever we go; may be soon read over and easily remem- 
bered, even by men of mean capacities and no great leisure. 

78 ST. M^TTHBW. 

And yet they contain all the tranaactions of our Soviour^s life, 
which chiefly concern us to know ; I mean such as relate to his 
mediatorial office, as that he came into the world to teach us, 
to die, and rise again for us: to instruct us by his heavenly 
doctrine as our Prophet; to offer himself as a sacrifice on the 
cross, as our Priest; and to loose the bands of death and 
ascend triumphant into heaven as our King. Ilia ergo tern- 
pora, says Spanheim, Dub. Evang. Part ii. Dub. 96, notata, 
quae nobis impensa, qua? in munere transmissa, quae ad aatpd- 
Xciai^ fidei nostras sufficere visa, qu« Christum exhibent, vel 
in Catheddl, vel in Cruce, vel in Throno. "Sic etenim osten- 
sum, ilia tantum nobis quserenda et vestiganda esse in Messi£, 
qua? actfis officii turn Prophetici, turn Sacerdotalis, turn Regii, 
cujus causa venit, concemunt. See also John xxi. 25: and xx. 31^ 

— -oiro Ttji FaXcXatay] from the town of Nazareth, where 
he had been educated. 

-^ €wt 'lop^yfiv] Near Bethabara, John i. 28. 

14. ^i€/cQiXi/€i;] Used in the sense of the simple v^b tcwXueiv* 
It signifies here the wish to hinder, rather than the act. See 
Mark xv. 23, coU. Matt, xxvii. 34: Ps. Iv. 1. Thus Pets' 
forbad Christ to wash his feet, not in any surly frowardness, 
but in an holy humility, having an eye upon his own unwor^ 
thiness : not refusing the service, nor crossing the will of Christ, 
but confessing the unworthiness of himself, and ponderating 
the inequality of the persons. 

— *- ')^p€iav ex^] ^* ^' ^^^ ^^ baptism of the Holy Ghost : or 
if we suppose John to speak of baptizing with water, his words 
are to be understood not umply of any absolute necessity that 
he had of baptism, but comparatively betwixt him and Christ; 
that it was fitter that he should be baptized by Christ, than 
Christ by him. For the phrase j^iav e^^ is used not always 
to impart necessity, but sometimes conveniency. 

A question here has arisen how the Baptist knew him to be 
the Christ before the Spirit descended on him : to which almost 
all the commentators answer, that John the Baptist being a 
prophet " fiUed with the Holy Ghost from his mother^s womb,*^ 
knew by the afflatus of that Holy Spirit, that he who then came 
to him was the person on whom the Holy Ghost should descend 
so plentifully, and on whom he should abide, that he might im- 
part him to others ; such matters being frequently imparted to 
prophets by an immediate intimation of the Holy Spirit. 

15. a7roKpt9€k eiTre] A pleonasm, of a form commcm in 
Xenophon, Cyropoed. u. 2, l,.«ca(^ *Y<rra<7in|9 viroKafiwif elircv: 


GBcon. Tii. 10, Kol o 'Itr)(pftLaj(ot air^Kpivaro^ tI f, €(f>ri^ w ^Sdi-z 
Kpare^. So Herodotus i H ofiei/ieTo \iymw : o Se a\yii<ra9 ctc- 
pmrtiiian, elve 0a£ : eipti Xeywif, and cXe^e <pa/ii€vo£. 

— » elirc trpoi ai/rop] Hebrew manner of speaking, ooramoo 
in the Septuagint and New Testament. 

-— a^ev ^tpTi] Sub. fie* *\ipiivai used in the sense oi 6^« 
See Pearson on the Creed, Vol. ii. p. 4s53, who instances the 
different significations of this verb in the New Testament. The 
same Hebrew words are translated by the Septuagint in Judg. xvi. 
S69 a^e? lUy and in Exod. xxxii. 10, eaaov tie. 

— apri] The emphasis of the clause is held to be in this 
word. Whereas John had told the people before oi Christy's 
baptizing with the Holy Ghost, and had told Christ in the 
verse preceding that he had need oi that baptism; to that it 
is {hat our Saviour giveth this answer aipe^ apn, as meaning 
thus, That it was true indeed that he was he that should come 
after him, and that he should baptize with the Holy Ghost, 
of which baptism John had more need from him than he of 
John'*8 : yet the time of that his baptizing was not yet come ; 
for first must he fulfil all the righteousness required of him- 
self before he was to pour out or bestow that baptism of the 
Spirit upon others. And therefore must John suffer him to 
be baptized now with the baptism of water, for that baptism 
of his with the Si»rit was not yet to be exhibited. 

-*-^ Tfjv StKOiotrvvfivll here the same as ^aiw^a institutum ; 
both thd words in the Septuagint are used as the translation 
o{ the same Hebrew word. See Prov. xvii. 23 : Numb, xxxvi. 
13: Deut. iv. 40: vi. 1. And irknpovv niv ^moavt^tfv is the 
same as voieip ra ^cuwinaTa Deut. vi. 24 : (fivkia'tretrOcu ra 
SiKauoiiara Deut. xxvi. I7 : Exod. xi. 20. So Chrysostom Horn. 
X- in Matt. &icauxrvi/ifr ivravOa njy iKir\iipwaw mkei tSv 
€pt6\£v dwaffwv» This exposition be repeats Horn. xii. in 
Matt, and Horn, lxxiv. Vol. v. So also Theophylact in c. iii. 
Matt. p. 20. And in c. i. Mark, p. 192, by iraaav SiKcuoavvtiv he 
understands mcros erroXck toS voimw* Loghtfoot translates it^ 
That we fulfil every thing just : observing that in the baptism of 
Christ there were two just things eiqpecially.' 1. That this great 
priest being initiated into his minist^al office, should answer 
the type of th^ adnnssion of the Levitical prieatSj^ who were 
initiated by washing and anointing, Exod. xxix. 4 : Lev. viii. 6. 
So was he by baptism and the Holy Ghost. (See also Jenmng's, 
Jew. Ant. Vol. i. p. 204.) 2. When by the institution of Christ 
those that entered into the profession of the Gospel were to be 


introduced by baptism, it was necessary that Christ being to 
enter into the same profession and to preach it too, should be 
admitted by baptism. Clem. Alex. Paed. i. 6, kgI €i reXeuK ^i^, 
Ti 6j3airT«^€To o reXetoi; eSei, (paurty irKfipwrag to iwayyeXfia to 
auOpwTTwov wayKoXws, the profession in which he was engaged 
M man. In the Constit. of Clem. vii. c* 23, efiairrlaOn ^ koI 
iut}<TTev(r€v (scil. Jesus) ovk avro^ diropvirwaeuf^ ti pfffrreiof jfpeia^ 
i)(wv J; KuOapaewf, o rtj (f>varei Ka0apo^ xal aytas, aXK* iva xal 
'loMvvri aXijOetav 'rrpoo'tAafyrvpijtrri xal iiiuv viraypafijiiov TrapaxX' 
\nTai. Greg. Naz. Or. xxxv. p. 57^9 ifiairritrOti /jlcv m avOpwvWj 
aXK* a/napria^ eXvtrev m Oeof, ov KaOapaiwv oi/ros oeofieyos, oXX' 
iva aryidati rd viara* And in Or. xxxix. p. 633, he says it was 
irdvTa Toy irakaiov 'Aidik cy iiSd^^r^ Trp viaTi, See also Hom. 
XXXVIII. p. 622. And Origen. Caten. in c. i . John, p. 47, o rd 
eTipwv dfiapTtifioTa diro\v<rcu Svvdfievos, ov KaOapaiwv iv€K€y eirc 
rd vdfiara epyerai^ aXX' cocrTe hwa/xiv aurol^ iuOeivcu KoSapriKtiv. 
' 16. dyctpypfiaav^ Galen, de Curat, avewydti <rou jj Oupa. 
Thomas M. ian Se to fiev rivoiye Kai tivetoyQii^ Kowd* to oe 
dvearyevy 'Attikov, Etym. Mag. avewyfjL€vos .••.avewyfiat ».,, 
dv€wy€ fiiao^ wapaKelfievo^* avoiyw, tjvwyov, ^vetoyov^ awrroXif 
ToS fi €iy a. avtwyovy to TpiTov avewye — i^yecDfrrac ly dvpa. 
Li vy XXII. 1, Faleriis coelum findi visum, velut magno hiatu; 
quaque patuerit, ingens lumen efiulsisse. Serv. ad Mu. ix. 
Discedere coelum: in Auguralibus libris inter ostenta etiaov 
caelum discessisse dicitur. 

— -ai/Ty] Some suppose the dative for kit avTovy viz. Jesus r 
and others make it refer to John, i.e. whilst he was looking. 
From the words which follow it seems to have a reference to 
John : for if el& referred to Jesus, instead of err outov at the 
end of the verse, we should have €<f> iavTov. 

Lightfoot thinks the word must be reserved and referred in 
a singular peculiarity to Christ, and the opening of the heavens 
to him importeth a more empbatical propriety than their 
opening to his sight. For the syntax and grammatical con- 
struction that St. Mark useth, makes it impossible to fix the 
word ai/T^ any other ways than upon Christ. He therefore 
understands it, to his prayer. 

— oc ovpavoi] There is no material difference in the things 
thouffh St. Luke has put top oipavovy in the sing., and St. 
Mattiiew o\ ovpavol in the plur.; for one follows the idiom of 
the Hebrew, and the other of. the Greek. The Syriac has trans- 
lated it just cross, St. Matthew^s plur. in the sing., and St. Luke^s 
sing, in the plur. 

cnkvntL III. 81 

St. Mark says the heavens parted asunder; which is to be 
understood of a very great light, or an extraordinary appearance 
of fire» vhich was seen in the heavens, as when it lighteneth. 
This is the sense which Justin Martyr has put upon this passage 
in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew. See Exek. i. 1 : John i. 
58: Acts viL 56. 

The oonunon people of the Jews were of opinion that the 
heavens werejirm and solid^ and that the fire which fell from 
thence upon the fiice of the earth, burst through this firmament, 
and made an opening in this vast convex that surrounds us : and 
therefore it is that the Evangelists express themselves in this 
manner, in accommodation to the prejudices and capacities of 
the vulgar. 

•^-jcai €l&] No doubt this wondrous sight was seen by both 
of them. For St. Mark has expressed it so as plainly to refer 
ike seeing it to Christ: and John the Baptist has in another 
place assured us, that he saw ii, and took particular notice of 
it> as the sign he was ditected to observe as the distinguishing 
and certain characteristic of the Messiah ; John i. 33, 84. 

«— TO wvf v/uta Toi Qeov'] Gen. ii. 2. The Spirit of God moved 
upon the face of the waters in the old world, and so it doth 
here in the new. It is needless to instance how oft in Scripture 
the Holy Ghost is called the Spirit oi God, as Gen. xli. 38 : 
Exod. xxxi. 3: Numb. xxiv. 2, and many other places. But it 
is most necessary to observe, that wheresoever he is so called, 
it is in the Hebrew the Spirit of Elohim in the plur. number ; 
and sheweth his proceeding from more persons than ode. Middle^ 
ton,. Gr. Art p. 175, observes that St. Mark apd St. John use 
precisely the same expression, whilst St. Luke speaking of the 
same event, iii. 22, says to wvsvfAa to cry coy awfiaTitetp elSeiy 
which appears to give the personal sense of wvsifxa in the most 
unequivocal terms. He remarks also, that the other two Evan- 
gelists have also to nvsvfta Toi Qeov, because that phrase is 
to be distinguished from wv«v/uca 6coS, which is also of frequent 
occurrence in the New Testament, but which signifies no more 
than ^^a divine influence.^ It is worthy of mention, that 
though irycv/ua Qeov and wiwi/Ma Kvpiov are very common in 
the Septuagint, to wiwv/ia tov Qeov does not once occur : for 
which he assigns the reason that the translators attended to the 
idiom of their original. 

— ^ icaT«/3aIi*oy ai(r€i vepicTepdv^ When our Saviour was to 
enter upon the actual and full performance of all those functions 
that belonged to him,, then did the same Spirit which had 



sanctified him at his conception, visibly descend upon him at 
his inauguration. And that most properly upon his baptism, 
because according to the customs of those antient nations, washing 
was wont to precede their unctions. 

The antients were generally of opinion, that the Holy Ghost 
in this descent assumed the real shape of a dove, which at that 
time more especiaUy wm a very proper representation of his 
dove-like nature, Isai. xlu. 2, and of all such as were to receive 
the same spirit, and are required to be as harmlesB as dovea : 
but most of the modems (though they allow that the blessed 
Spirit did at this time assume a visible shape, to render his 
descent manifest) do maintain that the wael irepurrepa relates 
not to the body or shape of a dove, but to the manner of a 
dove's descending and lighting upon any thing : and thence they 
infer that it was this body of light, which issued from the skies, 
that came down upon Christ, and while he was praying, hung 
hovering over his head, just after the manner imd motion of 
a dove, before it settles upon any thing. Whether of these 
opinions should prevail, it is idle to dispute, since neither of 
them are destitute of some countenance from Scripture, neither 
of them injurious to the dignity of the Holy Ghost. 

17- ^n)] Scil. eyiveroi which is added in Luke iii. 22: 
or €<j>epeT09 Mich, in Bos. Ell. Gr. p. 388, or i/jcouo^. Palairet 
supplies eppaytj from Diog. Laert. i. 10, payijyai ifka^nv e^ 
ovpavov (sdl. Xeyovaav) ' EirifnepiSri^ /iff Wfi<f>wp^ oKKa Aio?« 

^- ovTQ^ itrfiif, &c.] See Ps. ii. 7* ^^^ Camb. MS. reads 
irpos avTOP' av el. 

^-^ i/los d'/airiin'ov] See Pearson on the Creed, Vol. i. p. 64. 
Pollux III. 19, mKoiTo o av vm dyainjToi o /movos c3y iraTpl 4 
fifirpi' ukrw^p xat ayairtpyj Ovyamip kou pjovoyevri^ koS *H<rfooov. 
Hesych. aywKrfTov fjLovoyeprjy xe-xapiafievov. Hom. II. ^. 400, 
^raio eiri KoXiroy e)(wv.»./EKropiStfv ayamjrov, Basil. M. in 
Ps. liv. ayaTTfiTos t^ irarpl, ms fiovayevnS' See Matt. xvii. £ : 
Mark i. 11 : ix. 7= Luke iii. 22: ix. 35. Philo calls the only 
daughter of the King of Egypt ayairnrv xal juioW, 1 Vit. 
Mos. p. 804 : and in other passages frequently joins these words, 
as when spiking of Isaac, vto9 ix rij^ ya^erifs yimrm ry aoff)^ 
ymia-uKf ar/aTnjras teal julovosj and ov ii fiovov tk «<rx^>' ayafrtirov 
oicovi, Travrii Xiyou /uei^ov ipyop hutTrpdrrerui* In common 
Greek writers also we find it used in the sense of only. Antiphanes 
in Stob. Florileg. Tit. lxxxiii. p. 347> vilp yap ayairtir^ rt 
^poTTttiv 7rpo9 xaptp €pa»ov i/navTip toStov oioiAai ^peiv. And 
the S^ptuagint inake use of it when there is a word in the 


Hebrew signifying only. See Gen. xxii. 2^ 12: Jer. vi. 26: 
AmoB viii. 80: Zech. xii. 10. 

«— ey ^ tiioioia'a] 'ATTucmt arri tw evooKw^ See Viger. Id. 
Graec. v. 3, 11, and notes. Ei^e7v iv run is a Hebraism. So 

1 Mace. X. 47, mtloK^ay kp 'AXe^afSp^lp. So also 1 Cor. x. 5: 

2 Cor. xii. 10: 2 Thess. ii. 12: Heb. x. 38. In Matt xii. 18, 
we find ei; ov eviatcfi<r€P if V^^x^ mm/, and 2 Pet. i» 17» eis ok iy» 
evioKtia'a. The Greek writers use evioKeir rwi. The verb is 
frequently used by Polyfatus, and the construction is either with 
the dative or nominative ; as iyw ei^S r^ yey oport^ or to 
y^aw ti/^cl iiuH. 

The expression is taken with alight variation from 2 Sam. vii. 
14: Ps. IxxxviiL 26, 27: Isai. xHi. 1. And when it is uttered 
again at our Saviour^s transfiguration, this addition <* Hear him^^ 
ia put to it, Matt. xvii. 5 : Luke ix. 35 ; sealing him then for 
the great prophet of his church whom all must hear, Deut. xviii. 
15: as it sealeth him now for the high-priest of his church, 
being now to en'ter into his ministry. 

Chap. IV. 

!• T-orc] Immediately after hb baptism, when he was 
acknowledged by a voice from heaven to be the Son of €rod, 
when the Sfritit of Grod had taken full possession of his soul. 
See Mark i. 12, who uses the word eiSv^j and Luke iv. 1. 

— oMnrx^tj] i. e. from the low grounds about Jordan, in 
which he was baptized, into the higher country: unless we 
take It for the sin^e ffx^^> ** ^^^^ ^^^- 34. In the corres- 
ponding passage St. Luke uses i/yrro. And Hesychius explains 
avay^rai by oitfy^iTcu. St. Mark^s expression is to Trpwtta 
avTov e«/3aXX€<. He was moved by the Holy Ghost to retire 
into the wilderness. 

— ^ viro Tov irr6i/MOTo(] Sdl. ay ioVf which, iii. 6, Kwrafiaipop 
€w' airap ^Xdcy. So expressly says St. Luke iv. 1, nrpeuMaro^ 
dyiou ir\iip9ff iiri<fTp€^^€» dm raSi 'Io^o&ckov, &c. Doubtless 
there must be some very great and good ends why the Holy 
Spirit should thus move our Lord to repair into the wilderness 
for this purpose; amongst which, says Theophylact, this was 
one. To teaeh us that when by baptism we have consecrated 
ourselves to Grod'^s service, we must expect temptations: so 

^ Indefinitum tempus hie adhibetur ad actum continuum indicandum, 
quemadmodum Grseci eo tempore uti oonsueverint de iis rebus, quie 
toleot fieriy quseque at sunt, et fuemnt, oruntque. Raphelius, Wolfius. 

F 2 


EccluB. ii. 1, 'f'iicifow^ €1 irpwfipyti iovKeveiv rf Kvpitp^ irotfiaaw 
Tq¥ yjfvjf^y aov eU veipaafiov: and to teach us in our Lord^s 
example how we may best and most effectually resist them, 
even - by an unshaken faith, 1 Pet. v. 9, and by the sword of 
the Spirit, which is the word of God, Eph. vi. I7. 

'--'€19 Tffv ipfifiov] What wilderness is here meant, seems to 
admit of very great doubt. Michaelis imagines the phrase must 
suggest to the mind of the reader the great desert of Arabia, 
in which the Israelites wandered so many years, and in which 
Mount Sinai is situated : and this notion, if not elsewhere con- 
tradicted by the historian, he thinks wiU appear the more 
probable, when in reading of a miraculous fast of forty days, 
we recollect a similar fast of Moses and Ellas on Mount Sinai, 
or on the way to that mountain. See Exod. xxxiv. 28 : 1 Eongs 
xix. 8. The instant we imagine ourselves in this desert, the 
whole history, including both the artifices of Satan and the 
answer of our Lord, receives, he says, extraordinary light. 

The people of Palestine shew the wilderness in which Jesus 
is supposed to have been tempted, and from the forty days 
it has acquired the name of Quarantania : it is an extremdy 
Tugged and wild ridge of mountains, to the north of the road 
which leads from Jerusalem by the Mount of Olives to Jericho. 
Its aspect is most hideous : but this Michaelis thinks can hardly 
be the desert of the temptation ; as he supposes no writer would 
call this merely the desert ^ without a more particular description: 
and no man could there be in danger of perishing with hunger ; 
for in whatever part of the desert he might happen to be, he 
need travel only for a few hours to reach a place where provi- 
sions might be had, viz. Ephraim, Bethel, Jericho, or elsewhere. 
Nor would our Saviour have been here altogether in solitude, 
nor as St. Mark i. 13, says, among wild beasts and serpents, 
but among men, possibly among robbers who then infested this 
desert, and made it dangerous to travel from Jerusalem to 
Jericho. This is the scene of the parable of the good Samaritan. 

These opinions are countenanced by Bp. Middleton. They 
were adduced before by Chemnitius, and answered by Lightfoot, 
who says that if the conrespondency of the fasts of Moses and 
Elias with this of Christ may be argued from, we may argue 
for the wilderness of Judea, from the sore trials of David under 
the persecution of his enemies, &c. See 1 Sam. xvii. 34: xxiii. 
14, 19, 24: xxiv. 1. Again, mention being made of the wilder- 
ness of Judea just before, Matt. iii. 2, 3, and a wilderness 
being here spoken of, without any further mention what wilder- 


ness it was, none can go properly be understood as that oF 
Judea, which was last named bdTore. And when St. Mark 
says Christ was with wild beasts, he does not therefore enforce 
that that wilderness was without either men or dwellings : but 
that Christ for that time avoided both the one and the other, 
and kept himself in the wildest places, and most retired from 
human society : and that the Evangelist seems to regard rather 
the state of Christ, than the state of the place; and to shew 
Christ to be the second Adam, (see Porteus, Lect.iv. V0I.1. p. 90) 
as in the temptation which he was now about, so in his safety and 
security among the void beasts, as Adam in ii^ocency had been. 

The reading also ev Ttf eptifup which is found in some MSS. 
confirms the common acceptation : though the Syriac version 
and the Vulgate favour the contrary. 

— wfipaaOfjvai] Sub. ipexa Toi;,-'-<iKrrtf. See Schleusner in v. 
We. are told by St. Mark and St. Luke, that all the time 

of our Lord^s retirement he was tempted of the devil; but 
there is no account of the various subtle arts which that evil 
spirit used in the course of so long a temptation. The three 
assaults only which he made at the expiration of the forty days 
are recorded, perhaps because they were more violent than the 
rest, or more for the instruction of mankind. 

The matter of his temptations was very like the temptations 
of Eve. She fell by the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, 
and the pride of life; which are the heads of all sins. And 
the same tempter set upon our Saviour with the same stratagems. 

— VTTO Tov itafioKov] The word signifies a slanderer or false 
accuser, irapd ro iiafiaXXetp, and answers to the Hebrew word 
Satan. It is found in the Scripture only in the singular number, 
and signifies that evil spirit which tempted our first parents, 
and who is represented in the sacred writings as the head of 
the rebellious angels, and the adversary of all good men : 1 Thess. 
iii. 5 : 1 Pet. v. 8. 

2. vfitrrei^cts riixipa^ TetraapaKorra] During his abode in the 
wilderness, our Lord neither ate nor drank. It seems he was 
supported by a miracle ; for he found no inconveniency from 
so long and pnetematural a fast. He did not even feel the 
sensation of hunger till the forty days were expired. Luke iv. 2, 
Kol ovK €ffkiy€¥ oviiv ey Toi^ iffiipcus eKeipai^* Kat trvvreXea''' 
BetcHu aur£p, vtrrepov iTrtitfaae. 

— fifiepa^ T^trcapaKovTo] Moses, who was a type of Jesus, 
made himself remarkable by fasts of this kind; for at two 
different times he was forty days and forty nights with the 


Lord, and did neither eat bread nor drink water all the while, 
Deut. ix. 9, S5 : x. 10. In like manner Elijah, who was a 
type of Christ^s forerunner, went in the strength of the meat 
he had eaten forty days and forty nights unto Horeb, the mount 
of Grod; 1 Kings xix. 8. The number forty seems remarkaUe 
in the history of the Old Testament. So many days were the 
waters of the deluge increasing. Gen. Tii. 11 : so many the 
spies were in their journey. Numb. xiii. 26 : Goliath chalknged 
the Israelites, 1 Sam. xvii. 16 : time for repentance was giyen 
to the Ninerites: so are fulfilled the days of those who are 
embalmed. Gen. 1. 3 : Ezekiel bore the iniquities of Judaih in 
a vision, Ezek. iv. 6. 

— vcTt^jor] for "xpo^ itrrepov. 

3. Tore 7rpoGe\dwv\ We are not to understand that the 
devil then fii^9i assailed him. See nole above, (xefpocrftiMu). 

— o iretpaj^mv\ i. q. o irci/>a(rn}t: so 1 Thess. iii. 6. The 
Greeks also use in the same way the participle with the article 
for the substantive ; thus Heiodion i. p. 23, r^ tou jSao-cXci/ovrof 
yvvaiKu Herod. 1. 120, 121, ot yetva/^ewn. Aristoph. Plut. 798, 
oc OewfACPoi for ot 0«oraL Eurip. Alcest. 661, ij TeKcinra, Xen. 
Mem. III. 5, 19> ci e^ariSre^. Cic. de Divin. ii. 44, o ipi^mw 
finitor Circulus ; Dem. xi. Phil, ot Xeyovreg for ot fniropn. See 
also Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 342. 

— €1 vios d ToS Ofiov] From the absence of the article, this 
has been sometimes translated ^< a son of Grod.'" But Middleton, 
Gr. Art. p. 179, has shewn, that the presence or the absence 
of the .article does not determine the phrase to be used in a 
higher or lower sense : but that in this particular phrase there 
is a licence arising out of the nature of the word Oeos, and 
hence it will be dlowaUe to write either o vm toS OeoS, or 
i/ios Oeov indifferently : the farmer however is the more common. 

In the language of the Jews, the Son of God and Messiah 
were of the same import. See Chandler^s Defence of Christianity, 
p. 192. Ignatius, Hilary, and others suppose that Satan knew 
not yet the mystery of the incarnation. 

— elire] Command. See xx. 21: Luke iv. 3: x. 40. Eurip. 
Iph. Aul. 95, TcikOyfiioiP elvw tcclvt icptewai <rrparov. Ludan. 
Asin. 48. Vol. ii. p^ 616, koI «Iire jcar^eii/. Thucyd. vii. 29» 
eiirauTe^ a/ia iv t^ trapairX^ xeu tov9 7ro\6/bi<oi/s, el ri ^i/ywirrat, 
air avTwv /3Xo>//ai, Thus Dicere is used in Latin ; Sil. Ital. ix. 
474. I Dea et (Enotris velox allabere terris, Germanseque 
trticcs dk PaUaa mitiget iras. 

— ctprot] LoaTcs. ''Apros U5*ed indefinitely is properly 


tnuttlated bread; but when joined with th or any other word 
limiting the signification in the aing. numb., ought to be rendered 
loaf: in the plur. it ought ahnost always to be rendered loaves. 

The first of the three temptadons mentioned by the Evangelist 
was grafted on the keen saisation of hunger with which Jesus 
was pressed after his forty days^ fast. For as no such thing 
had happened either to Moses or Elias after their fasts, the 
deyil might think it argued weakness in Jesus, and cm that 
account might suspect him to be no more than an ordinary 
man. In this temptation, therefore, he solicits him to doubt 
the eyidence of his mission, and to distrust the Divine power ; 
sins which were the m<Hre heinous, as the voice at his baptism 
had been so uttered, that none, could justly doubt its being 
from heaven. 

4. yeypairroi] Deut. viii. 3. This answer was perfectly 
conformable to the principle on which our Lord acted through 
out the whole of his ministry : not one of his miracles being 
wrought for his own gratification. See Porteus, Lect. iv. Vol. i. 
p. 94. 

— #r' apT^] Thus Max. Tyr. Diss, xxvix. 6, /Scorei/cir eir 
olvqy, and xix. p. 193, ^f i; eirc rah 'Afivvrov dyaOolt, Koi ryf 
TlepSUKOU eHoifiopitf. Polyb. vi. 9, 8, itrOieiv rd oXXoT/via 
K€u To^ iXiriiai e^eir toS ^ijv iwl rois tcov ireXo9* Plut. de 
Cupid. Divit. p. 626, fiadovr^s ftfiie sir' aXK^ rcyc ^ijv ^ r^ 
voKKd KexTfjaBai. 

-^^jfovrox] With the force of present tense — ^is supported 
or nourished. From the Hebrew, where the fut. is frequently 
used for the pres. to express any thing usually or necessarily 
dcme or suffered. 

— avdpwwof] lu some MSS. the article is prefixed here» 
and in the majority of the MSS. in die parallel passage of St. 
Luke iv. 4. In the Septuagint the reading is o avOpwwos. 
This being an exclusive proposition, the article would regularly 
be omitted. See Middleton, Gr. Art. p. 182. 

— iiri iratrrl pij/uiri] The Evangelist has here followed the 
Septuagint: in the Hebrew, there is no word corresponding 
to mificm* It may be used in the sense of wpa7/va, as 6wo9 
and X070S are firequently in common Greek. So Luke i. 37 : 
ii. 16: Acts v. 32. For iwl some MSS. read iy. 

—iKiropevofAivtp &a aroMaros] i.e. whatever God appoints 
or commands. Lam. iii. 38 : Judg. xi. 36. Man is not sus- 
tained only by the food which he eats; but whatever God 
appoints for that end> however unlikely it be, sustains him. 


as was seen in the manna. It is the blessing of God that rendos 
our food the support of our life. SeeWisd. xvi. 26, ov^ oi 
y€v€(r€K Tc0ir Kapirwp Tpi^povtriP avOpmrov, oXXa to piifjia acS 
Tovi <roi iruTTtvoyrais iuirtipei. 

5.] In the former temptation, the devil had endtevoured to 
make our Lord distrust God'^s promise and providence, but 
in this he attempted to make him presume too much upon them. 

•— « 7ra/MxXa/u/3aiwi] Taketh him along with him. See i. 80, 
34: n. 14, 20: xvii. 1 : Luke iv. 6, 9. Thus iElian. V. H. xi. 
18, '/rapaXfi<p0€h viri U\dTi»vot eii to avii'troaiow. Isocr. Paneg* 
rat r£if cviLfid'^wp oXiyavi wapoXa/Sorre^. Lucian. 1. de Sacrif. 
Vol. I. p. 62(5, irap€\ii<p6vi irpo9 ri^v dutriav. Lam. iii. 2, 
irapiXafie /jlc koi ainiycr/4 /ue ei} ckoto^ koI oi ^kSr. 

Whether he transported him through the air or not, cannot 
be determined from this passage. And Tore may indicate either 
a long or a short interval ; here perhaps a short one. 

— ay lav iroXiv] This is frequently used to express Jerusalem, 
because it was honoured with the temple and worship of Grod ; 
and because anti^itly the Schecinah, or visible symbol of the 
Divine presence rested between the cherubims in the temple. 
Chrysost. on Ps. Ixxviii. says of it, ixelOep ti inryn t$9 iwrefieia^, 
xal T^s Oeoyvwcrla^ al pi^cu xal etc apycu. AiSaaKoXeiov ^p t^ yifi. 
And Jerome ad Hedib. qu. 8, Vocatur civUas sancia ad dis- 
tinctionem omnium civitatum, quae tunc idolis serviebant: in 
hac enim sola fuit Templum, et unius Dei cultus et vera religio. 
The inscription on their coinj the shekel, was *^ Jerusalem the 
Holy ;^ by which name and title the Turks distinguish it. See 
Isai. xlviii. 2: Iii. 1: Neh. xu 1: Dan. ix. 24: Matt, xxvii. 53: 
Luke iv. 9: and Josephus and Philo continually. In 1 Mace x. 
31, Demetrius in his letter to Jonathan says, 'lepauaoXtifi ^tw 
ayta Kal a^c/uei^, Kal to opia avrfj^. In like manner the 
heathen writers often called those cities kolyj in which any of 
their deities were supposed to hold their special residence. Thus 
Homer calls Troy lepop "iXiop^ and Tpoln^ \epop irroXlcdpop, 
Od. a. 2. And Aristophanes calls Athens lepap voXip, Pac. 1034. 
and 'iepwrdrrip XfipvLp^ Equ. 586. Thus also Pindar has *i£pas 
^tKvwpo9y Nem. 0. 127- So also Rome was called Urbs sacra, 
and Sacrosancta Civitas. Josephus says such towns were 
exempted from foreign garrisons, like Delphi. 

St. Matthew alone ascribes those titles of sanctity to Jerusalem, 
by which it had been distinguished by the prophets and sacred 
historians, and was known among the neighbouring nations. 
In the same way he testifies a higher vcn^ation for the temple, 


which had a peculiar sacrednesB till the Son of Qod came to 
tabernacle among men. The notion of this tacredness St. Mat* 
thew continues on to the death of Christ: whereas no other 
writer of the New Testament calls it the Temple of God in 
treating ei a time after the birth of our Lord. It has hence 
been inferred that St. Matthew wrote his Gospel several years 
before the others, and whilst the title and character were ac- 
knowledged which Jerusalem claimed by antient prescription. 

— laTiforip] See Schleusner. We must not suppose that 
the Devil took Jesus and disposed of him as he would. But 
only that our blessed Saviour who yielded^ to the temptation, 
was pleased to do what the Devil required of him. It is a 
common thing to say that a person does a thing, when he orders 
or causes it to be done. See xviii. 2. So Gren. xliii. 9, crrifo-w 
airroi^ it^cunriov aw» A few MSS. here read ^tTTtfcrtv. 

In Euseb. Eccl. Hist. ii. 23, we find the same words used 
by H^;e8ippus of James the Apostle, the Martyr, ifrrtiaav ovv 
oi irpoetpfifiivoi ypafifiareii Koi <bapuraioi top *ldicwlioy «iri to 
^rrepvyiow tov \€pod* 

— • irrepvyiow tov \epov\ Hesych irrepvyiopf aKpurr^ptoy> 
3chol. Aristoph. Av. 1110| tu^ twv Upwy CTiyan itT€pa koI 
derov^ KoXovo't. It is not well known what part of. the temple 
the Evangelist here means. The common opinion is, that it 
was the battlement of the outer court, where was the trTod /Jcuri- 
X<«ci7» to the east and south of the temjde, which according to Jose- 
phus was of such a height that no one could look down from the 
top of it without making himself giddy : Ant. xv.ll, 5, ei ti^ 
iir aicpou toS TavTti^ Tiyovt asufHa avvrid^ls Ta fid0i§ iunr" 
Toioi, axoTc^tPiqVf ovK i^iKoufiemi^ r^9 oyf/eoK m aiiirpiifrop top 
fiuOop. In Judea, the houses being fiat-roofed, the Jews were 
commMided by the law, Deut. xxii. 8, to make battlements 
round their roofs, lest pec^le walking on them might fall over. 
The roof of the temple was filled with golden spikes to prevent 
the birds settling upon it. It. may be observed that Upop in- 
eludes all the buildings joining the temple (rodv*) 

Krebs and Middleton (Gr. Art. p. 182) consider irrepvyiop 
as monadic: and the latter thinks it may have been the roof 
of the great Eastern Porch ; the spot fixed upon by Lighfoot. 
The height of this roof was 385 feet. 

6. yeypam-oi] Ps. xc. 11, 12. The Jews expected the 
Messiah to descend visibly hom Heaven in some such triumphant 
planner as is here proposed. 


-— vcpt aov^ after this St. Luke has rot; itaxpvkc^ai trcj which 
with €V Tnurati tcus oool^ erov is in the Psalm from which the 
quotation is made. 

— - Koi €iri x^'P^*'] ^y ii^serting xal in this text, which ren- 
ders it a kind of double quotation, it has b^n supposed that 
the Evangelist meant to apprize the reader that he had omitted 
some words : this being one of the marks by which distant texts 
are connected. 

— apwtri] Hesych. aipec jSacrra^ci. Xenophon uses a phrase 
resembling this, Ki/p« ^roiS. vii. 5, ev rai? ayKoXais irepixfiepeiV' 

-— trpo(rK6\f/fi9 TTfm >JiQo¥\ This is a proverbial expression 
in Greek aa well as in Hebrew, to express any danger or mis- 

7* i^oKiv] Also. Hoogeveen translates it ^yuAssim; the par- 
ticle here not being so much ivavriwiAariKvi as armrapo^rrijcif, 
Doct. Part. c. xlii. § 8. Some take it in the sense of eU ro 
kuavTtovj in oppasUion to the quotation which the Tempter had 
made. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 393. See Rom. xv. 10, 11 : 
1 Cor. iii. 20 : xii. 21 r 2 Cor. x. 7 ' Heb. i. 6. Some commen- 
tators prefer connecting iraXiv with the former words, iffn^ avr^ 
o 'ifffrcm ira\iv> yiypairTatt &c. This is the opinion of Eras- 
mus; Beza is properly opposed to it. 

-— eK7r€ipd<T€i/s] See Deut. vi. 16. The fut. with significa- 
tion of imper. as in ov <f>ovev(T€i^j ov pLOv^emei^^ &c. Kvptov 
TQV Qeov trov wpoaKvvtfa'et^, koi aurtv fiivw XaTpevaei^, v. 10. 
i. e. by requiring proofs of his veracity and power and pro- 
tection, after such as are sufficient have already been given: 
by demanding further evidence of what is already made suffi- 
ciently plain, as Christ^s relation to God is, by the miraculous 
and gloriojas testimony so lately given. Thou shalt not rush 
into unnecessary danger in order to tempt God, in order to try 
whether he will interpose to save thee in a miraculous manner ; 
much less ought this to be done, as now proposed for the pur- 
poses of vanity and ostentation. Compare Exod. xvii. 2, 3: 
Numb. xiv. 22 : Ps. Ixxvii. 18 : cv. 14. The word is used in a 
similar manner Gen. xxii. 1, when God commanded Abraham 
to oiFer up his son Isaac for a burnt-offering. He tried Abra^ 
ham, putting his faith and obedience to the proof. See Lim- 
borch, Theol. Christ, v. 22, 16. 

8. i/>/oyXoy Xlctv] From the silence of history we cannot de- 
termine what mountain is here meant, any more than what part 
of the temple he set him upon ; and it is as little material. The 


whole of Judea was opeiv^ But it seems not improbable that 
this mountain was beyond Jordan eastward, because the first 
appeaxiag of Christ after this among men was at Bethabara 
on that side, John i. 28. Now whether it were Pisgah, Nebo, 
Horeb, or what else, is but lost labour to make enquiry, as 
we are sure we cannot discover. This however is worth observa* 
tion, to compare together the being of Moses in the mount 
with God and the being of Christ in a mount with Satan: 
and the Lord^s shewing to Moses from a high mountain (Deut. 
xxxiv. 1, 3,) all the kingdoms of Canaan, and saying. All these 
will I give to the children of Israel ; and the Devil^s shewing 
to Christ all the kingdoms of the earth, and saying. All these 
will I give thee, fcc. 

— ieUanfa-tv] That this temptation was founded on a real 
not an imaginary vision of the (iacrikeiai tcv Kotrfum is evident 
from the DeviPs carrying up our Lord into an exceeding hi^ 
mountain to view them. This implies reality in the view from 
it: and it probably was very similar to the real view Moses 
had of the whole region of the Holy Land, including the east 
side of Jordan, from mount Nebo. Had it been either a deli- 
neation of the kingdoms in a map, or a visible representation 
of them in the air, or a vision of them in an extasy, or a 
sight of them in a dream, or a view of them by being carried 
round the globe in a moment of time, that is meant, it might 
have been done any where as well as on a high mountain. The 
whole is a plain recital of a matter of fact : miraculous indeed 
and attended with difficulties: but circumstantial and of some 
continuance: and no traces of any assertion in it, that it was 
only a vision. See Porteus, Lect. iv. who gives several con- 
siderations which afford strong ground for believing that the 
temptation of Christ was a real transaction, a personal contest 
between the great enemy and the Great Bedeemer of the human 

The Abbe Mariti, in his travels, speaking of Quarantaniar, 
says, *^ Here we enjoyed the most beautiful prospect imaginable. 
This part of the mountain overlooks the mountains of Arabia, 
the country of Gilead, the country of the Ammonites, the plains 
of Moab, the plain of Jericho, the river Jordan, and the whole 
extent of the Dead Sea.^ These various domains the tempter 
might shew to our Lord distinctly, and might also at the same 
time point out and direct our Lord^s eye towards several other 
i^ions that lay beyond them, which might comprehend all 
the principal kingdoms of the Eastern World. This expla* 


Dadon Bp. Porteus thinks an easy and a natural one. But if 
others think differently, it is sufficient to say, that this par- 
ticular incident is not more extraordinary than ahnost every 
other part of this very singular transaction ; throughout the 
whole of which the Devil appears to have been permitted to 
exercise a power far beyond what naturally belonged to him. 

The verb is here to be taken in its proper sense, as in 
Philo de Migr. Abrah. p. 394, MoKrel Si ofULouas wSurau exi- 
i^i^dfi^vov ^v ytp^f ^tftriw ari iSei^a Toi^ od^OoXfAocs aov^ 
Kam <WK eSo'fXevo'ti* . And 1 de Vit. Mos. p. 645, bk \ofpov iraw 
««pMMproit iireieiKwro fiifM^ ri r^ avnwaKov arparw,^. 
And p« 646^ ei9 aXKov roiroy aiftfye top /uamy, a^ ov Bei^a^ 
ftiftn Tft r^ ifipcuKti^ arparm^ xa'mfKurOai irapeicaXei. 

Palaiiet wishes to understand it in the sense of ^ucvwri r^ 
\ay^ Others take it in the common sense, and at the same 
time suppose the Devil gave a short and lively description of 
them from the addition of the words xal t^v io^aw avrwp. 

— - inuras ras /ScuriXeia? rod KOiXfwv] See note above. Koafios 
here as oucwfiivti in St. Luke has heea taken for o 'lov^io^ 
KOir^ofj . the land of promise ; for this in' its largest significa- 
tion reached from the Euphrates to the Mediterranean, and 
frmn Egypt on the south to beyond Sidon northwards. In 
Joshua^s time indeed that extent of country contained thirty 
distinct principalitiesj besides the Philistines and Sidonians. 
And in our Lord^s time it comprehended 'several kingdoms^ 
mentioned Luke iii. 1. Herod^s sons governed these with the 
titles of Tetrardis, but we find them also called /SeunXe^p, and 
the countries fiaatkeim. Lightfoot thinks Rome with her em- 
pire and state is meant. Ildaai renders the expression strong. 

— Tfiv ioj^ap ai;rc0K] Their great and opulent cities, rich 
fields and fertile vallies. Those who fuicy this to have been 
a representation in the air, 8ec. understand by ioj^a, their riches, 
pomp, splendor, and magnificence. 

9* eay] . See Hoogeveen Doct. Part. c. xvi. Sect. 9. § 3. 

— 7rpo(TKpp7i<rfi^] See ii. 2. Some have supposed that the 
Devil assumed the appearance of an angel of light, in, order 
to deceive Jesus. For agreeably to . the opinion of the Jews, 
Satan might imagine he would be taken for the guardian angdi 
of the promised land, who could easily raise him to the throne 
of all the kingdoms contained in it, the peculiar management 
of their affairs being committed to him. 

JHeliodorus uses the same phrase, • p. 164, and 463, irttrfiw, 
irpoaeKV»fiff€» Sub. els to yovarof or eiri nfir yifp^ 


10. Sraye'] After this word, ottiVoi fiov are inserted in several 
MSS. and versions and Fathers both Greek and Latin. 
' — — Sarava] This word which properly signifies an adver- 
sary, is a name commonly given to the Devil. Suidas 2arai/a9 
Kord Tifi/ ifipaiwy yXHa'cav 6 awixrTaTff^ Xeyerat, o ai/ros nat 

Jia/3oXo9, ctfv Tov Qeip trpoi roc)? apOpdirovi fTwcoffHxvrwv koi 
avroTs y€ roi9 apOpthroi^ eptv wpo% d\\fi\ov9 €/uij3aX<tfir Kai fidytiv. 
See ScUeusner. The name Satan as denoting *< an enemy ^ fre- 
quently occurs in the Old Testament. See 2 Sam. xix. 32: 

1 Kings V. 4, where the word for adversary is in the original 
Satan. Bp. Watson thinks it extremely probable that the root 
Satan was introduced into the Hebrew and other Eastern lan- 
guages, to denote an adversary, from its having been the proper 
name of the great enemy of mankind. The Evil Spirit in this 
temptation is called by the three names which unitedly charac- 
terise him as the destroyer of man, their enemy l£aLTava^^ their 
accuser o /^tafioXost and their tempter o wei/m^ttiv. 

— yiypairrcu] Deut. vi. 13, and x. 20. 

"-^/uiowp] Not in the Hebrew, but in the Septuagint. In 
explaining the same commandment art Oeo9 icrrw ehj Josephus 
has teal tcStov <refi€<r9at fiovoi/. See also 1 Sam. vii. 3. 

— XaTpevaet^l * In the Hebrew Thou shalt fear the Lord. 
Though this word in pure Greek, and sometimes in the Sq>- 
tuagint is not confined to divine worship, yet in general XaTp^la 
in the Septua^nt is applied to the worship of the Deity. The 
New Testament throughout adopts the same rule. Hence springs 
the distinction made as early as Augustin, between Xarptla and 
SouXelay not so much in the force of the words themselves, but 
chiefly from this peculiar usage of the Hellenist Jews, and after* 
wards of the Christians. 

11. ittiKovovv] Though this signifies to serve or wait upon 
in general, it also signifies to wait at table. Matt. viii. 15 : xxv. 
44 : Luke xvii. 8 : xxii. 27 : John xii. 2 : in which sense minis- 
trare is used, Hor. Sat. ii. 8, 69, ut omnes Prsecincti rect^ pueri 
comptique ministrent. Plant. Stich. v. 4, 7* Nosmet inter nos 
ministremus, monotrophe. Hoc convivium est pro opibus nostris 
commodule. Leisner supposes rpaW^ai^ to be understood, which 
is expressed in Acts vi. 2. Theoph. Char. xi. SiaKovovvre^ Tralie^. 
Philo de Vit. Cont. oieucovoStrrai ie oi;^ vir ayopairoowv. 

The temptations are supposed to have happened in the order 
in which they are here related, from the words used in this 
verse, which affirm the order of the history. And the temp- 
tation mentioned by him as last, happened in all probability 

94 ST. MATTH£W. 

last; otherwise in answering it, Jesus would not have ordered 
the Devil to depart^ nOT would the Evangelist in relating it 
have said, Then the Devil, &c. St. Luke therefore must be 
supposed to have neglected the order as immaterial. And this 
supposition may be admitted without weakening his authority, 
since he connects the temptations only by the particle ira<, which 
imports that Jesus was tempted so and so, withoiit marking 
the time or order. 

12. o l^oi;;] omitted by many MSS. visions, and Fathers. 
Mill says, Insititium est ob inchoatam novam lectionem. Wet* 
stein retains it. Between the temptation and the imprisonment 
of John the Baptist, there happened what is related in the three 
first chiqyters of St. John^s Gospel. 

— * wapeSoOri] Sub. ek ^vXouc^v^ which is added Acts viii. 
3 : xxii. 4. It is comm<Hily supposed that the ministry of John 
the Baptist lasted about eighteen months at most, and that he 
was put into prison a year after Christ''s baptism. 

13. €19 Ti}i; roXiXoiay] Not the Galilee of Herod ; but the coast 
of the Lake of Tiberias ; in die dominions of Philip the Tetrarch, 
who was of a milder disposition. Many of the Jewish traditions 
assert that Galilee was to be the place where the Messiah should 
first appear. See Mede, Discourse xxvi. p. 101. Lowth, Isait^ 
ix. 1, 3. 

— KaraXf^rw Ttju Hal^apir] where he dwelt till his baptism. 
See the cause of his departure mentioned Luke iv. 16—30. We 
do not read that he returned thither again. 

— KaTf^Kfitmu] whence Capernaum is called his iSia mXi?, 
ix. 1. 

*— ^ Kawe/twaov/x] Written in many MSS. versions and Fa- 
thers KaKpapvaauiJL* It is no where mentioned in the Old Testa^ 
ment, either by its own name, or by any other. Probably it was 
one of those towns which the Jews built after their return from 
Babylon. Its exact situation has not been determined ; but from 
its being on the ccxifines of the two tribes, it is supposed to have 
stood on the N. W. shore of the lake of Gennesareth. It was 
a populous town and much frequented by strangers. 

— • njy wapoBcLKaiTaiap] This word occurs but once in the 
New Testament, but we find it in several places of the Old 
Testament. Appian B. C. iii. p. 901, wpoiirefiirev avd fiipoi 
T^v TrafHiQdKwrtnay oSeiew €ir< aptfilvov* Thucyd. i. 6. jccu t£v 
jiapfiafHap oire e^ t9/ tpreiptp irapaJdciKatriTUH. The Jews were 
wont to give the name of sea to all collections of water, though 
fresh, and encompassed with land. Here is meant the lake of 


Genaesoreth, called ia the Old Testament the sea of Chinneroth, 
Numb, xxxiv. 11 : Josh. xii. 3. In later times called the sea 
of Galilee, because that country formed part of its shore; and 
the sea of Tiberias from the city of that name, Ipng on its 
S. W. shore, Matt. ir. 18: John vi. 1. The river Jordan runs 
through the middle of it. According to Josephus, B. J. iii. 18, 
its length was one hundred furlongs (or twelve miles and a half) 
and its breadth forty furlongs (five miles.) Pliny says it was 
sixteen miles long, and six broad. 

In the countries round this lake our Lord spent two or three 
years of his public l;fe; and though he afterwards enlarged 
the compass of his joumies, yet they always enjoyed a con- 
siderable share of his company and instruction. Seveml rea* 
sons might be assigned for his being so much about the sea of 
Galilee. The countries surrounding it were fertile and popu- 
lous, especially the two Galilees. On the east were Chorazin, 
Bethsaida, Gadara, and Hippon : on the west, Capemaiun, Tibe* 
rias, Tarichea, &c. And besides the numerous inhabitants, there 
was a constant influx of strangers to the trading towns. These 
countries also were remote from Jerusalem, the seat of the Scribes 
and Pharisees, who would not have borne the presence of a teacher 
held in such estimation as Jesus was : but hare he was sure of a 
favourable reception. And here dwelt those men who had be- 
ocHne his . disdjdes immediately after his baptism. 

14. 'Hmuov] ix. 1. See Mede mi this text. The Jews interpret 
this prophecy of the deliverance which their fathers obtained 
by the miraculous destruction of Sennacherib and his army. But 
firom the context it is evident, that the prophecy has a much 
grander meaning; fcv. it promises the universal restoration of 
the church and pec^le of £rod, whose darkness of death should 
be turned into the light of life. 

St. Matthew citing these words, that he might shew the 
projAecy to be fulfilled, of that light that should arise there, 
omits those words which speak of their former misery, i. e. the 
first clause of the verse, and produces those words only, and 
that very fitly too, which make to his purpose, and which aim 
directly thither by the Prophet^s intention. 

15. y^] Country, for inhabitants. 

— I Ne^oXeiM] Rathe;r Ne^oXei, as in the Hebrew it is 
always written. So Siloa for Siloam; unless custom perhaps 
has introduced this way of writing. 

-^- o8w 0dXaa<nti\ i. e. Kord riyv oiov or vapd njv oSoy* 


As in Xen. Kup* imij. ii. 4, 13, apui^a^ aiTov irpoeire/unre n^v 
iiri Tc2 <f>poipia oSov, See Ezek. xlvii. 2.^ 

The exprewdon is rather obscurey but it is used for any country 
that lies round a sea or lake. The Lake of G«nnesareth is here 
evidently, meant. And the words are copied from the Septua- 
gint version which (Middleton, 6r. Art. p. 184) appears to have 
omitted the article before Oakaaanii from considering o^p in 
the light of a prepc^tion. 

— ir€p€L¥ Tov 'lopoarov] Some take this in the sense of irapa 
TOP 'laf^uifPy or on the Jordan. Mede translates it by Jordan. 
Bp. Pearce, by the side of Jordan. Lightfoot says this is to 
be taken as an entire clause of itself, and Galilee of the Gren- 
tiles; so that he thus understands it^ The land of Zabulon 
and NepthaU which are by the way of the sea, or an the sea 
coasts, And also Persea, or the country which lies beyond Jordan; 
and likewise Galilee of the Gentiles or the Upper Gralilee, even 
the people of all these several places saw great light, &c. Wells 
understands the passage thus : As the Gt>spel should be preached 
chiefly within the lands of Zabulon and Nepthalim in general; 
so more particularly at the city or town whence was or should 
be the way by sea from> Galilee to the country lying beyond 
Jordan. Geog. New Testament, vol. ii. p. 174. 

It may be observed that in Num. xxxii. 19, the same word 
which the Septuagint render mpavy is used in the same sen« 
tence to signify on this side 'and -on the other side. And Zabu- 
lon and Nepthali were on the same side of the Jordan with 
Jerusalem and Judea where Isaiah exercised his prophetical 

FoXcXaia t£v i0y£v] Josephus tells us that Galilee was 

divided into t^v ovai and t^v jcotw. Here therefore must be 
understood Upper Galilee wherein several nations were settled. 
Upper Galilee was in the land of Nepthali, the Lower in Ze- 
bulon: and Capernaum probably situated in the confines of 
both. Grotius traces the name up to Gea. xiv. 1 : but most 
commentators refer it to 1 Kings ix. 11 — 13, supposing that 
Solomon^s giving a tract of land here to Hiram occasioned it 
to be filled with foreigners, as Phcenicians, Egyptians, and Ara- 
bians. Euseb. Svo eiai roXiXaiai, wv if fiev FoXiXoTa eftwy 
eiptfrat ev oploii Tvplww grapaKeifLivtiy evOa iSnMce SoXo/aoik t^ 
Xf/oa/i Ke. woXeis KKtipov iie(p6aKei/Ji. Aeurepa Si i<mv diiXfkl 
Tfiv Ttpepiaoa, Kat r^v vpo^ avrij Xifivtiy xXtipov 2/i^vXmv, 
KaifMzprqovf i ' •ic T T t tctiiiti €¥ Ttj FaXiXaco rwv eBuwVf kuI eariv 


iv r^ Fakikuuf. rUr eStmw Koi^Sf xXsifio^ N«^flaX«^. See 
Strabo yi. p. 523. 

16. icoAjyAciPOf] See Luke i. 79- To dt or to wvlk, in Senp- 
ture» when they aire used in a borrowed acnae, do indifferently 
signify to be or io eanHnue^ as Gen. xv. S^ I walk chiUUeM ; 
Lam. i. 1, The city aitteth aolitary. So here. The peqpk that 
have been and contmued in darknessy fcc. Hie Hebrew woi4 
which the Septuagint have rendered by Ka$4jM¥Of9 atgnifiea io 
walk. But the metaphors are of one kind, only that used by 
the Septuagint expresses the length alio and oonfirmatkm of 
the misery of the natkms of Oalflee, and for that reason waa 
preferred both by the Septuagint and by the Evangdist. Be* 
sides miiing beii^ the posture of nomners, it gives the reader 
a more perfect idea of tiie distress of the Heathen nations aria* 
ing from their ignorance of Qod and religion. Herod, j. 45, 
Croesus cwc iio irea €¥ vifSti /ucyoXfi KoBijaTay rci fraiiif 
itrrtptmiuaf* Dion. Hal. Tin. p. 503, iy ifvifii^ k<u ytifeU^ 
KoBtfTah ^aav fifUpav Kal viicra Ta9 tm iivpoiUm ifnrym. 
Thus seiere used in Latin ; Propert. i. 16, 11, Multos ilia dies 
incompds moesta capillis Sederaty injusto multa locuta salo« Virg^ 
^n. VI. 616, Sedetj aetemumque wdMt, Infelix Theseus. Mn* 
XI. 350, Totamque videmus Cansediaee urbem* Ovid. Trist. iv. 
2, 44, £t duds invicti sub pede moesta wdei. 

— €¥ tTKoret] In Scripture, darkness represents ignorance 
and misery : consequently (TKid 0amir<nf being the blackest dark- 
ness must signify the greatest ignorance and misery, the igno^ 
ranee of spiritual darkness in which the people of that regitm 
lived before they received the light of the Grospel. On the 
other hand light represents happiness and knowledge, especially 
the knowledge of divine things which is to the soul what light 
is to the body, John v. 35 : 1 John i. 7- Hence the Son of 
God who has dispelled the thick darknesa of sin and misery 
wherem the world was involved, is called by the Prophet Maiachi, 
the Sun of tighteouofusa; and his appearing on earth is called 
hy Isak^ the opringmg up of light, and the people among 
whom he lived, are said while sitting in darkness to have seen 
great light. 

— €j^ yfi^ Kol OTHiqt OopaTOp] for x^PV- ^^^^^^ 0avarou which 
are the woids of the Septuagint. See Middleton 6r. Art. 
p. 184 ; ' or ytiptf tncoretPfj Bamrou* Wetstein takes it for w 
?io». See Horn* Od. & 180, Qoparoio fiiXwf tmipos* Ovid. 
Met. v. m, Mortis umbras. See also Virg. Mn. vi. 26& 



' The heathen writers represented the arrival of some great 
public benefactor in a place, as a new light sprung up in the 
midst of darkness. Mech. Agam. 505, iJKet yap v/xiv <f>m i» 
evd>p6pfi <f>epwM Kal Toicro afraat koipov 'AyajuLe/ULVtov ava^. Pers. 
305, ifjLols fiev elirov ^w/olcutip <l>aoi pAya koi \evic6p fifxap vvkto^ 
€K iieXayxiMov, Lucian. Nigrin. iv. Vol. i. p. 42, I was glad 
wairep ck l^o^pov tivo^ dep09 tov filov tw Trpotrdev, ei9 aiOplav 
re Kol pAya <f>ik avapkeirwv. Virg. JEn, ii. 281, to Hector, 
O Lux DardaJiiae, spes O fidissima Gentis. Horn. II. ^. 6, ip£9 

erapouriv eOijKe, Schol. 0a>9« X^P^' ^^'^p'^^' 

— ai/ToI?] Pleonasm not uncommon in Hebrew ; it is con- 
stantly occurring in the Septuagint. So in Xen. Kvp. xacd. i. 
3, 15, ireipaaojuLai t^ irdirirtp dyaOwv Xirirewv KparuTTos wf 
vjTirev^ iTviJLfiayeiv avr^. 

17« ceiro Tore\ Scil. ypovov. From the time that Jesus 
settled at Capernaum. St. Matthew and St. Mark, who pass 
over what our Lord did in Judea and other parts in the interval 
between his temptation and John^s imprisonment, both open 
the history of his public ministry with the calling of St. Peter, 
which they relate in the same words. Jesus had already preached 
at Jerusalem and in Judea : John iv. 3. 

— ffp^aTo Ktipvafreiv] for eKtjpv^e^ viz. in Galilee. Thus also 
the Latins use ccepit and instituit, as Pheedr. i. 3, 10, redirecoepit 
for rediit. Ter. Andr. v. 1, 2, satis pericli ccDpi adire, for adii. 
Curt. III. 2, 10 : Flor. ii. 6. extr. : Justin, ii. 7» H- 

— ifyyiKc yap ri (iaaiXeia'] See iii. 2. The same doctrine 
John the Baptist had preached : but his ministry being now 
at an etid, Jesus adds weight to his forerunner^s exhortations 
by inculcating the same things. 

18. *lff(T0U9] Wanting in many MSS. and probably added 
as in V. 12, from this being the commencement of a lesson, and 
not likely to have been added, if the preceding verse had been 
read at the same time. 

-^ irapa nji' OaXaao'av] See vs. 13. 

— TOP Xeyo/mevov lUrpov^ See xvi. 18. Some have sup- 
posed this to have been added afterwards, to prevent any mistake 
from the name of Simon. It is not found in St. Mark. This 
was not the first time that Jesus saw and caUed them. 'We 
find from St. John^s Gt)8pel (i. 43, &c.) that Simoii and Andrew, 
who were formerly inhabitants of Bethsaida, but now of Caper- 
naum, had been called to the knowledge of Christ on the bfmks 
of the Jordan ; — ^upon the testimony of John the Baptist acknow- 


ledged Jesus for the Messiah;— and probably for some time 
accompanied him, perhaps to Cana and Jerusalem, being dismissed 
by him when he retired from Judea on J(^^s imprisonment, 
and returning then to their usual occupations. For some space 
of time Jesus then, it is supposed, remained prudently without 
attendance, unless we suppose Philip to have remained, whom 
he called at first in a formal manner, though he did not the 
rest. He was reoeiyed m the synagogues, was rejected at Nazii- 
xeth and removed to Capernaum: when the time being fully 
(3ome, he began openly to manifest himself and preach that the 
kingdom of heaven was at hand, and to call again to him his 
disciples; their first call having been only temporary, bringing 
them to a personal knowledge of Christ; the second to a per- 
sonal attendance upon him. 

It is questioned among the antients whether or no St. Peter 
was elder than his brother. Epiphanius gives the seniority to 
St. Andrew, and herein is foUowed by most of the writers of 
the Church of Borne. But Chrysostom, Jerome, and many 
others adjudge it to St. Peter, and for that reason say he was 
President of the CoUege of Apostles. After our Saviour^s death, 
his first mission was to those Clirisfians Philip the Deacon had 
converted in Samaria. See Acts viii. 14, 15, 17* 18* He after- 
wards employed himself at Antioeh in making converts, and was 
the first Bishop of that place according to the sense of antiquity. 
He afterwards preached the Grospel to the Jei^s dispersed in 
Pontus, Oalatia, Cappadoda and Asia. Towards the latter 
end ci his life he went to Rome, about the second year of the 
Emperor Claudius, where he laboured in establishing Christianity, 
chiefiy among the Jews, being the Apostle of the circumcision, 
Enseb. Ecd. Hist. iii. 1. He suffered martyrdom about a. d. 
69, under Nero ; and probably in that persecution of the Christ- 
ians when the Emj>eror buriied Rome, and charged them with 
the guilt and punishment of it. He is said to have been 
crucified with his head downwards. He wrote two Epistles 
which make part of the Sacred Canon. 

— 'ApSpiav\ This is a Greek name. From the time that 
Alexander's successors had dominion over Judea, many Greek 
namte and words crept into use there. From John i. 35, 40, 
it appears that Andrew was one of the two disciples of John, 
to whom he said He o ofivo^ rod OeoS, speaking of Jesus. After 
our Saviour^s ascension, it is generally asserted by the antients 
(Socrat. Hist. Ecd. i. 119) that the Apostles agreed among 
themselves, by. lot some say, probably not without the special 



guidance and direction of the Holy Ghost what parts of the' 
world they should severally take; and that in this division 
St. Andrew had Scythia and the neighbouring countries allotted 
him as his province, Euseb. iii. 1. After he had planted the 
Gospel in several places, and by his indefatigable labours had 
converted many to the faith, he confirmed the truths he had 
taught ; having been crucified by ^geas the Proconsul of 
Achaia; and that his death might be more lingering, he was 
fastened to the cross not with nails but with cords. On this he 
hung two days, teaching and instructing the people all the time. 

— aiuL(pipKfi<TTpov] This Schleusner thinks is properly an ad- 
jective, agreeing with Slicrvoy understood. Hesych. and Etym. M. 
explain it by ibrrvop in which sense it seems used in the 
Septuagint. So Menand. Frag. afi(fHp\ii(rrp^ ^epi/SaXXer-ai* 
Herod, i. 141, Xafielv a/u^fjSXfTorpoi'^ xai weptfiaXeiP re vXijOoi 
iroXXov Toiy ijfOvwv xal i^etpvtrat. li. 95, 7ra9 €anip avriww 
afAfpipKfiaTpov cmTTOi, Ty t^j fiiv fifiepti^ ^X^^ aypevet, rijv 
ii yvKTa ovT^ ypaTcu^ iv r^ avairaveTai icotny, which a little 
afterwards he calls by the name ilicrvov. 

19. ^vre] Phavor. iwipfnifia "frapcuieKevarfiartKOPj amrt tov 
ayere* See Schleusner. Hom. II. ^. 450, ^vre cvm iuh iirecr- 
0OP. Hesiod. epy, i. 2, i&rre Af ipvitrere a^repov warc/D* 
ifAwetowTcu. Here the passage signifies^ Be my disciples ; accord- 
ing to the custom of the Jews, the disciples following their 
masters wherever they went. See Luke ix. 23 : xiv. 27* 

— — aXteif ] Thomas M. ipfupfeasj icpea^, icai oaa Totavra 
*Attuu}1 — TO o€ <nfpripfifA€vaK tovto Xeyew ouk eanw CKelvww, 
Yet Josephus, Diod. Sic, Polybius, &c. have the contractions 
€pfitiv€i^, fiaaiXeli, &c. Solon in Stob. Serm. xciii. elra o\ 
§k€v aXict9 virofiivowrg paivetrOai Ttj OaXcujowi fro icmjitov Otipi' 
cwaiw, eym oe fifi wfwrywfiai^ uwi avOptairov oXicvtrw. 

-— oXicTf avOptiirwv] Ye shall gain and coavert men from 
sin and misery to righteousness and happiness, by gaining them 
to the faith, or bringing them within the net of the Gospel. 
See Jer. xvi. 16 1 Ezek. xlvii. 10. Before aXteh a few MSS. 
read yevitrOm. 

20. oi ^] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 134. 

-^ tJL SiKTva] T^heir nets. A few MSS. with the Syriac 
version have avriSy. See iii. 12. Several omit evOimsm 

^~ ifvoXovdiffftir] See Schleusner. Accompanied him as dis- 
ciples: see above. 

21. *Iacw/3ar rov toS Ze^^ofov] Scil. vtoar. This was James 
the Elder, the brother of John the Evangelist, both of them 


terns of Zebedee and Salome, tt was this James that was put 
to death by Herod, Acts xii. 2. He was called o rod ZtfieSaioif 
to distinguish him from James the Less, the son of Alpheus. 

— 'Iwivyfiv] St. John is thought by the antients to be far the 
youngest of all the Apostles, being imder thirty years old when 
he was first called to that dignity. And his great age seems to 
prove as much; for dying about an hundred years old in the 
third of Trajan, he must have lived above seventy years after 
our Saviour^s suffering. He was not only one of the three dis- 
ciples which our Saviour admitted to the more private passages 
of his life, but was the disciple whom Jesus loved, John xiii. 
23. The province that fell to his share was Asia, though it 
is probable he continued in Judea till after the Virgin^s death, 
which is reckoned to have happened about fifteen years after 
our Lford'^s ascension, otherwise we must have hesfd of him 
in the account St. Luke gives of St Paulas joumies in those 
parts. He founded the churches of Smyrna, Pergamus, Thya^ 
tira, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea; but his chief place €i 
residence was Ephesus, where St. Paul had many years before 
settled a church. Neither is it thought he confined his ministry 
merely to Asia Minor; but that he preached in othei^ parts of 
the East, probably in Parthia. He wrote the Grospel which 
bears his name, three Epistles, and the Book of Revelations. 
See Note c. x. 2. 

— et^ JT^ TrXof^] See xiii. 2. 

— -* KaTaprO^ioifTai'l Polyb. i. 29, 1, vav9 Karaprlcravr^s opif- 
yoirrO' And v. 101, 2, Karafrriaa^ iwisKa vavf. 

22. dipivre^ to irXoiov] Epictet. Enchir. xii. coy is 6 Kvfiep*- 
mfTTfi Kutkecrri, Tpe^e iwi to TrXoioVf a^Iv iiceiva marra, fitfisv 

23. irspifrf9v\ Sub. eavTov. So ayetv used xxvi. 46: and 
Mark i. 38. 

— 0X17V Tffv TakCKoLiav] Joseph, in Vit. says iiOKoaiai Kal 
Teaaape^ Kara 17)1/ FaXiXaiav elai iroXeK xai kS/acu. Into the 
most eminent and most convenient for his work Jesus entered 
and preached. This is his second perambulation of Galilee, 
fuller than the first, Luke iv. 16. Then he had walked more 
alone, and without the company of his disciples ; but they are 
now constantly with him. Then he did few or no miracles, 
but only preached, but now he does many and heals all -the 
diseased that come unto him. 

— iv *rcu^ oi/iwcyc^ai^] In its original meaning, signifies 
both civil and ecdesiastical assemblies, and also the places 


wherem tlicMe MiemUies were held. Aknost all over the Keir 
Testament it k takeo tar the jdaoes or buiUmgs where the 
Jews met to pray* and to hear the interpretation of the law 
and the prof^iets. From Acts xv. 31, it is evident that £ar a 
long time there had been sjmagogues in every dty, and that 
the Jews were used to meet therein every Sahbath day. Authors 
are not agreed about the time when the Jews began to have 
synagogues. Some infer from Levit. xxiii. 3, 4: Dent. xxxi. 
11, 12: Ps. Ixxiii. 4, 8 : that they are as antient as the cere- 
monial law. Others fix their beginning to the times after the 
Babylonish captivity. The most famous synagogue the Jews 
ever had, was the great ^rnagogue of Alexandria. For the 
government and service of the synagogue see Beausobre's Intio- 
ducticm : Prideaux^s Connection, i. 6. 

The Christians themselves often gave the name of synagogues 
to their assemblies, as also to the places where they assembled, 
as is evident from St. James ii. 2 ; from passages in the EjMStles 
of Ignatius ad Polyc. — ad Trail.; and from the writings of 
Clem. Alex. 

— avTiiv} Referring to Tcikikamr implied in TdKiKcuav. Thus 
JBsch. Socrat. Ji. 1, awo SuceXta? . . . iroripov ircpl avriSir ecciMw. 
So Nepos Alcib. xi. 3, Postquam inde expulsus Thebas ven^at, 
adeo studiis eorfim inservisse. See ix. 35: xi. 1 : Luke iv. 15. 

— SiSaa-Kajv] joined with Kfipoacwvj 1 Tim. ii. 7 • 2 Tim. i. 11. 
After reading the law and the prophets, the heads of the 

S3magogue desired such learned and grave persons as happened 
to be there, to make a discourse to the people ; and by virtue 
of this custom it was that Jesus Christ and St. Paul (Acts xiii. 15: 
xiv. 1) were allowed to preach in the synagogues. Thore were 
two things especially that gave Jesus Christ admission to preach 
in every synagogue, viz. the fame of his miracles, and that he 
gave out himself as the head of a religious sect. For however 
the religion of Christ and his disciples was both scorned and 
hated by the Scribes and Pharisees, yet they accounted them 
among die religious in the same sense as they did the Sadducees, 
i. e. distinguished from the common people or seculars, who took 
little care of religion. He therefore easily obtained among the 
governors of the synagogue a liberty of preaching. See Jen- 
ning^s Jewish Antiquities, Vol. ii. p. 54. 

-— itatrav] of every kind ; as Acts ii. 5, irav iBvoi. 

-— ^aXaictay] Hesych. /uaXoicia* i/ocroj.— '/ttnXaici^eoAM' or- 
BevSk &ojc€i<r0at, vaariKeieoQai. Eustath. in Od. 0. 305, 30, ei 
KQi Kar SKKov \oyov fxaXoKm^ ej^eiv X^^yercET Knl o vogbiv ivap^a- 


Mcyov- The Septuagint translate the isame word by /uaXcucio, 
Deut. vii. 16 : Isai. xxxviii. 9^ and by voaas Deut. xxviii. 69. 
And Dan. viii. S?} e/uiXoicurdifr, which afterwards is kqI ovx 
vir€X€i(p0fi iy ifkol uryy^, x. 8* Theophrastus, Char. xiii. uses 
the term yxCKaKi^ofxevov, and soon after kclkm^ i-^fovra* .£lian. 
V. H. III. 19) makes >uaXa«ci^€a0at and voaelv synonymous. 

24. fi axofi] Hesych. oxoi}* ^Vl^tl- Suidas aKoti' ktTTl kcu 
fj <f>iitifi* Matt. xiv. 1, ifKouaev 'Hptiiffi ti;f aKOtiv 'lycrov, 
Caesar B.G. vii. 42, Ut levem auditionem habent pro re compertiL 
Com. Nep. Annib. ix. Exisse famam. 

— — ai/ToS] for irepi airoVf as Luke iv. 375 fixw irepi avrov, 
Joseph. Ant. viii. 6, 6, t£» awv ayaOwv ri t^rififi. 

— oKi/lv Tijv 'Stupiav] bordering upon Galilee. The places 
mentioned in ver. 25 were in Palestine ; and in Mark i. 28, 
that his fame had spread over oXffy tjJi; ^ir^pl-jftopov Ttjs TaXiXaia^; 
hence Syria may be put for the country adjacent to GalileCr 
Bowyer inserts this in a parenthesis, as being not part of what 
goes before or follows after. 

-^^irairrw'] i.e. great numbers. Similarly, see Mark i. 37; 
Luke iii. 21: John iv. 29: xiv. 26: 1 Cor. ix. 22: Phil. ii. 21. 
— — jcoicwy fxovTa^^ Sub. cai/roi/y. Mark v. 23, eajfaTw^ ^X^'* 
-—^ (iourdvoi^^ Suid. to ficuravi^eiv ov to aiKi^etrOai xai tijulw 
peiaOai Kai fiatrriyovp orifudvei trapd Toli Attucoi^, oXXa to 
^oipis'. vXfiywv avcucpitf€w xal €Xeyj(€iv t aXijdes oid Xo'yoiy. 
£tym. ^txavQ^-^iro rij^ ^aavov t^9 yiip^^oypiKti^ XiOou, iv ti 
coKifia^6T€U 6 j^vao^, xap t€ ofipvl^as kcLv t6 KifiofiXai ij. The 
word is here used to signify those diseases of the body which 
are attended with severe pain. Some have taken voaoi^ ical fiacar 
votis as an ev hia S^uoiv. In a few MSS. ^advot^ is wanting. 

— oiii/6^o/ufivoi«] Arrian £xp« Alex. vi. 24, ilyffci diravarti^ 
auy€')(pii€¥Oim Plato Gorg. p. 327$ ei fikv rcr ntydXoi^ koI avtdroit 
voaiifAOicn icara to am/uLa auvejfOfMvo^* Luke iv. 38, <rvv€\oiieinf 
irvp€T^l Acts xxviii.^ 8, irvpeToi^ kqa ovaepTepiq. cvpeyifievop 
KaT€uc€i(T0cu. Hesych. avpejfOfiepop. epaPTioufiepop, appuxTTodpTa* 
*— £ac/Lioyf^o/i«i^i/$J Here mentioned as distinct and separate 
persons from those that were taken with divers diseases and 
torments: and the same distinction is made in several other 
passages of Holy Writ. There can be no doubt that the 
demoniacs were persons really possessed with evil spirits; and 
against the authority of those writers of every sect who would 
believe .that origin of the Scriptures which appears to them 
rational, we may place the uniform interpretation of the passage 
in its literal sense by 'the anticnt church, the best commentators, 

104 ST. M ATTBEW. 

and all who are generally called orthodox, as deairoiis to beliere 
the litteral interpretation of Scripture, and the opinions of the 
early ages, in all points of doctrine, whether it can be brought 
to a level with their reason or not. See Porteus, Lect. x. Vol. i. 
p. 262. Warburton's Works, Vol. vi. p. 329 . . . 336. 

— aeKtivta^ojuievovK^ From the symptoms of this disease as 
mentioned xvii. 16: Luke ix. 39: Mark ix. 1% it seema to have 
differed but little from the falling sickness. This word only 
occurs in the two passages in St. Matthew. 

— irapa\uTiKovi'\ Celsus iii. 27, Resolutio nervorum interdum 
tota corpora, interdum partes infestat. Veteres auctores illud 
avoirXti^iavg hoc wapaXvaiv nominarunt, nunc utrumque irctpd' 
\v<riy nominari video. Aretseus de Morb. Chron. i. 7$ cnrowXfy^ioy 
mpeat^, wapaXvat^, airavra ry yevei Tavrd* 

1 Mace. ix. 66, irapekvOti, ical ouk iivvaro in XclK^ccu Xoyov, 
and 66, he died juera fiaeravov iroXX^. 

26. o-jfXoi] Etym. M. 0^X09* o avvecTpofifievo^ Xaoi. 

— AeicaTToXecus] A country of Palestine, in the half trib^ 
of Manasseh, so called from its containing ten cities, about 
the names of which the learned are not agreed. It bordered 
upon Syria, and extended on the east side of Jordan and the 
lake Tiberias, with the exception of Scythopolis* But see 
Cellarius, Vol. 11. p. 642. Euseb* AeirairoXcf iv euayyeXioK* 
avTfi earrlv ti eirl TIepaiqL Keifxivvi afK^i tov ^linrov koi Il^XXay 
jcoi Tacapav. Plin. v. 18, Jungitur ei ( Judeas) latere , Syrise 
Decapolitana regio, a numero oppidorum, in quo non omnes 
eadem observant: plurimi tamen Damascum ex epoto riguis 
amne Chrysorrhoa fertilem, Philadelphiam, Raphanam, omnia 
in Arabiam recedentia,: Scythopolim — ^Gadara Hieromiace pne- 
fluente, et jam dictum Hippon, Dion, Pellam aquis divitem, 
Galasam, Canatham. Intercursant dnguntque has urbes Te- 
trarchise, regionum instar singulse, et in regna oontribuuntur, 
Trachonitis, Paneas, in qui Csesarea, Abila, Area, Ampdoessa, 

We find other tracts of country taking a name from the 
number of cities contained in them: as Herod. 1. 144, Oi ix rij^ 
TlevrvtiroKuK vvp ywpri^ Awpiee^, irporepov Si *£^a7roXf09 r^f 
avT^^ rai;n^ icoXeoAiei^. 

-^wepay tov 'lopcdvou^ i. e. Peraea, arro toJi^ irdXecoi' twit 
inpav TOV *\op&avov Kei/xivwv* Josephus has 1; iirep *lop&ainpf 
Tlepaia, The country beyond Jordan contained the two tribes 
of Reuben and Gad, 


Chap. V. 

!• iowv C€ roi/9 oj(Kov9] who had come partly axavcrat avTov 
and partly iaOfjvai dvo twv voawp aurAv, Though the discipled 
may be concerned in some few verses of this chapter, yet from 
the words, vii. 28, 29, at the close of the sermon, it is certain 
that the multitude not only heard, but were taught the things 
contained in this sermon, according to those words of Chrysostom, 
fifi X0T9 /xaOfiTai^ fiovov aurov vofiil^e italXeyetrOcu, dXXd kqI Si 
ercfi/ttiir airacTiv. J. Blair in his sermons on this chapter says, 
that in order to enter into the beauty of this discourse, it is 
necessary to consider it as addressed not merely to the Apostles 
(who are not yet chosen under that character) but to his disciples 
in general, and to vast numbers of people who, affected with 
the sight or fame of his miracles, were now assembled around 
him; probably expecting that he would immediately declare 
himself the Messiah, and full of those false notions of his 
kingdom which so generally prevailed. 

— eU TO opoi^ Wolf says ubi erat 1} (rvvaymytj rwv'IovSalwp, 
It has been common among expositors to suppose to here used 
for Ti, as in Diog. Laert. vi. 5, trapcuccAmv irepl rod (for tivos) 
TviLvcuriapr^ffov. Diod. Sic. i. Toirrfv ie iiro tov ifiirore (f^Oa* 
pelaave yKvov yeveaOm, And they have fixed upon Mount 
Tabor. But it does not appear in what part of Galilee thia 
mountain was placed; and there seems no reason to suppose 
it to have been in the neighbourhood of Capernaum. Maundrell 
(Travels, p. 116) says, that what is now called the Mount of 
Beatitudes is a little to the north of Mount Tabor: and if 
this be its situation, it must be at some considerable distance 
from Capernaum. 

Middleton (Gr. Art. p. 185) contends, that the article here 
admits of a very certain explanation. Judaei in Talmude (Rel. 
Pal. Vol. I. p. 306) terram suam in tria dividunt, respectu 
montiwnj vallium et camporum. To opos will signify the 
mountain district, as distinguished from the other two. The 
Seventy have so employed the term: thus in the destruction 
of Sodom and Gromorrha, cities of the plain, Gen. xix. 179 the 
angels tell Lot 619 to 000^ xrd^ovy where no mountain has been 
mentioned, and none in particular can be meant. And that 
the Seventy intended to express <^ the mountain district,"*^ 
may be inferred from Josh. ii. 23, ^, where it is said of the 
spies whom Rahab protected, ^Oov ei? Tijif opeivfjVi and of the 
«ame persons in the next verse, that aft^r staying till the danger 


was over, Karcfitiaav ex rod opovi. He infers, therefore, that 
the article is not without meaning ; that Mount Tabor was not 
the scene of Christ^s first preaching, but that the sermon was 
delivered farther to the north. 

— KaOiaavroi ai/Tot/J Here for KaOiaavri avT^\ though this 
construction is not uncommon. Thus Herod, i. 3, rov^ ^, 
vpoicrxofieiuov Tixdraf vpo<l>€p€iy afpu And v. 95, ap^aifros Si 
rovTou ewl TpioKovra erca Kai oiair\eva'avTo£ tov fiiou ev, Oiaoo^or 
oi Tfjs TupavviSos 6 irai^ Tlepiap^poi ylv^rcuy for ap^avrt and 
SiairXevaavTu Foljaen. vi. p. 546, vaiciov yepvtjOevroi, avT^ 
fAcXKwv ovofxa riQeaOtu* Thomas M. KodtQin iyto koi icadi^o/uu, 
Kal KoBi^o} €T€pov' TO Sc Ka0il^<t> ou fiovow avrl tov eT€po¥ wow 
KaOi^eip, dWd xai ifiavTov. 

— KoBiaavTog] As the Jewish doctors did when they taught 
Maimonides thus describes the form in which the Master and 
his disciples sat. The master sits at the head or in the chief 
place, and the disciples before him in a circuit, like a crown: 
so that they all see the master and hear his words. The master 
may not sit upon a seat, and the scholars upon the ground; 
but either all upon the earth, or upon seats. Indeed from the 
beginning, or formerly, the master used to sit and the disciples 
to stand; but before the destruction of the second temple all 
used to teach their disciples sitting. 

— M«^>?T«J] Not only the twelve Apostles, but all those 
in general that followed Jesus, and attended on his doctrine. 
Luke vi. 13, 17: John vi. 66, 67. 

2. opoi^as TO aTo/iia] A phrase used by the Jewish writers, 
when they introduce a person speaking gravely on any subject 
of great importance, Job iii. 1: xxxiii. 2: Ps. Ixxvii. 2: Acts 
viii. 35: x. 34. Thus also iEsch. From. Vinct. 682, airX^ Xoyt^ 
wairep ciKatov irpoi ^cXoi/s o1y€i,v fTTo/iia. Sophocles has oTo/ia 
€k\v€iv, — Socrates Xveiv to aTo^a. Aristoph. Aves 1724, dXXd 
j(pij deaf Mot/o'iTf avoiyetv Upov €u(f>fi/iiov aTOfia. Lucian. 
Philopseud. 3. Vol. iii. p. 60, dyoi^as to (rrofAa ev cweati/ eirra. 
Virg. ^n. II. 246, Tunc etiam fatis aperit Cassandra futuris 
Or a Dei jussu. The origin of this expression has been explained 
from the prophets being as it were dumb, and having their 
mouths closed, till the Divine Afflatus came upon them. See 
Ezek. ii. 12. J. Blair says this is a common phrase for a deli* 
berate breaking of silence and offering to make a speech. 

-^e^ija^ei/] He explained to them the great doctrines of 
religioq and morality. Throughout the whole of this sermon 
our Lord not only displays the sacred doctrines of faith, morals^ 


duty, and etenud life ; but he shows also that he was thoroughly 
acquainted with all the learning, doctrines, customs, traditions, 
and opinions of those times; and to these he has a reference 
in almost every line; and every verse contains a refutation of 
some of the prevailing errors in doctrine or practice ; the over- 
thiow of the false glosses and rabbinical corruptions which 
had perverted the spirit of the Divine law. And as Michaelb 
observes, Part 1, c. iv. § 5, the sermon on the Mount, the 
conversation of Christ with Nicodemus, and the Epistle to 
the Bomans, are very imperfectly understood by those who are 
unacquainti^ with die rabbinical language and doctrines. See 
Bp. Blomfield^s Sermon on ^^ Reference to Jewish tradition neces- 
sary to an interpreter of the New Testament.^ It is evident 
that our Lord meant at the outset of his public instructions, 
to mark at once in the strongest and most decided terms the 
peculiar temper, spirit and character of his religion; and to 
shew to his disciples how completely opposite they were to 
all those splendid and popular qualities which were the great 
objects of admiration and applause to the heathen world, and 
are still too much so to the Christian world. Hence Linacer 
on reading this sermon exclaimed, Aut hoc non est verum 
Evangelium, aut nos non sumus veri Christian!. 

3. /uara/Moi, &c.] The several blessings here pronounced 
appear to have some opposition to the vices to which the Jews 
were addicted. They were proud, attached to wealth and its 
distinctions ; unmerciful towards other nations ; devoted to super- 
stitious abluticms, but not pure in heart ; not peace-makers, but 
atubbom and seditious, especially the Pharisees ; and they 
esteemed worldly persecution the most wretched state. 

— T^ Trvwvfurri] In some MSS. t^ is wanting. But Bp. 
Middleton observes, the article should be retained, if to irvevfia 
here means the sentient and thinking principle in man. So 
Acts xviii. 25, ^imv r^ wi^ev/uiXTi,— —and in ver. 8, KtiBapol rti 
KapSuji, in their heart. 

'—'iTTwyol Tfp TTvevfioTi] Thosc who have Trvev/na irrwy(ov^ 
the men of a true, humble, lowly spirit. This is the usual 
expressi<m by which the Scriptures and the Jewish writers still 
represent the humble man^ So Prov. xvi. 19: xxix. 23: Isai. 
Ivii. 15: Ixvi. 2: Ps. xxxiii. 18. It seems to be of the same 
import with rairsivolf, James iv. 6. 

In several places Eusebius interprets this of worldly poverty: 
and so Faustus the Manichsean understood it. Clem. Alex. Strom. 
I?, p. 484, iiaKaptm, hi oi irrw\ot, eire trvevfiari eire weptowricr, 


Sid Sucauxnivfiv iviKovorri* funj Tt ov¥ oi)^ dir\m tov9 TCev^rai^ 
dXXd Toi/9 eOeXiitravTa^ iid SiKatpo'uvtiv wrar^oik yeveoBaif 
TovTovi puucapil^et, tovs KaTatJLtytiKoff>povfS(Tuvra% twv €irrcu)0a 
Ti/uLwv eh wepiwoificriv t ayaOov, Some among the modems also 
have joined irvev/nari with fxaKo.piOh ^ut amongst the /MucapitTfAoi 
which are to be found in the Old and New Testament, and 
the writings of the Jews and Rabbins, there does not seem to 
be any such junction either with the corresponding Hebrew or 
Chaldee words, or the Greek fiampio^ or ficucapioi* And in 
the blessing, ver. 8, no one would join juLaxapioi with t^ jca/sJi^* 
The translation <^ homines ingenio et eruditione parum florentes^ 
«eems scarcely to deserve notice. 

Greg. Nyss. Or. 1. de Beat. p. 766, says vrayxeiay irvev/uLon^ 
elvcu Ttjv €Kovaiov Taweiptxppoavvtiv, Basil. M. in Isai. xiv. 
Tom. I. p. 1100, TTTWj^ol T^ irvevfiari ot/jf oi Ta jfpiffiara 
61^6619, oXX* Oi Tij oia¥olt^ fikoTTwixivoi. Chrysost. Hom. xv. in 
Matth. p. 93, irroi^oi r^ irvevMciTc oi Taireivoi koi cvirreTpififUvci 
T^ iiavoiav. irveviia yap evravOa t^v ^^^v Kal njv irpoaipeav 
dlpriKev, And Theophylact says that 'Christ here ti}v tow^ifo- 
tppoavvtiv irpoKaTQfiaKKe<r9<u toavep OefxeXiov. 

— ai/TO)!' etrnv ri fia<ri\€ia\ See a similar expression, xix. 14. 
Because their humility rendering them teachable, submissive, 
contented and obedient, prepares them to enter into Christ^s 
kingdom, and makes them living members of his body; and 
seeing they who are thus holy shall be also haj^y, they must 
be also meet to enter into the kingdom of glory hereafter. 

4. o\ 7r£^ovvr&i\ Under a penitent sense of their sins; filled 
with that godly sorrow which works repentance not to be repented 
of, or not reversed by our return again to the like sins, 2 Cor. vii. 
10. These must be blessed in the pardon of their sins. Bom. iv. 
6, 7) 8. It is proper to restrain the words within these limits, 
since there is a sorrow which ends in death, 2 Cor. vii. 10. 
Probably there may be a reference here to Isai. Ivii. 18 ; which 
James iv. 9, seems to have had in view. 

Thomas M. irevOeiv €9rt rod XuTreitrOat Kal fieKaveifjuorelpy 
Optfvelp ie €fr< tov KXaieiv. 

-^ napaxXijOiiaovTai^ With the assured hope of future 
happiness ; this true repentence being styled fxeravoiav eif 
awTvfpiaPy 2 Cor. vii. 10 : and fierapotav eh ^<otp^f Acts xi. 
18 : HXde yap 6 vio9 tov apOpwirov <r£aai to avoXwXo^, Matt, 
xviii. 11. 

In many MSS. and quotations in the fathers, the fifth verse 
precedes the fourth; which may have happened by accident 


from the number begimung with fiaxapuKi or designedly that 
Tfiv yvfv might follow tcSv oipawHv^ ver. 3, as the Antithesis 
seems to require between the poor in spirit, whose is the kingdom 
of heaven, and the meek who shall inherit the earth. 

5. 7pa«7(] The men of such a happy frame of spirit as 
renders them averse from wrath, even when they are provoked 
to it by the injuries they have received from others, and from 
retaliation or recompensing evil for evil; but on the contrary 
are inclined rather to remit something of their right and over- 
come evil with good ; and by the sweetness, friendliness and 
affability of their conversation, to reconcile and win their brother 
to a kind affection to them : a temper conspicuously recommended 
in Christ^s precepts and examples. Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. irpaels 
a euTiP oi Tjjy aiTiOTop fidyip^^ tyjv iv r^ '^•'X*' Karaire^avKOTe^ 
OvfAov Kai iiriBviua^ xal r&v roi/roir iwopefiXtifiivtov ei^oii/. irpaet^ 
M TOV9 icard Trpoaipectv ou nor ovdyKfiv iTrawcl. Aristot. Nicom. 
IV. 11, irpairrff^ S ean fiev fAetroTti^ wcpi opyd^ — ou yap Tifiwpfi^ 
*ruco9 o irpao9, dXXd ftaXkov ovyyvwfioviKOi, Isocr. ad NicocL 
irpam piv if^ivov r^ tw ri/uiopiav e\arroi/9 innetaOat rwy 
ofiapniyATwv, Plato de Repub. ii. ivcarria yap vov dv/AoeiSel 
f} irpaeia (pvaii. 

— Kkffpovofuiaowri nr^v yiiy] Taken from Ps.. xxxvi. 11, where 
David understands this of the land of Canaan : for the tenor of 
the 36th Psalm is designed to shew that wicked men shall by 
God^s judgments suddenly perish, whilst righteous men lived 
easily and quietly in the land of Canaan, see ver. 9 and 34. 
Chrysostom therefore observes, that because the Jews had been 
often taught this lesson in the Old Testament, our Saviour 
addresses them in the language they had been accustomed to: 
he applies in a spiritual sense to all the advantages of our 
future everlasting inheritance, those typical expressions to which 
his hearers had been habituated. Bp. Porteus applies these 
words to inheriting those things which are the greatest blessings 
upon earth, calmness and composure of spirit, tranquillity, 
cheerfulness, peace and comfort of mind. See Lect. vi. Vol, i. 
p. 138. 

Mcsris, ixXiipovdfifftre rij^ owrias, 'Arruccii' exXfipovofitiire rtiv 
ovalav, 'EXkffPtKm* Suidas, Kkifipovo^w ore arj/naivei to fX€Tej(w 
xal Xa/Lt/3artti, yevuc^ — airtaruc^ 5c, avrl rov eipuv «coi oiKVfaai. 
In Philo we meet with a passage in which this verb is followed 
by an ace. case, Vit. Mos. iii« p* 689, eVec^iJ i^o/uto^ (f>wTew% iart 
kXffpoyofieiaOai roii yov€i9 viro iraiSwv, oi roirov^ Kktipovofi^lu. 
See Ecclus. xx. 25 : xxii. 4. 


6. oi ireivwme^ kuI ii>\fwvTei\ Styj/^u and vetv^v are often 
used metaphorically to signify an ardent pursuit of any thing; 
' to be as sensible of the want of it, as fervently desirous to 
have it, and industrious to obtain it, as restless and incessant 
till we do enjoy it, as men usudly are when they are pinehed 
with hunger and thirst. Ecelus. xxiv. 21, oi eoBiovre^ fie 
{scil. Tfjv a'o(f>tav) in iretvaawaty Kal oi irlpovre^ M€ in ciyj/iiaouatv. 
Wisd. xi. 14, ovx ojULOiu iucaloK Siyf^iiaavTe^. Isai. xli. 17: Iv. 1: 
John vii. 37- Hesych. Siyj/^v yap to iiritroOeiP. Suid. eSi^f/ijaep' 
etreOufirjO'ev, Artemidor. Oneirocrit. i. 68, to ityf/^v ovoey SiXXo 
iaTiv tj e7n0ufi€iv* Philo omn. prob. lib. p. 867> cuyKXeiet fiiv 
ovSe irore to iavrrj^ (^potn-umjpioi^, aveirrafximi he hc'^erai To^lk 
iroTifxwv Siyf/wvra^ \oytaif. De Sept. et Fest. p. 1178 ; de Leg. 
ad Cai. p. 1005. So Xen. Kvp. iraw, vii. 5, 18, Kal fm\a treivwri 
a'VfxjuLci'xwv: GBcon. xiii. 9, Treipwat rmi eiralvov ov^ tittov iviai 
t£v tpvacfop ^ aXKai twu airfav re Kal irorSv. Kvp* ircuo* iv. 6, 
'7» eyw vjuLiv 5i>//c3 yapi^eaOat^ So Plut. de Ir. cohib. p. 460, 
ypfipcu Tifiwplq, o fjL^ ireiv&p fujce oi>//€oi; avT$9« Lucian. Amor. i. 
Vol. II. p. 397) hiypiUvn TOiavTiji aviaew^^ Aristsenet. iiyj/ivra 
Tov KaXKom. Clem. Alex. Protrept. p. 60, Siyj/f/aov to5 vaTpoi. 
The same metaphor is common in Latin. Hor. £p. i. 18, 23, 
Quem tenet argenti sitis importuHa famesque. Cic. ad Q. frat. 
III. 5, nee honores sitio, nee desidero gloriam. A. Grell. xit. 2, 
hominem avarum et avidum, et pecuniae sitientem. Cic. Tusc. iv. 
17) sitienter (i. e. cupide) quid expetens. Virg. ^n. iii. 56, 
"Quid non mortalia pectora cogis Auri sacra fames. Sil. Itat. in. 
578: Juv. x, 140. 

— hiKaioaivriv] The righteousness here mentioned has by 
some been thought to be the righteousness of faith, by winch 
we being justified or freed from the guilt of sin, have peace 
with God. But iiKaioauuri does not seem to bear such a sense 
in the Gospels, but only in the Epistles of St. Paul. Nor 
had the Jews any idea of this righteousness, no apprehension 
even that their Messiah was to die, and therefore if Christ had 
spoken of this righteousness, they could not have understood 
his meaning. The righteousness therefore intended is that 
inherent righteousness which consists in a sincere endeavour to 
practise all those duties which God requires at onr hands, 
and to eschew that evil which he has forbidden. Luke i. 6, 

7*, 75. 

We find in Bowyer'^s conjectures, perhaps StKaioavvifiy since 
•Philo de profugis reads Toi)y it'^wrra? Kal wetvwvra? icaXoir^- 
yaOlav etpn^vvovaa. Or perhaps Stanjv SiKmcxTvinp^. see ver. 10. 

CHAPTER Y; 11 ] 

But the latter alters the sense of the passage; though Clem. 
Alex, seems to have read it so, Strom, iv. p. 196. Nor is 
there any authority for the former. The common interpretation 
seems to have been the general interpretation of the earliest 
ages ; which is a strong presumption that it is the most natural 
and best suited to the construction. That ^t^dor is sometimes 
used actively, and governs the accusative of that which is the 
object of our thirst, we are authorised by Phavoiinus to assert, 
amnracra'erai aiTiariKfj xal y€Pucfi,''^-alTtaTiKfi fiev m to, iSiylnjae 
ae i; "^vx^ ^^^* '^^ oiyf/H tou^ Xo'yoi/y. So ji^ooi tov Oewy 
Ps. xli. 2 ; Ixii. 1. Joseph. B. 20, iiafpev^erai S ovSei^ 
ji>fnj(ra$ Toi/uLOv atfia. Philo lib. ii. Alleg. p. 62, Mwikriii — 
€Ka0i(r€v eirl tov (ppearo^ eKoeyo/uievof ti 6 Qeos avofifip^€i 
iroTCMov 'rij iiyffciafi xal iroOovatt '^v\ii to ayaOov, Phaedrus 
in Epist. Socrat. ipi\o<ro(f>lav eSiyf/wv. Fhilippus in Anthol. Gr. 
IV. 9, 10, alel yap iiyf/^s fiptipiwv (povov. Stobaeus Serm. 5. 
de temper. koX o eiyl^wv ^huxTa vlpei xal ijKUTTa to /ii) wapov 
TTOTov avcLfievei* ^ 'reiv^ rir vXoKovvTa ^ oi^^ X'^*^' 

'^^')(opT'cuT6ii<royTai] They shall have all the means and aids 
required to make them thus righteous here, and shall have 
the reward of righteousness hereafter, and so shall be blessed. 
See Ps. xvi. 15 : Isai. Ixv. 13 : Luke i. 53. 

This word is used when speaking of men as well as animals, 
as in Nicander apud Athen. xv. 14, wireveyKaTw pioi Tfjv Tpci'tr^^avj 
ycoa^m Ke^opTaa/mat yap, Arrian. Epictet. i. 9, ore yoprattdtiTe 
ctffiepop, Kd9fi<r9e KXaloirre^ irepl tv9 aupioVy ToOev ^ay^Cm 
And III. 2, Sia j^povou •^(opTaaQrivat, 

7- eXef/yuove?] They who from an affecting sense of sympathy 
with others, and a charitable affection and good-will towards 
them, are ready to relieve them as they are able under all 
their wants, to pity them in their infirmities, to comfort and 
support them under their calamities, and ready to forgive and 
shew mercy to them when they have offended, and to pray to 
their Heavenly Father to give them those supports and conso- 
lations we are not able to afford them ; and who especially have 
this compassion for their souls, by endeavouring to instruct the 
ignorant and to reclaim the wicked from their evil ways. Clem. 
Alex. Strom, iv. p. 889, eXcffjuLOva^ ^ etvat (ioiXeTai ov fiovov 
TOV9 eXeov votaSpTas, aWd xal tov9 eOiXovTa^ iXeeiv k€^v fitj 

Erasmus gives the following description of the merciful. 

Qui pro charitate fratema alienam miseriam. suam esse ducunt ; 

^^ui calamitatibus alionim illachrymant, qui de suo pascunt 


^entem, vestiunt nudum, monent erranteiiiy docent ignarAntem, 
condonant peccanti, breviter qui aliquid habent dotis, id aliis 
sublevandis et refocdllandis impendunt. 

— avToi iXcffiiiaovTai] When they are judged they shall 
find forgiveness. Besides, they shall be recompensed even in 
this life ; and after many days, shall find the bread which they 
have cast on the waters of affliction, returned to them tenfold 
by Gxxl. Gen. xlii. 21: Judg. i. 7- Ps. xl. 1: xxxvi. 25,26: 
Prov. xiv. 21: xvii. 6: Matt. vi. 4: xviii. 23: xxv. 31 — 46: 
Acts X. 4 : 2 Tim. i. 16, 17> 18 : James ii. 13. Ovid. Metam. 
XIII. 70, Aspiciunt oculis Superi mortalia justis. En eget auxilio 
qui non tuUt: utque reliquit. Sic linquendus erit: legem sibi 
dixerat ipse. And Trist. v. 8, 11, Vidi ego, navifragum qui 
riserat, sequore mergi, Et, nunquam, dixi, justior unda fuit. Vilia 
qui quondam miseris alimenta negarat. Nunc mendicato pascitur 
ipse cibo. Publ. Syr., Bona comparat prsesidia misericordia. And 
Habet in adversis auxilia, qui in secundis commodat Demosth. 
c. Midiam. e'yw fiirpioi nrpos airavra^ elfit eXetifAwv, ev iroim 
iroXXoi}^, awcurt irpoaviKei t^ TOiovTfp Tavra €ia(j)€p€ipj ear irov 
roi/Dop ^ XP^^^ irapaarp* irepoi ovroai rif )3iai09, oiSe^a ovr 
€\e£v^ ovff o\ai9 tiyoi/A€vo^ pufOpanrov. toi/t^ Ta^ avras i^opis 
irap etcaarrou Sucouov virdpj(€t¥* 

8. xaOapoi rij xapilq.} Whose hearts are pure from those ev3 
thoughts and reasonings, those evil desires and afiTections, those 
evil passions and perturbations, and from those evil intentions^ 
devices and machinations which defile the soul. 

Seneca de Ira, i. 3, Injuriam qui facturus est, jam fecit. Sic 
latro est, etiam antequam manus inquinet, quia ad occidendum 
jam armatus est, et habet i^liandi atque interficiendi volun- 
tatem. Exercetur et aperitur opere nequitia, non incipit. Jut. 
XIII. 209, Nam scelus intra se tacitum qui cogitat ullum, Facti 
crimen habet. Tac. Hist. 11. 77> ^1^^ deliberant desciverunt. 
Demochares, ayadov 01; to firj aiucetv, dXXd to /mrioe ideXciv* 
^lian. V. H. xiv. 28, 01! yap fxovov o aoiKriaa^ KaKos, ah^ kcli 
6 6vvoi|ora9 diiKtia'cu, 

*— *Toi; Oeov oyf/oirrai] favoured with peculiar manifestations 
of God here, they shall hereafter see him face to face. See 
Rev. xxii. 4. The allusion here is probably to the antient ritual 
from which the metaphors of the sacred writers are frequently 
borrowed. The laws in regard to the cleanness of the bodyt 
and even of the garments, if neglected by any person, excluded 
him from the temple. The Jews considered the empyreal heaven 
as the archetype of the temple of Jerusalem. In the lattec 


tiiey enjoyed the symbols of Grpd^s presence^ who spoke to them 
by his ministers ; whereas in the former the biessed inhabitants 
have an immediate sense of the Diyine presence, and God speaks 
' to them face to face. Our Lord preserving the analogy between 
the two dispensations, intimates that cleanness will be as neceaaaarjt 
in order to procure admission into the celestial temple, as into 
the terrestrial. But the cleanness is not ceremonial, but moral ; 
not of the outward man, but of the inward. See Ps. xxiii. 3, 4: 
2 Kings XXV. 19: Tob. xii. 19* And Heb.xii. 14, x^P^^ ayuMafAoS 
ovoet^ oyf/erai toy Kvpiop* See Joseph. c< Apion. i. 26. 

Callim. Hym. ApoIl« 9, 'Q 'iroKkwv ov warrt {paelyereu, aXX o, 
TI9 ecrfiXos'. Eurip. Bacch. 601, koI mioTiy; ov yap (pavepo^ ofi" 
fioatv y e/ttolv. B. Trap' iiiol' av ^ ic€^9 avT09 wPf ovk eicop^. 
9. elpijvtyfrotol'] Who loving peace promote it to the utmost 
of their power. Theophylact explains it by oi irepov^ trrafftar 
^ovTos KaTcXKcuraofi^voi — o\ oia oiiatTKoK'ta^ tov9 iyBpov^ to3 
QeoS tiriaTps^PTe^, 

This word does not occur either in the Septuagint or in the 
New Testament ; but elptivoiraiito is found in Coloss. i. 20, and 
Prov. X. 10, where it signifies actively, to reoondle^ to make 
peace. And in this sense it is used by the Greeks; whence 
Plutarch calls the Fecialea upffuoiroiol' Xen. Hist. vi. 3, 4, 
iiceivff fu¥ y^9 irav woXefio^ tif trrpaTtiyom tipA^ at/Mirai' 
ircLv ^ f^crv^m eiriOvfULiiirfif eiptpHKroioik ^fia^ iKirifnrei. Which 
Cicero Ep. Att« xv. 7) calls pacificator. Phavor. 6 rtiv eipijytip 
iv oXXoir K<kT€pyaS^oiA€voi. 

Some have taken the word here to signify preachers of the 
new covenant, who reconciled the two dispensations ; who were 
not to enter upon the obscure and useless discussions of points 
of the ceremonial law, but to preach the sublimer doctrines of 
the Gospel. 

— * viol Gcoi/] As QqA is the God of peace, Rom. xv. 33 ; 
xvi. 20: ICor. xiv.33: 2 Cor. xiii. 11: 2Thess. iii. 16: Heb. 
xiii. 20: the peace-makers are the children of God, because 
the/ follow his example ) Eph. v. 1^ 2. Philo de Sacrif. o\ ro 
apeoTov Tff <f>ia€t ipwpre^ koi to koKov, v\oi euri tov Ocov. 
Hierocles tells us the followers of Pythagoras used a similai; 
mode of expression, no doubt borrowed from the Hebrews, 
r^ ifSff wpo€tpyaa0(u to. iraiio^ o^^t 'f'ov 0«ov mxripa koKSp^ 
In a Mmflar way we read of the sons of Belial^ 1 Sam. i. 16. 
And St. Paid called Elymas vm Sid^Xov, Acts xiii.* 10. 
Philostr. Apoll. 386, iklywr Sei trov roiy muaWf €i K^iKocroi^u 
rraiSei eitiaav. . . 


114 ST. MATTHBVr. 

' -<— K\n0tiaoyTm] for worrm, aa before. See also dan. 
Philol. Sac. p. 222. 

10. iv€K€¥ &icaioovi^] i* q. €P9K€w ifiod. For perseYoing 
stedfastly and patiently in the Christian faith; or fbr the per- 
fi>rmanoe of that duty which they owe to Gk)d the Father and 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and to our Christian brother fiur their 
sakes: or who are persecuted because they do not own that 
as an artide of faith or any part of Christian duty which God 
has not decUu«d to be sa See 1 Pet. iii. 14, dXX' «« «cai wao^otrc 
Ota SiicaKKri/i/i|iA, /uncapioi. See 9 Tim. iii. 11, 12. 

. -*-0T« avTwv itrriv, he] In Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. p. 582, 
we find .a diferent conclusion to this verse, timv tw¥ Mentn- 

Ttf^ iiKtnoavinfi, on ai/r^i €<rorrai rtXeibi. Kal MOKopioi ol 
SiiStwy/uLeuot evexa kfxov ore e^ouert Toiro¥ c(irov ov- SuajfS^aoifrm. 
This, possibly may have been from some Gospel, as that of 
the Hebrews or Nazarenes. 

11. oveiiitrwTiv] Scil. ci oveiii^ovres. Bos. Ell. 6r. p. 7f or 
Mther o\ avdfMiroi, Bos. p. 22. The Greeks and Latins omitting 
tills nom. case before the third person plur. of verbs ; as Thucyd. 
▼II. 69) iirep irao'^oucriv er txm? /uryciXois ayww. Anton, 
liiberal. fab. xxxiv. to ie fipit^ wvoiMurav ''A^rfif* Thus 
Cic. Off. Maximeque admirantur eum, qui pecunaa non monetur. 
De Amicit. xxi. Omnium vitiorum una cautio est, ut ne ninus 
dto dUigere incipiant. Plant. Cure. iv. % 17, Culpaat eum, 
conspicitur, vituperatur. Livy v. 32, Neque Deorum modo 
monita spreta: sed humaaam quoque opem, quse una erat, 
M. Furium, ab urbe amoverunt. See Sanctius^s Minerva, iv. 4. 

-— &ai(c0O'c] Some think that this word relates to the proae* 
€utum8 of the disciples (to whom Jesus here directly addresses 
himself) on account of their religion, before human tribunals, 
whereof he frequently warned them on other occasions. In this 
verse he descends to particulars, distinguishing JioMreiy £roni 
Ji^c^i^eiif and eiireiK wai^ irovtipov ptjuia, which seeaa also to. be 
used in reference to judicial proceedings. In the preceding and 
fi^lowing verse there can be no doubt that the verb is used in 
the utmost latitude, and ought to be rendered per^ectUe. 
' — eiirwTiy &c.] In the spirit of the former explanations, this 
haa been interpreted ^>brmg all manner of false charge^^ 
Thus Judith viii. 8, koI ouk fiv 09 e7rtipeyK€¥ ain-j} ptffia woi^ifpor- 
Though Beausobre ui^derstands here the unjust sentences and 
decrees th^t were passed against the Christians both by Jews 
and Gentiles* 




eHA^PTBR y; 115 

a ^'^-^womfpop pniiAa] Alnbrose fleems to have read kdff iiM¥ ^3» 

itamipoti ireccr iucatoauwf^* *P^Ma 'i» Wanting in Mime MSS. and 

ef Latin fathers. Ghriesbach thinki it maj have been added to 
avoid a seeming ambiguity. Hovffpov also is wanting in a feir 
MSS. as is also i^ei/&i/i£MM, which some fathers, versions and 

:i modem editions omit. 

. 13. yaipere Kal arycAXioffBe] Joined to express the strongest 

:. joy. So Bev. xix. 7» \aipo>ix€v xal ayaXKiw/jieOa. See Isai. Ixvi^ 
10 : Zeph. iii 14. 'AyaWidto is not used in profane authors^ 
See IPet* i. 8. From its etymology it would seem to sigilify ta exult 
through joy. Valckena^r gives a different etymology £roni the 6ne 
commonly received. See Schol. on Luk« i. and Schmidt in loo.' 

V -^^ ftta^ov iro\vi\ Sell, iaroi. See Gen. xv^ 1. ii'^yf, i.^q. 

> fiiytif. Matt. ii. 18: iElian. H.V. i. 19: Charitoci in. 6^ 6; 
Hesych. ^oXi; ap'fl Tod jjiiya^ 

•— TT^ip^iyraf TW irpa vfim^ Scil. ivdpj(Olrrtis, or y&fopo^ceif 
or ^fiu0K0Ta90 Xen. Mem. in. 6y 11, ou iroXi) Si irp6 ^/jlSv 
y^yovore^. So oi itpotrBev oot^oi and Avip^ oirlco'to* 

This is abundantly evident from the known histories of MoseSf 
Samuel, David, JSlijah, Elisha, Jeremiah, £2ekiel, Zechariah^ 
fce. . See Matt, xxiii. 89 : Acts vii. 53: 1 Thess. ii. 15 : Heb. xi. 
86 : 9 Kiiigs ii. 23 : 2 Chroo. xxxvi. 16 : Nehem. ix. 26. 

13. vfiel9 ierrel i<e. you ought to be. This may relate to 
all the disciples that were then present ; and also to all Christians 
in general; though it may have a ^nore especial reference to 
the Apostles. 

-^ro oXof] This seems a proverbial expresidon. See also 
Luke xiv. 94. Sal sapit omnia ; salt is given to make tUfigs 
savoury ; as Job vi. 6, ** Can that which is unsavoury be eaten 
without solt:^ and also to save them from putrefaction. So 
that the meaning of the metaphor seems to be^ Ye are appointed 
by that pure and hdy doctrine which yon are to preach, and 
1^ the savour of yotir good conversation to purge the world 
from that corruption in which it lieSf and present them to Crod 
as a sacrifice of a sweet«meUing savour, holy and acceptable 
to God. But if you yoursdves should lose the savour of your 
good conversation, and become putri£»d members in my body, 
you would be wholly useless to those good ends, and therefore 
can expect nothing but to be rejected by me and cast off as 
unsavoury salt is cast into the dunghill. 
^^-^idp] See Hoogeveen, Doetr. Part. c. xvi. Sect. 9, §5. 
— TO dXof] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 143. Thomas M. o« 
a\€9 Kal TQvv aXd9 ^T \eyii¥ oi ro aXa^y though Theocritasy 



Homear, and Herodotus have used it. Llvy called Greece Saf 
gentium, on account of those intellectual improvements which 
they learnt from thence* Fliny xxxi.'Oy Nihil corporibus sole 
et sale utilius. 

' -*-/uu0pavd^} In some read fjiopcwOfj, which will not suit the 
preceding words. It is derived from jULwpofi and like the Latin 
fatuus, when applied to meat, it implies insipidity. Dioscorid. 
S, pS^cu yeuaafJiivtp fxwpau L« Valla, Eleg. L. L. iv. 113, Fatuw 
plane insipiens est, tractum a sapore ciborum : nam cum illi non 
sapiunt, fatui dicuntur. See Martial xx. 97: xi. 32: xni. 10. 

Our Saviour^s supposition of the salf s losing its savour, is 
supposed by many to be illustrated by Maundrell, who tells 
us that in the valley qf salt near Grebul, and about four hours 
journey from Aleppo, there is a small precipice occasioned by 
the continual taking away of the salt. In this, says he, you 
may see how the veins of it lie ; I brake a piece of it, of which 
the part that was exposed to the rain, sun and. air, though it 
had the sparks and particles of salt, yet it had perfectly lost 
its savour, as in St. Matt. v. The innermost, which had been 
cx>nnected to the rock, retained its savour, as I found by proof 
But this seems a more recondite and abstruse meaning than 
we commonly meet with in our Lord^s addresses to the people ; 
his illustrations being usually drawn from common objects, 
which were either in all probability in the presence of his 
hearers when he addressed them, or were well known from 
their familiarity and frequency. That interpretation therefore 
seems more probable which supposes an allusion here to a custom 
connected with the temple service. There was a kind of salt 
used in Jude% which was principally composed of the bitumen 
obtained from the Asphaltite lake. This salt or bitumen, which 
had a fragrant odour, was strewn in great quantities over the 
sacrifices, both to prevent inconvenience to the priests and to 
the worshippers from the smell of the burning £esh, and to 
.quicken the action of the fire^ that the sacrifice might be more 
quickly consumed. Great quantities of this bituminous prepa- 
ration lay in its appointed place in the temple, and was ea^y 
damaged. The virtue of the salt was soon lost by exposure 
to the effect of the sun and air, and it was then sprinkled 
over the pavement of the temple to prevent the feet <^ the 
priests from slipping during the performance of the service. 

— CI' Tii't] quomodo, for ev nVi Tporrtp, In the same way 
Sophocles uses iv t^, Electr. 1192,. iv rtfi oic^yi^oi^ toSto tUv 
cipfifiivtav ; where the Schol. explains ev r^ by iv rivu 


**— aXiaBiiaeTail Sell, to aXas* St. Mark, €r tiw oiJto a/D- 
^rverertf. There ore proverbial expressions of similar import in 
Giog. Laert. : Diogene vi* 47> irpo^ to pvirapov fitzkapelov, ol 
ipOaicf i<l>fi, Xovofiepot trov Xovovrat ; Ad Hereon.' it. 6, Isti 
-cum non modo dominos se fontium, sed se ipsos fontes dicant, 
et omnium rigare debeant ingenia, non putant fore ridiculum, 
si, cum id polliceantur aliis, arescant ipsi sicdtate. PhSo de 
Therapent. T. ii. p. 483, irpoaor^tiina ie aXe^y oh ccrrir ^e Kal 
WfTmros tiSvcTfia irapaprieTcu iia tov^ rpi/^£KTa$. 

— ^ €19 oiUvX ^Uan. H. A. ii. 17» €19 owev ^ {bvawaip' 01 

— jiKffiijwai i^m] ^lian. H. A. x. 30, oti apa to iiep iviop 
iiwitfxov eo'Tf, i-a ^ i^to /SoXXcik yjpti- 

14. i;^e?9 i(TT€ "TO 0flS$] This name was given by the Jews 
to their wise men and doctors. See John v. 35: 2 Pet. L 19- 
J^esus Clmst bestows it on his disciples because they were ap- 
pointed ta preach the Gospel and to reveal to mankind the know* 
ledge of Christ, who is the true light of the world. It is also 
jqiplicable to all Christians in general. 

•Cioeio Cat. iii. 10, clifrissimis viris int^ectis, Iwmna civitatis 
^xtincta sunt. Hor. Sat. i. 7» ^^r laudat Brutum laudatque 
cohortem^ Solem Asis Brutum appellat stellasque salubres Ap- 
pel}at oomites.^ Demochares de Rege Demetrio i^koioi Arirepei xn 
<f>iKoi /UL€¥ currepest 'HeXio^ iKelvo^. 

— • ov iuvaToi iroXis Kpv^paij &c.] This being connected 
with ver. 16, in which is the application of the rimilitude, oj/t-co^ 
TiofiyfrnTw, &c. there is an ellipsis of Ka9wi> So in Isai. Iv. 9 : 
Jo-, iii. 20, where the Septuagint have supplied «j. The con- 
duct of persons in eminent stations is the object of general 

— fcpvfifjvai] In the Septuagint and in the New Testament 
the first Aorist ixpuipOfiP is never found, though in use with 
the Attic/: but Ae second eKpv^v is always used, without any 
variation of MSS. See Luke xix. 42: John viii. 69: xii. 3&: 
1 Tim. V. 26: Heb. xi. 28; Gen. iii. 8, 10: Jud. ix. 6: 1 Sam^ 
xiii. 6: xiv. 11, &c. 

— inravm opovi\ As was the case with Jerusalem and many 
other towns^ Dion. Hal. l 12, ^/ciefe nroKei^ fiucpd^ koI avveyeit 
ifrl Tois opeaivy oo^irep ^p T0i9 TraXaioi? Tp6iro9 oiKfjaewi crvptfift^. 
Manilius 11. 77^9 Ac velut in nudis cum surgiint montibus lu-bes. 
Lucret. 11. 606, Magna Deiim mater — ^terra— Muralique caput 
Bummum cinxere corona. Eximiis munita lods quod sustinet 


>faundreU (Tra.yel«, p. 116) says (hat there is a city called 
Saphet, puppoied tP be the aptiept BethuUa, wbi^ standing 
on a high hill might easily be seep frpm the mountain on which 
Christ made this discourse, and probably supposes be might 
point tq that here, as afterwards he did to the birds and lili^ 
vi, 2ft--fi8. 

, 15. ovJe] Here in the sense of non; as Hom. Od. 2. 493, 

-r- cdioMTi] Sub. a^Opttnrotn . This seems also to be a pro- 
verbial expression. See another application of it, Mark iv. 21 ; 
Luke viii. 16: xi. 33: where he uses Xii^Mor aimiP' The 
meaning of this comparison is the same as that of the preceding, 
Jl^aieiv properly signifies urere, but here used in the sense of 
Aecendere, as in {iUcian, in Asin. 61. Vol- lu p* 618, ^ ^e \pxtwf 
May ««af€ Me74i«. Plut. Sympos, h 9, tW^ Xm^i^ovt ^Xt§w 
vmfixoiuQi KQto^iv^v^- X^n. Hell* Yi« 4^ 3^ i MU Xvvm>t ficf rro* 
Artemidor. ii« 9i \yx^os ii Kaio^«y<»s i» Q'vci^ Xa/i7rfM9» aycSw^ 
'trpooKTffcriv yap trfi/iaivei Kal eitropiar iroo't- In the same way 
Horace uses urere for aocendere, 1 Od. iv< 7> ^^™ graves Cyclo- 
pi^m Vul^^anu^ ard^na tunt officinas. 

••— Ti0ia^tv'] £tymol. tuSt^ Si rd rplra Trpotrwwa tw €i$ 
m vXjfivprmmf, oi 'loiMes trpoaiitp toS a, «Kii (ti/ctoXJi t^s Trapo* 
Xnyovtnji irpfHpepauaiVi ci<pia<^^ rSicu^i^ iiloa<ny ^ev^WcMrc. 

NI^os seeias. to be the Lutin modius contuning the ^xth part 
<^ A fU^mvoi, Con* Nep. in Att xi. 6, ita ut singulis sex modii 
tfitid darenlur^ qui modus menaune medimnua Atbenis appel- 
latur- Flutarch uses the word in Demetrio^ p. 904) o tUv nvpHu 
jAo^cat ivws iv TpmKQffluw, JoaephuB A* J. xiv. 3, oir roif ^cMitii 
Tov aiTov TOT avTol? e^wvelaOat Spaxfxwv evSexa. It is here usecl 
fer ttEJ^ thing under which a candle being placed, is of no service. 
Aad thcfeforeSt. Mark iv. 21, joins vVo top sw^w ^ viro Tif^ 
Kfumtf. And St.. Luke joins a general word with a particulaf, 
vjii(. 16^ KoXi/TTTfi airov anevuy n vvoxdrw KXivfjs - APd xi. 33. 
W. Kpvnrrw r^^iv- ov^ vvo rov fiiSuxy^ 

— Xtrxyiav] A lamp-stand. Phrynichus, p. 139» Xujfytarf. 
mrl Toi; Xvypiov Xiye, W9 i Kmfia^td. Sustath. in Od. cr, 
Xcwirr^G^ X^^Ci, OS yuv ec ayporiKoi Xwyywx 0ao'iy, i<fi ^f» 
c^i^si if€niA€¥a,i Kmrd^So/rtrov avamrorrat. Pollux x. 116^ wal 
Xf/jfuifivt $j^^ 90' fjS erridrrai d Xvyyoi^ ii JcaXocz/i^r^ Xvj(via» 

-Tf-viAWO TOM M^^MUf] Thomas M. t^v virip 1^^»6€o•^l^— -r/dd* 
T^iff^yen^^vQCMr'Amcou "EXX^e^ ii vpos atriaTiiciyir. matw-^ 

TWi Kal Tf]» ilCQ. 


•^ jcni Xa|uitr€i] A Hc)Mrufliii«*-for im JU^inr. 

*— Traaiv iv rij oijccg] Sub. overt. 

16. tJ ^Ntff tffuuSy] See Philip, ii. 15. Though Christ^s twelve 
Apostles may be chiefly coneemed in these metaphors, they aie in 
some measure applicable to all Christians. Chiysost. Horn, jllvu 
T. T. p. 305, Oij(^ icurr^ y^fftniijov Avai j(p^ plowov*t6v XpurTta'- 
viy^ a\Xi roJ iroXXotv. ToCra eJijXttKrer o X/McrrJp, SktM^ i^ior 
Kol {fh'^p Ka\wa9 Kol <f»Sk* Tdvra H eripoit ixrrl jy^i/JiU ittti 

'^^iittarg icai iol^aawri] for lio¥T€9 ^atrmau Not cnly 
praising him, but' also themselves embracing your faith and 
imitating your hdy exalnple. In pure Greek SoJ^i^m signifies 
existimo: here in its Hellenistic use. 

^^ itdKd ipyd] Sudi bA by the light of nature seein gtxid 
and honourable in the sight of men, because they miist give 
occaskm eren to Heathens to think wdl of Christianity. 

"^rAv iw Toit ov/wpoif] i. q. aipaviov* In the time of our 
Saviour the Jews reckoned three heavens^ the air, tlie firmame^tf 
and the third heaven or hearren of heavens, the place of God'^a 
residenoe : and this probably is the reason - why in the New 
Testament we meet so frequently with ovpsrvoi in the plund.- 

17* KaraXvircu] To dissolve, to abrogate; So Si Ptol> Bom. 
lu. 31, Korapyeiv tw rofJiov. John x. -35^ ov SJmitck XuBiiucu 
V 7/Mi^i) : ▼• 18, Xvs<v TO 4ro/3/3aToy< Heliod. v. 15, mmi-' 
Xi;«is *tov pofiioif Tov Xfifrrpticiv. Polyb. iii. 8^ 3, iroraXvorarror 
roii voptcu^. Philo de Legg. Spec. T. ii. p. 330, ytrof^iifeiP yet^ 
^v6* iriptov irepa fifiie/jiiap iyovra /roiyayy&xi/, dWd roi9 eiSeaip 
air^r^/uerd, KOfTaXvovTwp vo/aop^ itrttw mf fiefiaiovvtwv. Joseph/ 
Ant. xvl« 2, 4, ^y ol^ in iravra /MtaXXor mp^ovrtu wodsi v ^ 
coroXKrai n rwp itaTpimv. Curtins x. B, d^ Grsecl baud ausi- 
imperium aspemari, quanquam solvendaruto legum id prindpium 
eaie oensebont. Cio. Phil« i. 9$ Haso dirum tondeto let est, a» 
legum onminm dissolutio. See Mede^s works, p. 12. 

-^ rip v6fA6if] The law of Mojms^ - or as some undersUmd 
it, the moral precepts contained thefein. For Chriilt came tG^ 
destroy the whole ceretoonUl precepts of thei law^ the htad- 
writing of otdiaancea which he Udtted out and nailed to his 
<^ros8. Or, if we considdr the rites as typkal of things future^ 
Aod a shadow of good things to come t^ Christ ; in this sense 
Christ came not to dissolve the law and the prophets, but to 
fulfil them, by exhibiting the antitype and substanoe of whida 
Aese were the types and shadows. 

It was the opinion of the nation- concermng the Messias^ thaft 

120 ST. If ATTKEW. 

he vould bring in a aew law, but not at all to the prejudice 
or damage of Moses and the prophets; but that he would 
advance the Mosaic law to the very highest pitch, and that he 
would fulfil in the most splendid manner, according to the letter, 
the favourable predictions of the prophets. The, Scribes and 
Pharisees therefore seize the opportunity of cavilling at oiir 
Lord, that he was abolishing the law when he reprobated thdr 
traditions which they obtruded upon the people for Moses and 
the prophets. Christ shews on the contrary, throughout this 
discourse, that in its genuine and' spiritual sense he establishes 
and perfects the law. 

— 17 Tovf irpafpirra^] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 524. The 
prophets seem here to be named as the interpreters and supporters 
of the law. There was not the minutest prophecy that concerned 
either the birth, or kindred, or life, or sufferings of the Messias, 
but what was fulfilled in our Jesus, xxii. 40 : Luke xvi. 29* 

— aWa 7r\fip£<fai] Not only to perform, but to perfect or 
fill up. Clem.. Alex. Strom, iii. p. 445, vXijpwrai Si 01^ wt 
cnSee?, aXXo t^ tos Kara vofjtov irpfK^ifTeiai iirirekel^ ye^iadai 
Kara riyv airov irapovcrtcw^ ewec to r^t of^n^ voXtrreiav jooj 
Tw oiKuiuK fiefiimKoat wpo tov vofiov cid tov \6yov eKtipvaaero* 
See Marshes Michaelis, Vol i. p. 399. 

. Plutarch, in Cic. p. 869) mv ivo fiiif tiitf irewXiypoMcewu to 
j(pewi^. Herodian iii> 11 9 nXtipwa'ai itrrti^m. Heliod. x. 17» 
veirX^ptoTOi liijiiv to vomfiop* Curtius iii. 1, 18, Oraculi sor* 
t^ vel elusit vel complevit. 

18. oM^y] ^Us word is of Hebrew original, and frequently 
retained by the Evangelists. St. Luke sometinuss translates* it 
by yalj and sometimes by aXtfim' Comp. Matt. xvL 28 : xxiii. 
36: xxiv. 47 « and' Mark xii, 43: with Luke ix.^27: xi. 51: 
xii. 44 : xxi. 3. The Septuagint have done the san^e. St. John 
and St. Paul have used them together. The Jews used to add 
this to the end of their prayers, denoting concurrence in the 
wish or prayer, in the sense of yivovro ^ So be it,^ which the 
Christians have imitated ; and the word has been adopted into 
most European languages. See Glass. Phil» Sa& p. 396. 

— * irapiXdfi o oipaw Kal j} 7$] A proverbial expression, 
denoting the utter impossibility of a thing* 

The Jews had an opinion that the world would nevar be. 
destroyed, but would be renewed; as appears from- their writ- 
ings, as also from Baruch iii. 32, o KoraaKevafTos tjJv yiju eU 
TOP atwva 'XpoyoVf and i. 11, iva mffiv a\ rmipai oiutwp ws al 
ifiipat Twiovpa^ iirl T^r y^» 


Dion. Hal. ti. 969 ^y ii to, yfMtpivra rolaSe €¥ *rai9 tfvvA/icaiv* 
*P«fuuoc$ caf Tai9 Aarelprnv ir#Xtf<riv amcrai? Apiiwi irpoi cfXXij-. 
Xovc tf<rr», f^^XP^f ^^ ovpavif t€ Koi y^ Tiiv air^v trratrw eywru 
Sil. XVII. WJf Turn secum Paenus: ccelum licet omne iclata 
In caput hcx! compage mat, terraeve Dehiscant, Non ullo Cannas 
abolebis, Jupiter, svo. Ter. Heaut. iv^ 3, 41, Quid si nunc 
coehim mat? 

''— o ovpavc^ Koi fj 'yij] A periphrasis for the world. 

— ou fii}] See Hoog. Doctr. Part. c. xxxix. Seet. 6. § 4. 

— -ira/DfXdiy] for irapeKevcrerai* So xxiv. 2, oi fii^ aipeOfiy 
Luke xxi. 6, ouk o^cftio'ercu- 

irapepxeadat is used by the Greeks, when speaking of a thing 
that soon perishes and passes away. Aristamet. 11. 1, yvvauco^ 
<re au iroXir ti to el^ irapeXBif, koI to koXKw wapaipd/ULfi^ Tt9 
an jcaraXtfiirrrai ev^potrvpff, Theognis 979, al^a y^py wtrre 

— er jy fiia — au m^] A Hebraism for aiiip and oi^fiia. 

— Iwra] This answers to the Hebrew letter Jod^ (whence 
iiie English Jot, here used, seems to be derived) and which being 
the least letter of their Alphabet, might be used proverbially 
on this occasion. 

— Kepaia] properly signifies one of those little ornamental 
curvatures or flourishes which are used at the beginning and 
end of a letter, ypafifiaros axpov as the grammarians explain 
it, whereby the difference is made between lettenr of a form 
ahnost alike; as in Beth and Caph, Daleth and Resh, &c. Prooop. 
Gaz. in 1 Sam. xxi. 2, o/uoio yap to, rrrovx^ia (Bif0 koi Ka(p) 
fipayyTOTfn K€paia9 itopij^ evaXKarrouafi^. Philo in Place. T* ii. 
p. 536, caret avWa^v, /jmXXo¥ ii teal Kepaiav eKairrtfv apyvp<H 
\ir/wv o ypctftfusTOKvib&^p* Gratianus de S. Bavone ; Quum Iota 
in Alphabeto Hebraico minima littera sit, illam non tantnm non 
perituram de lege divini pronuntiat sanctissimus Servator, ut pro- 
verbiali locutione legend minime mutandam adsereret; sed ne 
unam quidem Kepatav, comiculam vel apicem illius litters. In 
figur& ejus apparent binse tales Kepcuaij una in superiore parte, 
una etiam deorsum. Ne tantillum quidem periret. Est empha* 
ticum loquendi genus. 

— ews w irawra ykvtfTOi] till all be effected, i. e. its. sane* 
lions executed, and its precepts obeyed. See xxiv. 6, 34. 

19. 09 iav ovv Xvcrti] Used here in the sense of violating or 
transg^resaing. Thus Joseph. Ant. xi. 5, 3, XeXmaa rov^ iron''* 
piov9 vofjLOu^- xvr 3, I, vpHros 'Avrio'xaf o *Efri{f)apfjs eXvae rov 
vofioV' Plutarch de Vitioso Fudore, p. 535, Xvaav rov p6fAO¥ xal 

• * 


wapafi9iif€u TOP opKO¥> Philo. Leg. ad Cai. p. 1033, rijv Kara 
TO t6/oor €ff tkfiKlffTwv ypovwv wcLpaSeSofAepfiv 0pfia'K€lav eT^ptfaevi 
cviiw avT^9 irapckKvaa^ ^ iropoirivijffas ixipoi. Livy viii. 7) 
Quandoquidem tu T. Manlii quantum in te fuit, disGiplinam 
militarem solvisti. 

The interpretation therefore is to be rejected entirely, which 
translates Xveiv kvToKtiv by explicare, in the sense eircXveiK. But 
though the word d6es admit of this signification, (as ApoUod. 
BibL Deor. 3, aiuiyfia Xieiv : Plutarch, de. Gren. Socr. p. 579^ 
Xverof 'Xpifi(rfAov^ and Sympos. i. 4, XScrai t< tZv airopouf^evw) it 
is when followed by words which signify ssnigma or di£Sculty; 
and it does not appear to be so used when foUowed by vofMoUf 
fiifiko¥, p^crivy &c. There is an opposition in Xv€if and irotelw. - 

— Tftiy €yTokw¥ TovTwv Twv eXajfio'Twv] q. d. /Acay Tfiv eXa^ 
yicTfiP t£p €pto\w¥ TGUTWpy scil. Tov pofAou Kol t£p irpo<f»ifrwpm 
So XXY. 40, €^2 TOVTWV t£v aSe\^)wp fiou tioi' eXayitrrwy. And 
Acts i. 5y ov pLCTci ^oXXa9 TauTav tiyjipaSy for ov 9roXv, &c Thus 
Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 42, Ubi initiantur gentes orarum ultimie 
for ultimarum. Lucret. i« 120, per getites Italas hominum, for 

It is not improbable that Christ might here reflect on those 
Scribes and Pharisees, who by their traditions exempted them- 
flelves, and taught others not to observe some of those vaani 

— — 6Xax*oT09] Chryaost- tovt eo-riif atreppifA^potf wyoroS' 
Demosdi. c. Mid. iXoTTOPoq a^uy^ €<m tov fiiKparaTov iv if^ip, 
Phavorinus with a reference to this passage explains e\d')(i(rro9 
by o €<r)(aTO£ koI wtreppifievoi ek Ttiv yieppctv* There is in this 
expression a fiet«i9i(. The least are those that are exduded. 
Augustine on this passage says. Minimus vocabitur in regno 
cceloruin, et fortasse ideo non erit in regno ccekxrum, ubi nisi 
magni esse non poesunt << He shall be unwcxrthy to be reck*« 
oned one of the members of my kingdom,^ aa in v. 20. So 
1 Cor. XV. 9, ^' I am the least of the Apostles "" is ^' I am un-' 
worthy to be called an Apostle.^ See Gal. v. 51. Glass thinks 
this an allusion to the Pharisees cidUng some (Hrecepts iXajfiorra :• 
PhU. Sac. p. 1346. 

«-*- t^nSifa'BTcu] i. q. carof. See Mede^» works, p. 87' 

— fUyas] for Atryicrrof , in opposition to iXa)(UTTOf, the He-c 
brews using positives for superlatives. See Neh. viii. 17 : 1 Sam. 
viii 14. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 48. 

30. ^repco^aci/Vn irXccoy] i.e. superaverit. Except you ob- 
/Serve the Uw better than the Pharisees do, i. e. uidess you lead 

CHiPTBR V. 123 

more Btrict and virtuous lives. Ckm. Alex, says^ iay jmn irXeo- 

rmv Kara airoxiji^ tscmiv hucaiovyiptaif^ 9V¥ t^ ^Aerd Tfj^ iv Toyroit 
TtKui^eun ireJ r^ roy irXtfO'iov d7airav jrai 9V9fiy€T€iif ivraaOmi 
ouK e^co^ff fiaaikutol. The precept however it not l^veUed 
merely against their lives, but their doctrines also; for they 
seem to have taugbt that the precepts of the law extended only 
to the outward actions ; that the thoughts of the heart were not 
sinful; that a zeal in the ceremonial parts of religion would 
excuse moral defects and irregularities ; and that some important 
{HTivileges were inseparately connected with a descent from Abraham^ 

Affirming that only the outward action was commanded or 
forbidden in the law» and interpreting all its precepts accordingly, 
they boasted of having performed every thing that was required 
of them : nay, they were so arrogant as to tliink they could do 
even more than was required. This pernicious morality, destrue? 
tive of all virtue, Jesus loudly condemned in tl^e beginning of his 
ministry. 8ee Bp. Taylor's Works, Vol. vi. p. 2S3. 

-^— irepimr^vcn] The verb nepur^^tSew is used, when applied 
to those things which are excellent of their kind^ and therefore 
surpass others of the same kind. Hence irepicnroif is applied ta 
that which is excellent or surpassing of its kind. See Eurip.. 
Hipp. 958. See 2 Cor. iii. 9 : 1 Mace. iii. 30. 

-•— If Sitftupaivri'l Chrysostom, iprmOa SiKOioavvf^ ri^y maa¥ 

•— ^ Tiifi' ypofimoTimv] SciL ri^ tUv ypatiftarefoy^ See Glass. 
Phil. Sac. p. 136: and also Middleton, 6r. Art. p. IS?. In the 
fodJowing verses we have instances of the pretended righteousness 
of the Pharisees, the restrictions they gave the law, and the 
righteousness required by it 

Tpa^i^jariii^ and 4apio'olot, here first joined, include all the 
Jewish Doctors, the former explaining the law, the latter the 

--- #1/ /U9 ei^tX^ifTe] It has been commonly said by the Jews 
that ^*if but two men were to enter into the kingdom of 
heaven, one of them would be a Pharisee and the other a 
Scribe.^ If this proverb were of so antieat a date as our 
Saviour^s time, it must have been a matter of surprize to Ua 
hearers, to have such a charge from hira. 

«^ fimr^Kelay rtiy avpap£v] In this and the preceding verse„ 
Schmidt aay^) these words do not mean the state of Chvist^s 
church milHant, for the bad and the hypocrites are mixed in it ^ 
buit the church triiunpt\ant. 


* 21. i}«-oJ(rartf, &c.] The manner of our Xord*s citing the 
doctrines which he chose to speak «of, deserves notice. He does 
not say ye know that it was said to them of old time, as he 
would have done if nothing but the written law had been in 
his eye : but he says, fjjcoi/erare ori^ &c. comprehending not only 
the law itself, but the explications of it which the Doctoi^ pre^ 
tended to have derived from the mouth of Moses by iradition. 
^lian. V. H. iv. 1, a«coi;&i Tph "KovesOcu fiovov irapa iravra Tor 
catrrnoi; piOv<» 

— ippeOff T019 ap^aioi^] This has been variously explained ; 
Gome understanding jfpovoi^f i. e. formerly by Moses : others in 
the sense of irpo9 Toih apyaious ' and others by i/iro t£p apyaiwv. 
Beza was the first interpreter of the New Testament who made 
the antients those by whom, and not those to whom the sentences 
here quoted were spoken. All the Old English versions, even 
that executed at Geneva, say to them of old time. It may be 
taken either to those, or by those, 8ec. ; and it will depend upon 
this, whether the opposition be between ap')(aioi^ and vfuvy or 
ap)(aiot^ and e^cJ. For the former interpretation it is urged 
that elsewhere ippeOff is joined to a dative case, as Rom. ix. 12, 
eppeSfi awrJ},— ver. 26, eppedr/ avrol^ : Gal. iii. 16, r^ 'Afipaa/a, 
ippeOffcaV' So Rev. ix. 4: vi. 11. And where mention is 
made of a thing spoken by another, the phrase is still to pffOew 
iiro or TO ptfiiv Sia. See ii- 16, 17, 23 : iii. 3: iv. 14 2 viii. I7: 
xii. 17: xiii. 35: xxi. 4: xxiv. 15: xxvii. 9: xxit. 31 : in the 
latter of which is an instance of those to whom and him by whom 
the thing was said ; the former in the dat. the latter in the gen. 
with the prep, i/tto. In this sense the Greek * Fathers under- 
stood it. 

In the other case we find in Isocr. Panath. irepl rotr Svoiv 
iroXe/iOiv iKavik fuuy eiprirai : ' Polyb. 11. 22, 10, w^ xal irpocOev 
fffuu eipfirai. v. 5, 13, Kaddvep koI irporepov fi/uLlv ciptfrau Dion. 
Hal. A. R. II. p. 700, Kat 6/uoc vofiiaare eipJiaOai, Appian. Bell. 
Civ. V. p. 1079, oiy fioi ircpl SJpctfv Xcyoyri eiptjrai* Incert. 
Aut. in Opusc. Myth. p. 7^6, Kai rdoe fiev rrepi airavrayv clpiitxOvf 
puot. Several here read epprfivi. 

— o/D^aiofv] The word apyalo^ is used when speaking of 
what has been in times pasty although recent, and is applied' to 
persons and things. In this passage it has been understood to> 
mean those who in other places are called o\ trarepe^j the Jewish 
Doctors, the corrupters of the Mosaic law, who first sprung up 
under the Maccabees. See Luke ix. 8, 19 : Acts xv» 7* 

— - oi (f>ovev(r€is} for /ui; ^opevc. See Hoogeveen, Doct. Part. 


<rl nxxix. Seet. 1. § 18. It seems the Doetora gave it as theu* 
opinion that the lair» ov ^oiwi/crtcv* prohibited nothing but actual 
murder committed with a man'^s own hand; and therefore if 
he hired another to kill him, or tumol a wild beast upon him 
that sl^w him, according to them it was not murder punish* 
able by the law; though they acknowledged it might deserve 
the judgment of Grod. 

-— * Of f ay ^oi^ei/o-fi] This may be the interpretation of the 
Jewish Doctors mentioned above. See also ver. 27* 33. See 
Levit. xxiv. 21 : Numb. xxxv. 16, 17» 30. 

— i»o)(iK9 &c.] Aristot. de Mirab. Auscult. ri/AiiHri rw 
irekapyoy^i 'tal ^icreivety oi vofioi, Koi iw ti^ KTjsiiftij e¥<y^a9 
Tois avxoi^ ylv€T€u (u<nr«p koi o QpSpo<f>6vo£. Plato de Leg. xi^ 
ToXXof ^ evoyof ^trrw vo^oi^ 6 toSto hpd<ra^* Dion. Hal. A. R. 
XI* p.r 84, e^oyo^ tfv Tfp v6/jup t$9 irpo&oaian. Philo de Jud. 
OTOTTOV oflMpTii/uLcuriy ivo')(ovs elpoi tovs Tois dXXoi9 ra Sictua 
fipafieieiv d^iovirrof. De Decal. p. 763, lepoa-vXiq, cvo^of wv* 
Though m one instance the word has a gen. case after it, de 
Joseph, p. 658, 019 «cXofl*^ Trairrev e^o^oi* 

— r^ xpitrei] This means some court of judicature, but not 
the Sanhedrim : and it has been disputed whether it means the 
court of 8even established in every principal town to decide 
petty causes, or the court of twenty-^hree. The existence of 
such a court as the latter may be doubted. There is no definite 
tiumber fixed in Deut. xvi. 18 ; and Joseph. Ant. iv. 8, 14, men* 
tions seven f apxiadwaav xaff iKacrrriv icokiv ivTa, 01 koi rifv 
a/oeri^ir^ koi t^v irepl to cUaiov cwovoiiv irpovftncipcoTev' iKaarif 
^6 Cipj^fi cvo cufcpet vrrtiperai dicotruwcrav €k t^s tou/ Aei/cToir 
<l>vXffi. See also § 38, where iirrd jc/ocraV is again used. It 
has been supposed that this court and that of twenty-three were 
the same ; that in smaller causes the seven decided : but in capital 
cases they added fourteen assessors which with the two Scribes 
made twenty-three : but there does not seem sufficient authority 
for this supposition. In causes of greater importance and capital 
ones, there was an appeal to the Sanhedrim: by the sentence 
of which court a malefactor might be strangled or beheaded. The^ 
Sanhedrim, and they oforae, punished with stoning, which was 
thought a more terrible death than the fcwmer. See Bp. Taylor^s 
Works, VoL viii. p. 360. 

22. iyd ii X67«u] This was a form of speaking used by the 
Kabbins when correcting or refuting any perdon'^s opinion, or 
animadverting on it. 

— <*rfi o^eX^^] The Jewish Church was made up of two 


denominationB of men, viz. brethren or Istmelitefi, who were all 
of one blood ; and netghbtmrsj or the men of other nations who 
became proselytes. Jer. xxxviii. 34. But under the Gk^ipel 
there is no distinction of men in respisct of deseent. Accord- 
inglj brother m the New Testament has a signification as exten- 
give as neighbour in the Old Testament, denoting all who profess 
Christianity, in contradistinction to Heathens. Matt, xviii. IS, 
17'- 1 Cot. 5, 11 : Heb. viii. 11, where dSeX^po^ and o irXirriov 
are used without distinction. In the Septuagint the word which 
signifies irepoi is in many places translated by a^cA^os*. 

Philo de Caritat. T. ii. p. 388, 40, a*irayopeiei toipvp aSekfpf 
&xvei^a»y, a^Xfpoy awptal^wv oi fiovov tbif iic TW¥ a\rrw¥ ^vvra 
yoviwv, dWa koI o^ av aarof fg ofAO^vKo^ i;. 
. --* €k^] This word is found in almost all the Greek MS9. 
' now extant, but omitted in some versions and Latin Fatho!^ 
and most MSS. of the Vulgate* The Syriac translation has 
retained it. Jerome says. In quibusdam codicibus addhur 
sine causae ceterum in veris deflnita sententia est; As if e«r^ 
had not been in the true copies. But how little Jerome is 
to be trusted in these matters is evident from this and many 
other instances of like nature. We find it in Justin'*s £p. ad 
Zen., in Irenaeus, Cyprian, Chrysostom, Euthymius, TheO]Ay* 
lact. Griesbach says de oonsulto omissum esse nulli dubitamus. 
Tantus enim entt plerorumque veteris ecclesise doctoram in mo- 
rum discijdind rigor, ut non sohim to opyi(^(BaBai eiit^, sed 
omnem omnino iram lege Christian^ prohiberi censerent. Horum 
aUquis to eucif, velut Christianse perfectionis studio oificiens, et 
sanctissimo nostro magistro minus dignum, suspieabatur in tex* 
tum insartum fuisse ab iis qui oommodiore vifi in coslum pervenire 
cuperent. Expungit igitur in suo Codice. Huoc postea aUi, 
iisdem praejudicatis opinionibus in transversum acti, sequebantur. 
Mill thinks it has crept into the text from the margin ; but he 
allows it to be very sntient, and almost of the Apdstolic age. 

Hesych. elic^, m^ rn/^ev, oMalpms, futriiv* Xen. l^yp^ 'x-ctA 
V. 5, £, jti^ €WTw^ corif fffAOi avrov^ cuTttifieOm* Polyb. i. 52, 2, 
tas €U6if Kt»i dXoyitrrvf^ toI^ irpdy/»eun Ke)Q}fnaL€Wo^* Aristopb. 
Ran. 7^®9 ovie fpapmutouriv eucif p^fUmt iy^p^frar Av. Prov. 
xxviii. 25, airicros av^p Kplvti cijc^. Cic. Phil. vin. 16, Omfiino 
irasci amicis non temer^ soleo, ne si merentur quidem* Jambl. v. 
Pythag. 33, int^re ird0os eyeiptirai ftiijiiv €i«c^ xai ^vXmt koI 
^pi<ipTifMivw9j otw evSy/uiia tf opyif. 

— ivo)(Oi €<rrcu t^ Kpiaei] He exposes himself to a degree 
of punishment in the life to come, which may fitly be represented 

CHAPTER y. 1127 

by that which ihiQJudgment (the court of seven) inflicts. Christ 
does not metin here that, anger or every scornful and reviling 
word deserves the same punishment from the magistrates as 
inurder, i. e. death. But that anger being an indirect vioUition 
of the Sixth Commandm^it, because it tends and disposes men 
to murder ; the judgment of God will take cognizance of anger, 
desires of revenge, hatred, reviling language, &c. 1 Johniii. 16. 

"^ pa%a] Used in the Talmud for a despiteful title to a de- 
spised man« Hesych. patcac^ Mvot* Soph. CBd. Cd. 986, tw 
woi iceiwv. Electr. 405, i/ov Ktevn- It is a Syriac word. Light- 
foot thinks it signifies soaumdreL Theophylact, rivet ^ to 
*Para Stywcrri Korafrrvarov ifMal aiifukiiteut* Chrysostomro H 
paxd TovTo ov fxeydXti? i<rTiv vfip€ms fnipMj oKkd /AoXXoy KaTa^ 
^opifaems ical oXiympias rtvo^ rev Xe^erro^. KaBdvep. yap 
flrMffct ^ cixeTiu^ If nai t£v KaraU€<rr€pm¥ eirirarrorrt? XryoMtir 
awekQe cni, ^ eiwi r^ oci vi ov, ovtw kuI oi twp ^pmv Kej^fievoi 
yXmTTtf fMucd Xiyovair^ orrc tw crv rovro ridtprcf . Augu^tin. 
de S. Dom. in Mont. Unum antaoa hie verbum obscure podtum 
est, quia nee Grawum, nee Latinum est Racha-— probabilius est 
ergo^ quod audivi a quodam Hebrseo^ cum id interrogassem ; 
dixit enim esse vocem non significantem aliquid^ sed indignantia 
animi motum expriraepteia. 

— ^ cnnmSpUp] Sub* nupa^raOiipai* Thia ia called y^poyaia. 
Acts V. 21, and Trpw^vripiov^ Luke xxii. 66. This is a word 
which the Jews adopted into thdr language, and giving it 
a Hebrew tenninatioii, Sonhedrimy appropriated it to their 
supreme council, whose business was to judge in the most 
impoftant affairs, f^r instance, such wherein a whole tribe 
waa ooncemed, those that related to the high priest, a 
false prophet, idolatry, treason, 8ec. It oenaisted of seventy- 
two judges, or according to othevs, of seventy besides the pihe- 
sideat To it appeab were made from inferior tribunals. It 
used to sit at Jerusalem. Its first instituticm is doubted. But 
at would seem that there were ahvays elders aa judges in the 
Jewish government. See Numb. xi. 16. And it is not im- 
pcohable that the great council appointed by Moses continued 
to exist, at least till the establishment of the monaicbical .govern- 
ment, though there are no proofs that its members retained 
the gift of inspiration. When such a court of justice took the 
form of the Saohedrim, is difficult to decide; perhaps under 
the Asmoneeaa princes : and possibly it might always consist of 
seventy-two menibers, in imitation oi the elders, but with very 
varyinif powers. 

|!88 ST.. MATTHEW, 


Christ pursues an analogy between the Jewish courts or pum^ 
ments, and the punishments of a future life : and his meaning 
in this place is, that scoffing and deriding our brethren is so 
great a sin, that it ought to be ranked among those that used 
to be punished only by the Sanhedrim, which took cognizance 
of none but the more grievous offences. 

--^of S av elmi] Scil. eiKfj. We see that Christ and his 
Apostles used such expressions as grave and weighty reprehen- 
sions xxiii. 17) 19 : Luke xxiv. 25 :' Gal. iii. 1,3: but the Phari* 
sees as malevolent abuse, which indeed the law of Moses did not 
punish ; but which is here absolutely forbidden. A few MSS. 
and the Coptic, Armenian, Persian, and Arabic versionB add 

— jULwpe] This reviling expression adds to the foregoing one 
an idea of maliciousness and injustice. FoUy in the stile of the 
Hebrews is commonly the same as wickedness and impiety. Ps« 
xiii. 1, &c. This is particularly the case in the writings of David 
and Solomon : so that it signifies not so much a weak thoughtiesB 
creature, as a man deliberately guilty of some heinous crime, a 
villain. By this name the Jews addressed the Samaritans, Idola- 
ters, and Heretics. ^ 

— evoyos etrrai €49 t^v yiewavl Sub. jShtfi^voiy xal Kara" 
KpiOfjvaty See Matt, xxiii. 33 : unless ei? t^v yeevvav be put for 
the dat. which Wolf would prefer. 

— yeevvav tov wi/pof] i. e. irvplipXexrovj in Gehennam ig- 
neam et ardentem. Alii dicunt esse hypallagen pro ek to nip 
T$9 yeevvns' See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 29. 

Gehenna is compounded of Ge and Hinnom, i. e. the Valley of 
Hinnom, from the name of its owner. Jerom tells us that the 
valley of Hinnom was a beautiful spot at' the foot of Mount 
Moriah, the mountain on which the temple stood. It was watered 
with the fountain of Siloam, see Josh. xv. 8. Here the Canaan- 
ites and afterwards the children of Israel were wont to make 
their children pass through the fire to Moloch. During these 
sacrifices, they made a noise with drums, that they might not hear 
the cries of their dying children. Hence this place was called 
Tophet. It was afterwards defiled by Josiah and made a recep- 
tacle for the filth of the city (2 Kings xxiii. 10: Jer. vii. 31, 32), 
where fires were kept continually burning to consume it : aiid it is 
probable if any criminals were executed on the statute Levit. xx. 
14, or xxi. 9, this accursed and horrible place might be the spot 
of ground on which they were consumed. However that were, it 
seemed both with regard to its former and latter state a fit emblem 


o(HM itself (See laai. xxx. S3: Jer. xix. II^IS), which in the 
Syriac language takes its name from thence, and was commonly 
called Gehenna by the Jews. See Mede's Works, p. 31. 

It must here signify a degree of future punishment as much 
more dreadful than that incurred in the former case, as burning 
alive was more terrible than stoning. 

23. wv] Comnumly signifies igitur, ergo, &c. but here it either' 
irXeoMx^ec, or is equivi^nt to ^. So Eustath. on Od. a, Oi)/c del 
airuikorfei o civ avwecrfiof^ aXX' iv $AVpioi9 icai irapavr\rip6l» 

— ' ia¥ irpoafpipm] If thou art bringing, if thou art about, 
or wishing to offer, &c. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 201. Thus 
Matt. xxvi. 25, Judas is called 6 TrapaiSiSav^ airou, who was 
about or wished to betray him. 

The Scribes and Pharisees held that the gifts and sacrifices 
brought to the temple were suffici^it to ei^piate for all offences, 
which were not to be punished by the judge, except those which 
required restituticm to be made first, and that without amendr 
ment of li#e. 

-— iwpow] This implies that it was a firee-wUl ofiering. It 
was usual ^th the Jews, who lived at some distance from Jeru- 
salem, to reserve their oblations till the next feast, whether the 
Passover, Pentecost, or Tabernacles, at which they were obliged 
to attend; and then to offer them; so that they might easily 
comply with this precept. At those times all Israelites were 
present, and any brother, against whom one had sinned, was not 
far from the altar. 

— ' duauurripiov] Philo de Vit. Mos. T. ii. 151, 13, rov ^ ey 
vraiBptfi fitopLOv elwOe ffoXelv Owrujumipioy, iiaavel TfipfinKow kqI 
^vKaKTtKov ovra Ovtnwv. 

— 6 aieXipoi] See ver. 22. 

— • €jf€i Ti Kara <r(w] Sub. eyxXijiuiy i. e. has any cause of 
complaint against y^ou, that you have done him any wrong. We 
meet with the same phrase, Mark xi. 25 ; Rev. ii. 4. In Acts 
xix. 38, we have it varied Xo7oi^ exety vpos.nya I and Col. iii. 13, 
€')(eiv fiiopjplip irpoi Tiva, 

24. ifAwpoaOey tov Buaiaartipiou] Added as an explanation of 
ml which had occurred before. Philo de Victim. fiouXerai 
avTovg dvaSi^^ai Sui cvfAJioXioy, mrore irpo€p)(pivTo eis fiwfiov^, 
ff ev^ofievoi ti €vj(apurriicoin'€9f fi9ioi» appdoTfifjia ti 7ra6<K ewt' 
(pepeaOai nr^ ^vxn* « 

— StaXXdyffii\ Schol. Thucyd. i. 120, ^cAXayiivai ecrrt to 
01 auToS ToS ijfOpov irapaKXifiijvcu xal ^iKitaOtivai avrw, Suid. 
^idKKaytjvai' same. See^ also Kuster de Verb. Med. i. 39* 



Thucyd. ii. 95, et 'Adi^vaioi^ SiaXXa^cici^ iavToif**'-^^ iroXc/i^ 
Ttel^ofjuevov. Loesner translates it Da operam ut adversarium 
tuum places, eique mutuo reconcilieris. In which sense iraraX- 
\aTT€ff$at is used in Philo de Joseph, p. 640, KaraXkayek ii o 
afrxioivoyoo^ eKXav0aMToi toZ tA^ jcoraXXcryar x/>oetrorro9. 
Phiio explaining the law of a trespaas-offering, (de Sacrif. p. 844), 
tells us that lirhen a man had injured his brother, and repenting 
of his fault voluntarily acknowledged it (in which case both resti- 
tution and sacrifice were reofuired) hn was first to make restitu- 
tion and then come into the temple presenting his sacrifice and 
asking pardon. It is said in some ancient Jewish writing, that 
the day of expiation did not atone for a man^s offences against 
his brother, unless he was first reconciled to him. 

•— • TOT6] Sdl. &aXXo7€i9 T^ o j«X0^ ^rov. Grotius thinks 
eX0»y here redundant. But as j/ntr/e goes before, it may signify 
fcoKiv ikdiivy as in Acts i. 11 : Horn. Od. e. 98, ov yap iij rou^ 
Toy /uev €/3oi;XtftKfa9 vow cwriiy m ^roc Keipov^ 'Oivaeik oiroTitr- 
aerai iXOiov, 

25. itrOi ewoAv] A periphrasis for motjcrov^ come to a friendly 
agreement. Luke xix. 17$ i<r0i i^oualap e^wy. 

Having told us what we ought to do to gain our brother'^s farour 
when we have given him just cause of offence, our Saviour here 
Counsels us what to do when we lie at his mercy for our debts due 
to him, viz. to do all we can anUcably to compound the mattery lest 
being brought before the magistrates we should be put in prison. 

Xen. Kvp. iratc^ viii. 2, 1, oi pdiiov e<m ^ikeiv tovv fuc^v 
ooKovpra^f 6vS eiiHHuv roiv iroicoyooc^. Soph. Aj. 698, /uicXtTr piip 
^ptwv, eivoetp ^ v/u^v* Menand. frag. p. 226, ver. 203> irap 
Tvj^p tJp ei;yooi;yT09 ouceTOVm 

— T^ auTiiUffi] Signifies a person who is going to law with 
you: here a creditor who is endeavouring to recover a debt. 
The manner of conducting the process was, he who entered the 
action went to the judges, and they sent oiBcers with him to seize 
the prisoner and bring him to justice. 

— etas oToul See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. c. xix. Sect. 1. 
§ 10. So Herod, ii. 173, /lep^i irou frXtfifip9j9 iyop^^. A few 
MSS. read iws oS. 

— - el cy r^ i^] To the tribunal ; i7r"'ApxoPTay Luke xii. 58. 
Herod. ix» 14, i^ £« ey rii 6^ ioPTi avnp 5X^« ayyeXifi* 
Thucyd. ii. 12, opUvres Ijiri tripSus iv dSy opra^^ 

— • fv^frore] Here for tm fAirrore ere m^ap^l^, &c. Hoogeveen, 
Doctr. Part. c. xxvii. Sect. 10. § 3. See the phrase complete 
Luke xiv. 29. 

CHAPTER y. 131 

-— r^ vvffpiTfi] The Official, Apparitor, or Executor of the 
sentence of the court, cal^ in St. Luke ui. 68, irpomtf/o, oi' 
Latin Viator who carried to prison him who wag sentenced thither, 
or inflicted the punishment adjudged. 

Aristid. T. II. p. 5S. o /uey yap €Xiyj(€i ra dcuciifjMTa o 
prirwpj icai vnpaitCtiKrt t^ SucaoTfim o ie cucovaa^ koI iiadtiv irapa^ 
diSoMTiv avToiv uirtipirait Kai ^ecroi eaff o dijtoo'ri}; cicucoyou koI 
p^opo£. Diod. Sic. xvii. 109, eroX/ifyatv ovrcSr xarafia? airo 
ToS fififutTOi Toi/9 tuTiovi T^ Tapoyjfis TW i0iat9 X^^' wapa' 
ccSfP€u To7s virfipeTCU9 vpav riji/ rifuwpiap* 

— fiXffi^] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 313. Anthol. ii. 37, 1, 
€19 fPuXoK^v fikrfiek nrori t/LdpKOi o apyoi^ 

96. ou Mn i^€X0m} The syntax common in the New Testa- 
ment, of these particles with the conjunctive instead of the 

— etf9] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 385^: Hoogeveen, Doctr. 
Part, c XIX. Sect. 2. § 6. For a^ several MSS« read ou. 

— ^oiroj^] £u8tath. II. a. p. 42, urrioy ae Sri oouvat fiiv 
ewf awAWV enovtriov ooa€m9, oCwr jra< to owpov. awooowai oe CTtf 
Twy j^peaxTTUcm ^^/newov, m teal 6 Aiy/Aocrdci^ olSe. — iiniiiovcu 
oe eoTi TO imxetva twi^ 7rpovirapj(pvTw» ooDimm. Thucyd. iv. 
66, airo^vvcu apyvpiov toktw* See c. xviii. 28, 30. 

*— Kol^pavrriy] The fourth part of an As ; it was the least 
brass coin the Romans had. Plut. in Cic. to XcirroTaToi/ toS 
yoKxoXi vo/xlo'fMTos Kovacpavrtiv iKoXouv, By means of the 
Roman garrisons, and Roman governors many Latin names and 
words were introduced into Judea ^. The Prutah, Xcirrov, Mark 
xii. 42, was the least piece of money among the Jews, and a coin 
merely Jewish. The Jews being subject to the Romans used 
Roman money, still they were permitted to use their own. 

In a figurative sense, which is that of Jesus Christ here, the 
prison is talcen foi' Hell, out of which the unrelenting sinner shall 
never come, because he shall never be able to make satisfaction. 

27* Toiv dpx'ouois:] Wanting in many MSS., versions, and 

^ Of tliose which occur in the New Testament, me A<r<rdpto¥y hripapto¥, 
Kai&ap, K€VTVptuWf itijuam, KoXtfwia^ Kov^rwhta, Af7C«ry \g¥TiO¥j \ip€p^ 
ri¥09, XiTpa^ fAdK9\\0¥, fitfi/Spdva, fAl\to¥, fioiio^, (earri^, 7rp€UTmpio¥, piha, 
ciKopuK, (TiiXiKiwBiovy , irouhdptO¥y aweKovXartap, Taficpvfi^ riTXa^^ <p6po», 

ippayeXXtov, ippa'y€XXov¥, besides proper names. There are few or none 
in the SeptoJsgint, which is a strong argument that the Septnagint 
was written before ihe Romans prevailed in the East 



— ou /ioi')(€u<r€t^'\ See Hoogeveen, Dbctr. Part. c. xxxix. 
Sect. 1. § 18. This the Rabbins interpret strictly, calling it the 
thirty-fifth precept, " forbidding to lie with another man's wife.*" 
Many things are produced from the Talmudists to shew some of 
the Rabbins condemned this looking on a woman as a very vile 
thing, yet nothing is produced from them to shew they held it 
forbidden by this precept. Of the purity of the Hebrew law 
Philo gives this account, de Vit. Jos. roh ^ oXXocr hpeirai fiera 
Ttiv T€(r<rap€<rKcui€KaTfiv ^Xuciav wopvcu^ icai j(aficuTU7roK koI 
Taf9 oaai fuadapvovo'iy r^ adfiart fiera ir6KKd% aceia^ jfpiiadcu' 
Trap jjpiii/ ^6 ov^ eraipq. i^^CTiv^ ciXXa Kara rfi^ eTaipovenf^ 
wpiarcu ciKtj Oavarou, irpo £i; avpo^u voiaI/ulwp ofuXlaP irepa^ 
yvvaiko9 ovk 'lo'fiev, aXX ayvoi yafKwv dyvai^ vap6e¥Oi9 ir/Mxrcp- 
yofiSa^ irpoTtBeipiivoi TiXos oif^ rji^ovtiv, ciXXa yini<riwv walowv 

28. P^Xiirwv] for efifiXeirwy, The phrase pKeireiv irpas to 
eiriOvfiijaai is also expressed by inrofpQaKpxqv. iBlian. H. An. ill. 
44, edv iiro<p0dKfudawaiy erepoK. It is also expressed by ewi- 
PdKkeiv Tov^ 6<p6aKfiov^f Gen. xxxix. 7* iwefiaKcv 17 yvvi^ toS 
Kuplov avTov Tov^ o<f)6aXiuLOV^ avTfj^ eirt Itaafifj}. 

— vpo^ TO, &c.] for eis to, &c. i. e. ivtrrc* 

— - e7ri6u/uLvi<rai] This word denotes all loose desires which are 
either the causes or effects of impure looks, still implying an 
acquiescence of the wiU. Iseus, Or. 11. p. 378, ifSfi yap rivcy 
veoi apOpwwoi iTnOvfuiaavref toiovtwv yvvaucwv koi OKparik 
i')(ovT€9 auTwv, Plut. de Genio Soc. p. 594, irepi t^ yvvaucos 
j;9 etrtOvfiwv ervy^^avev, 

— aiJr^] Some read airiiv, Exod. xx. 17> ovk hrtOvfiiiaeK 
rrjv yvuaiKa tou TcXfialov <rov, 

•— ifSfi] Jam ex eo tempore. See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part*-' 
c. XXII. § 6. 

— ifioi^evaev ai/r^i;] See ver. 8. So .Plut. Pericl. ou fxoifop 

(e^i?) Tas X^'P'*^ ^^* Ka6apd^ ^X^^^ '^^^ (rrpanfyovy dXXd Kot 
xa9 &y(^€K. JElian. H. V. xiv. 42, SevoKparti^ 6 nXaxows eral- 
/009 eXeyeVj /uLticev oia(p€p€iif fj /toi/s itoia^ 17 tov^ 6(f>0aXfuiOus eU 
aXXorpiav oiKiav Ti0€vai. ev tovt^ yap afiaprdueiv tov T€ eU 
a iJirj oil jfiopia fiXiirotrra, Kai eU ov^ fiii Sei tottov^ iraplovra, 
Ovid. Am. iii. 4, 3, Siqua metu dempto casta est, ea denique 
casta est ; Quae, quia non liceat, non facit ; ilia facit. Ut jam 
servaris bene corpus ; adultera mens est : Omnibus occlusis intus 
adulter erit. See Bishop Taylor^s Works, Vol. xii. p. 469. 

29. oipOaX/jLO^ cov\ The Hebrews were accustomed to com- 
pare evil desires and lusts, &c. with the members of the body : 


and therefore to pluck out an eye, or cut off a hand is synony* 
mous with <rravpovv t^v trapKa, Gal. v. 24 ; and vcKpwv to, fieKti 
TO. eirl Tt}^ y^. The meaning therefore of the passage is, deny 
thyself, not by amputation of the members, but by the force of 
a strong resolution, the use of thy senses, though ever so delight- 
ful, in all cases where the use of them ensnares thy soul. Turn 
away thine eye, and keep back thy hand from the alluring object. 
Or as Bishop Porteus says, the eye to be plucked out is the eye 
of concupiscence, and the hand to be cut off is the hand of 
violence and vengeance, i. e. these passions are to be checked 
and subdued, let the conflict cost us what it may. Similar to 
this we find in Seneca £p. li. projice qusecunque cor tuum 
laniant, qute si aliter extrahi nequirent, cor ipsum cum illis 
evellendum esset. Cic. Phil. viii. 15. In corpore si quid ejus- 
modi est, quod reliquo corpori noceat, uri secarique patimur, ut 
membrum aliquod potius quam totum corpus intereat. Heliod. 
jUthiop. II. p. 104,. Tols <rw/uoTos o^aX/uoi9 roi^ t^s V^OC^^ 

— o ^^lo^] Aristot. de Animal, incessu, c. iv. <f}v<r€i /3eX* 
Tiov TO oe^iou ToS apurTcpov, 

— aKavSa\i^€t] aKoyccOiov is properly a snare or stumbling- 
block, so as to occasion a fall : i. q. irpwxKoixtia as Judith v. 1, 
KOI iOtficav eu toI^ ireiioK cjcav^oXa ; see also xii. 2 : in which 
sense Seneca uses offensa: per hujusmodi offensas emetiendum 
est confragosum hoc iter. Metaphorically whatever is the oc- 
casion of leading thee into sin. Wisd. xiv. 11, ei9 crx-ai/JoXa 
ylfv)(a7^ avOpwTTWv. Hence CKaviaKiCetv to be an occasion to 
sin, to cause to sin, and midd. (TKavoa\il[ea0ai to fall into sin. 
See Bishop Taylor's Works, Vol. iii. Disc. 17f of Scandal, 
particularly p. 213. 

— e^eXe] Heliod. ii. 84, tov o<p0aXiui6v efciXc rw ^e^iov. 
And jieXTiov tfv daripov fie rwv oKpBoLKfxwv ekaTTwdijvmf ijTrep 
iiri aoi <f>povTll^€iy. Philo, idy koXKo^ i^ctfi/ aip€0^9 avr^ Kai 
fieXXif^ irraieiv trepl avro <f>vy€ Xadwv atro Ttj^ Kpavraaias avTov, 

— frvfjJpipei \va a7roXi;Tai] for cvfitpepei' atrokeaOai ti o\ov 
TO awfAa (Tou fiXtfirjutu ciy tjJw yiwvav. In xviii. 8, we find 
kclXov ecTTi for trvfiff^epei^ and ciy to rrvp to qmoviov. In a similar 
expression St. Mark uses kclXov cVti /maXXoi/. 

— fiXrfi^^ Some read aireXQyi which perhaps has come from 
Mark ix. 43. 

30. -xelp Sc^id] Tibull. i. 7j 80, venerit iste Si furor, op- 
tarim non habuisse manus* 

31. eppeOti] Here apyaioi^ is not added: and perhaps to note 


that this was not a precept given by Moses to divorce their wives, 
as the Pharisees suggested, xix. 7- ^^^ ^^^y ^ permission in 
some cases so to do, as our Lord there answers, ver. 8. 

Among the chapters of Tahnudical doctrine, we meet with 
none concerning which it is treated more largely, and more to 
a punctilio than of divorcer: and yet there the chief care is not 
so much of a just cause of it, as of the manner and form of doing 
it. They seem to have dwelt not without some complacency 
upon this article above all others. 

— atroaTOKTiov] Same as )3f/3Xfoy airo(rra<rfov, xix. 7) ^^ 
Josephus ypcQiiiutT€iov avoXvaenK* See a copy of one in Light- 
foot^s Hor. Hebr. and Talmud, p. 147* The word is derived 
from aff^laraoQai' Hesych. avocrracriov* to wiroKwrai t^ ywrnm 
Kut ypa^cu. amcrrcuTiOif' The word is not to be found in pro- 
fane authors. It eignifies a note or writing whereby a man 
declared that he dismissed his wife and gave her leave to marry 
whomsoever she would. This being confirmed with the husband^s 
seal, and the subscription of witnesses, was to be delivered into 
the hand of the wife either by the husband himself or by some 
other deputed by him for this office.: or the wife might depute 
some one to receive it in her stead. This must be done in the 
presence of two, who might read the bill both before it was 
given into the hand of the wife and after : and when it was given, 
the husband, if present, said behold this is a bill of divorce to 
you. The Jews shamefully abused the liberty they had of 
putting away their wives, and exercised it with capricious and 
wanton cruelty. See below, xix. 3. One of their Doctors, 
Akiba, delivered it as his opinion that a man may put his wife 
away, if he likes any other woman better. 

Some commentators have supposed this and the following 
verse to have been spoken when the Pharisees proposed their 
captious question, xix. 2, and added here by St. Matthew on 
account of the similarity and connection with this part of the 
sermon on the Mount. 

32. OS ay airo\v(rfi\ Several MSS. read 9ra9 o diroXvwv from 
Luke xvi. 18. It signifies to repudiate, Dion. Hal. xi. p. 96, 
airoXvcrai Ttip-eaurci yvvaiican 

— TrapcKTos \oyov ^iropveias] for vapetcro^ wopvela^, i. q. ei 
/uf7 errl wopvekj^^ xix. 9 : \6yov being redundant as in 2 Maoc. iii. 
6^ irpos Tov Twv dvaiojv Xoyov^ i. q. irpos Tay di/crcas. Acts xx. 
32, Tip 0e^ Koi Tip Xaytp Ttji xapiroii currov, for tj} X^P*'''* 
avrov. Isocr. in Epist. Socrat. ab AUat. editis p. 19» cJy aper^ 
\iyou — irXslara <rvfxfid\KcTat. In Diog. Laert. xi. p. 228, 


Aiutippus wys wei^iap flip xai irXof rav irpot i^iop^ \oy0p elpag 
ov^y. Diod. Sic iv. p. 847> irarras ^ o t^ krroplas Xiyot 
roff i(o09«Di;(riif eiraiims eir tof aimpa KoQiiunitrep* So also in 
Juv. VII. 1, we find ratio studiorum for studia: Bt spes et 
ratio studiorum in deaare- tantum. S<dus enim tristes hfic 
tempestate Camoenas Respexit. — See MiddIeUm» Gr. Art. p. 188. 

— ito/mwuk] here signifies adultery. Amos vii. 17> 9 yvvvi trap 
€P T^ TToXu TTopp^v^fi* HoTe sub. Kol yafA^ari ^XXifi^, see xix. 
9- In the Constitutions of Clonens we have o^icare^^tfF rifv 
wapafpBupeitraFy 0J<re«w 9iaiiou irapopofMn. itr^iwep o Koreym 

In this verse only one just cause of divorce is acknowledged, 
vix.. adultery. Yet the Apostle, 1 Cor. vii. 15, plainly allows 
another, viz. malicious and obstinate desertion in either of the 
parties; and that because it is wholly inconsistent with the 
purposes of marriage. We must therefore suppose, that our 
Lord hare speaks of the causes of divorce commonly said to 
be comprehended under the term undeanness in the law; and 
dedares that none of them will justify a man^s divorcing his 
wife, except fornication. 

— awaXeXvfUpnp] Middleton says, not ^^her that is divorced,^^ 
or dismissed, but any one that is divorced. This distincticm 
maj appear frivolous, but the principle of the distinction is 
important. The force of the precept is indeed here the same, 
but that will not always happen. 

— woUi avTfjy fioiyjSurOai] Is the occasion of her committing 
adultery. Some MSS. and Greek fathers here read Mecx«*'^$vtt*> 
which perhaps has been placed hfere for the other, in order 
to Gomj^y with the rule of the grammarians, that fiQij(€i9tp and 
iMtyaaOoi are used when speaking of husbands, funx^vscrdoi of 
wives, and the verb here to be taken in the passive senae. 
Thomas M. inoi'jprrQi aprip, fkok-xjnmrm 17 yvv^. 

33. waktv\ porro, item, praeterea. One MS. reads w\^. 

— ovK ewio/Miro-sis] The Jewa often ccmtracted the weightier 
precepts of the law, that they mi^t be the more easily remem- 
bered, into short forms or jNroverbs. And pur Saviour speaking 
to the common peo|de seems to have expressed these and some 
other precepts in that form which they generally used and 
best understood. Etym* M. ewiopfftiv* 17 inn TrpoQwvs erroS0a 
ovri 'nni unp Kurcu^ xmt Stikoi to virc/cKiiw twp Sp^mv <yfVeaAw 
ma vit9pfimw§tM cnrrovs. In Isocr. <id Demonie. evapKup is put 
m opposition to in-topmiv. And Xea. Anab* m. S, 1(H if^veiopp 
rmn ipKout in ojqposition to eircuficeiy, whieh is ^plained by 



T(i9 (rwovca^ Kal tov9 opKout \v€iv^ Cic. Off. iii. 29) Nom enim 
falsum jurare, perjurare est; sed quod ex animi tui sententk 
juraris, sic verbis concipitur more nostro, id non facere per- 
jurium est. 

*— d?rodcMr6f$, &c.] Alluding to Deut. xxiii. 21: Levit. xix. 
12. See Exod. xx. 7* Numb. xxx. 3. Dionys. Hal. A. R. xi. 
p. 696, /uLapTvpopuai 6eoi)s «cai wpoyovwv ^ai/uoi^avy oU M-era Oeovr 
oevripa^ ri/ucif Kal y^aptras airc^iiofiev Kotva^. In the same 
way Ovid uses reddere for preestare, Her. Ep. xx. 95. Non 
meruit falli mecum quoque Delia: si non Vis mihi pnomissum 
reddere, redde De«. Demosth. de fals. leg. p. 243, ei /jtev yap 
'frpoace^aiTo ^wxias av/uLfidyov^, xal fuff ufiwv Touq opKow 
avToh anoSolti, tov^ ^/w OerroXoc); Koi Ofifiaiov9 cyucovr 
irapa^iveiv €v9v9 apayxaiov tiy. 

The doctors affirmed that oaths are obligatory according to 
the nature of the thing by which a man swears, Matt, xxiii. 16. 
Hence they aUowed the use of such oaths in common conver- 
sation as they «aid were not obligatory, pretending that there 
was . no harm in them ; . because the law which forbade them 
to forswear themselves, and enjoined them to perform their vows, 
ineant such solemn oaths only as were of a binding nature. It 
is this detestable morality which our Saviour condemns. 

34. fii} ofiotrat o\wi\ Mich, governs this by ^ei. Bos. Ell. 
Gr. 352. Palairet by deXcT-e, and Kypke by the preceding 
verb XeyW' Dem. adv. Polyc. p. 7185 Xe*yw r^ tcufiepvtfTfi 
dvoirXelv els t^v Oacov, Eurip. Here. Fur. 332, oiy^iv xX^pa 
TTpotnroXois Xcyfti. 

Though this prohibition is expressed in a very general and 
absolute manner, it must notwithstanding admit of some restric- 
tions, as must also several other passages of Scripture that 
are expressed in general terms. What Jesus Christ forbids here 
is swearing by the creatures, and all such rash and profane 
oaths as the Jews were wont to utter upon every trivial occa- 
sion, in their common discourse with each other, without any 
kind of necessity, but only out of a bad custom or with a 
design to deceive. He does not condemn swearing truly before 
a magistrate, or upon grave and solemn occasions, because that 
would have been to prohibit both the best method of ending 
controversies, Heb. vi. 16, and a high act of religious worship, 
Deut. vi. 13 : Isai. Ixv. 16 ; an oath bding not only ft solenm 
appeal to the Divine Omniscience, but a direct acknowledgment 
of Grod as the great patron and protector of right and the 
ftvenger of falsehood. This we learn from Christ's own examj^e 


and that of St. Paul, who in cases of moment often sealed 
the truth of what he deUvered with an -oath, Bom. i. 9 : Gal. i. 
20 : 2 Cor. xi. 31 : 2 Cor. i. 23: Phil. i. 8. If all swearing 
had been unlawful, he who professed himself a disciple of Jesus^ 
and an instructor of others in his religion, would never have 
left upon record such testimonies against himself. See Bp« 
Taylor'^s Works, Vol. iii. Discourse x. on the Decalogue, p. 23. 

£pictet. Enchir. xi.iv. optcov irapairtiatu^ ei fiev ofoi/ re, eit 
aTtwt' €i a fill, eK Twy ivovrwv. Plato, opK09 vepi iravroi 
aweoTw* Menander, opKov ie fpevye, k^v Sucabo^ ofivvffi, Philo, 
{^ir€pi Tmw ^jca Xcrfimv) KoKKurrov koi fitaHpeXetrraTov, xat 
ap^oTTov Xoyucfj 0t/crfi, to avwfwroVf ovtw9 aXffieieiv €if> 
ixaaTov JcoiJa<y/uei^, W9 tov9 Xoyov^ opKov^ yo/ui^e<T0cci. Chry- 
sostom in loc. d Oifu^ oKu/s ofiwvcu, ovce avdyxfiv irrayeip opKov^ 

— fiifre €v ovpca^f &c.] The Septuagint also use ofivieiv iy 
^im, the Greeks timi or Kara rtvo?. Areth. in Apoc. x. 6, 
^o a kv T^ ^£vTi cfff Tovf ciAva^ hoKel fiey a^XKiffTTOv cTiwti, 
oiuni€iv yap Xeyerai Kara rivo^ ouk iv tipi. 

Our Lord is here giving a catalogue of oaths which, in the 
o{»nion of the doctors, were not obligatory. Philo forbids 
men to swear by the Supreme Cause, but says he (de Leg/ Spec, 
p. 77^) vpoaKafiirio nrh ci (iovXtHTo^ mi} fi^v to avarraTov Koi 
trpeafivraTov ei0v? alTtoy, aXXd ytivy ffKtoy, currepa^, ovpavoy. 
Toy cvpurayra Koafioy, The Romans seem to have understood 
the opinions of the Jews on this point: for Martial speaking 
to one of them who denied some wicked action he was accused 
of, says, XI. 95, Ecce negas, jurasque mihi per templa Tonantis : 
Non credo ; jura, Verpe, per Anchialum, i. e. the Most High 
does not live; which was the most solemn oath a Jew could 
take ; being the oath of the great God himself, who in Scripture 
is introduced swearing by his own life or existence : As I live, 
saith the Lord. 

The oaths here mentioned were common oaths among the 
heathen; Eurip. Med. *J41y ofiyv TreSoy yih^ ^aripa ff ^Xtoy, 
Hippol. 1029) Kal iriSoy yfiovo^ ofiyvfii. Soph. Menalip. ofiyvfu 
^ iepov cuOip, otKijaiv Af09. Orpheus fragm. v. 1, oupavov ooki^w 
<rc Qeov fieyakau aofpoy epyov. Apoll. Rhod. 699, oXX oiiooroy 
yaiay Te Kal ovpavoy, Virg. ^n. xii. 197) Hsec eadem, ^nea, 
ttrram, mare, sidera juro. 
• — Opovof iiTTi T'ov 9«ov] Isai. Ixvi. 1 : Matt, xxiii. 22. 
Athen. v. 4, o 6p6yo9 airo fiovov eXevOepio^ €<m KoBiipa avy 
vtroTToSup, oyr€p Bp^yvy KoXovyTe?, eyrevOey avrop (oyofuuray 
OpoyoVf Tou OpjiaaxrOat x^piv^ oir€p iwi tov Ka0i(^e(r6cu Taacowny. 


Herod, iv. 68, rav jSoaiXifcat i(rTca9 vomot Sicvdifcri ra fiaKi<Fra 
ian oiiinipai Tore, iirwiv rov fUyurroy opKOv i$ikwaiv ifiLwimu. 
Thuc. VII. 93. See Middletop, 6r. Art p. 188. 

35. viroiroJioy] PauBan. v. 11, imOfiiAa to vttq t-ois iroau 
Philo de Cherub, p. 126, oiH yap ei irSaa yij j(py(ros lire 
ypwrcXi Ti/iaX^^T€pop ^eraficiKovaa €^oi^M|9 yivoiro'^'yivovr 
&v (id<m avTod toi^ iro^iv. Orpheus ap. Clem. Alex. 
cuiros yap jaaXxeiov 69 avpavoy eanipticTeu, XP^^^V ^'^^^ Bpovfp. 
yaifi c viro irocrai /ScjSiiice. 

*— 'Cfs *l€po(roXc//ua] eis here is used as iy before. It was 
common with the Jews to swear and vow by Jerusalem. *^ As 
the altar, as the temple, as Jerusalem*" are expressions frequently 
to be met with in their writings. In the Gemara it is, He 
that says as Jerusalem, does not say any thing till he has made 
his vow concerning a thing which is offered up in Jerusalem. 

-— ^€ya\ov] here used for niyitrrov, i. e. of Grod, who 
was in an Especial manner their king. See Mai. i. 14: Ps. 
xlvii. 3. 

36. M^c ii^ T^ ice^oX^] This also was an usual form of 
swearing among the Jews, who said to their neighbour. Swear 
to me by the life of thy head. Now saith Christ, the preser- 
vation of that life of which the head is the fountain, is not 
in thy power, but depends entirely upon him by whom we live ; 
and so to swear by it is in effect to swear by him who hath 
the power of life and death. 

Eurip. Helen. 841, aXX' ay vow opKov aoy xapd KaTWfioan, 
Cic« pro dom. sua* 57, Meque ac meum caput ea conditione 
devovi, ut si. See. Yirg. Mn. ix. 300, per caput hoc juro, 
per quod pater ante solebat. Catull. lxvii. 40, Adjiuro teque 
tuumque caput. Athen ii. p. 66, on ^ iepov eyojul^oy riiy 
M€0a\i}v, ^^Xoy ic rov icai kqt ai/r^ ofuffieiv, 

— — 01/ fiiav] i. e. ou^e/uiiav. Not spoken of change of colour, 
but Hew production. 

37« iarw vfiwu 6 \iyoi, &c.] The Hebrews repeat the 
affirmative to give it more strength, 2 Kings x. 15. It has 
by some been supposed to be put for o \0709 v^aHv o val (your 
promise or assertion) e^rrw val ' and o \6yoi v/ulSv o oi ifrrm oi, 
as James v. 12, You ought to be satisfied with bare affirmations 
or denials. The Jews have a proverb among tb^n to this 
purpose, t£v itxawv Mai eari vcu^ koiou earlv oi, you. may 
depend on their word ; as they say, so it is ; as they promise, 
so will they do. Philo, o i^S avovSaiov \oyos opK09 iffrm 
/Se/Saco^, cucAii'.jJf, a>//ei;S6<n"aTos. 


— TO je wepifftrov tovtwv] Sdl. vol imd ov« ^lian* Y. H. 
ziv. 32, rd yap wepiTrd TouTmv* Eccles. xii. IS. 

— vat val] This manner of converting adverbs into nouns, 
is in the idiom of the sacred writers ; as 2 Cor. i. 20, all the 
promises of God iy avr^ to vat jcoi iv aur^ to d^^v, i.e. 
certain and infallible truths. It is indeed a commcxi idiom of 
Greek, to turn by means of the article any of the parts of 
speech into a noun. And though there is no article in this 
passage, it deserves to be remarked that Chrysostom in his 
CommentarieB writes it with the article, and therefore he must 
have either read it tiius in the CG|»ies then extant, or thought 
the expression elliptical, and thus have supplied the ellipsis. 
And indeed in this way they appear to have been always 
understood by the Greek fathers. 

— ex Tov wovffpoiv] Arises from the temptation of the devil; 
o nrovtifm bdng most frequentiy used in the New Testament 
to signify the wicked one. Matt. xiii. lO^ 38 : Eph. vi. 16 : 
2 Thess. iii. 3, &c. The article here determines nothing respect- 
ing the question whether . the meaning be ^* of evil,'^ or <* from 
the evil one.^ But the Syriac version has in this place the 
same word that is used for o irovripoi^ Matt. xiii. 19) and its 
undoubted cases « wherever they occur, and for tov &a)3oXoS, 
Acts X. 38, with which therefore rot; wovrfpov in the verse 
before us is made synonjrmous. And so in the Lord^s prayer 
the fathers almost unanimously understood it. 

38. o^aKfiov avTi o(pBaXtioS\ SciL hiaei^ or Sweet. Abresch* 
frc»n a similar passage in iEschylus says the complete sentence 
will be o eiac6^f/a9 o^aiXfiov Ttpcroi 6<p0cikfiov dvrl o^oX/ow. 
See Deut. xix. 18, 21 : Lev. xxiv. 19, 20 : Exod. xxi. 24. 
There was a law at Athens of a similar kind, made by Solon. 
Diog. Laert. in Sol. i. 67» idv fiiv iva 6(p0aKfitov iypvros eKtoayfni 
TK, avT€KoirTeiv roii; Svo- The Jewish doctOTs -generally main- 
tain that this punishment might be redeemed by money, except 
in cases of murder ; or tiiat satisfaction might be made for it 
by a pecuniary mulct. And Josepbus tells us (Ant. iv. 8, 36) 
that if any one would not take pecuniary satisfaction, he was 
deemed crud. So from the twelve tables. Si membrum rupit, 
ni cum eo pacit, talio est. Among the antient heathens, private 
revenge was indulged without scruple and without mercy. The 
savage nations in America, as wdil as in every other part ci 
the world, set no bounds to the persevering rancour and the 
cool deliberate malignity with which they will pursue for years 
together, not only the person himself from whom they have 


received an injury, but sometimes every one related to or 
connected with him. The Arabs are equally implacable in 
their resentments ; and the Koran itself (v. ii. c. 17) in the 
case of murder allows private revenge. 

It appears from Deut. xix. that the law here mentioned was 
given as a rule whereby magistrates were to be directed in 
taking cognizance of the wrongs and injuries that were offered 
by one man to another. The Jews made a very ill use of the 
precept, when they enjoined men to insist on retaliation as 
their duty, and declared it lawful in many cases for the injured 
party, at his own hand to avenge himself, provided in his 
revenge he did not exceed the measure prescribed in the law. 

39- fiii avTitrr^vai t^ iron;^] i« q- r^ acucovvTi, Exod. ii. 13. 
See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 418. St. Paul in some measure explains 
this precept, Rom. xii. 17, fitf^vt Kaxov dvrl kcucoS avoiiSom-e^. 
1 Thess. V. 15, opare fxi} tk kgkov avri kokov tcfi aTToSi, So 
Pet. i. 3, 9, M*7 dvoii^irret iraicor avrl iccucov, ^ \oiSopiav avrl 
\0ti0pla9. Plato, Crit. oHe aSiKou/ULeyov oei avracucety, and oSre 
apa avracuceiv oei out€ kcucw^ voieiv ovoemi atfupaytrwvj ovo a» 
iriovv '7ra<r)(ti vtt avrSp. 

To understand this part of our Lord'^s sermon aright, we 
must remember that the Jews under the sanction of the law 
of retaliation mentioned above, carried their resentments to 
the utmost length, and by so doing maintained infinite quarrels, 
to the great detriment of social life. This abuse of the law 
Jesus here condemned, by ordering men under the Gro^i 
dispensation to proportion their resistance of injuries to their 
nature and importance. And to direct them in this matter, he 
puts five cases wherein Christian meekness must especially shew 
itself, and in which he forbids us to resist. Yet from the 
examples which he mentions, it is plain that this forbearance 
and compliance is required only when we are slightly attacked, 
but by no means when the assault is of a capital kind. In 
some circumstances smiting on the cheek, taking away one^s 
coat, and the compelling of him to go a mile, may be great 
injuries, and therefore are to be resisted. The first instance 
was judged so by Jesus himself: and the example of St. Paul 
who repelled with proper spirit the insult offered him as a 
Roman citizen, clearly proves that we are not to permit ourselves 
to be trampled on by the foot of pride and oppression, without 
expressing a just sense of the injury done to us, and endeavouring 
to avert and repel it. The expressions therefore are probably 
of the same kind as ver. 19, cutting off the right hand, and 

CHAPTER y. 141 

plucking out the right eye: strong Oriental idioms;^ figurative 
and proverbial, intended to describe that peculiar temper and 
disposition which the Gospel requires; that we should not suffer 
our resentment of injuries to carry us beyond the bounds of 
justice, equity and Christian charity, but rather give way a 
little in certain instances than insist on the utmost satisfaction 
and reparation that we have perhaps a strict right to demand. 

— arrtar^vm] Set yourselves in a posture of hostile oppo- 
sition; and with a resolution to return evil for evil. Thus 
atrrairoStiavatf Bom. xii. 17- Schleusner, injuiiam illatam non 
vicissim rependendam esse. Euin., Non tantum resistere, sed 
rependere, retribuere. Whitby, in matters easy to be borne, 
rather to suffer them with a Christian patience than to contend 
before a judge about them, or to require compensation of him 
for them. 

— *0(rn9 ae pavicet] This is alleged as an instance of the 
most heinous affront. Job xvi. 10. 'Pavl^eiif derived from pawk, 
virga, fustis, properly signifies virgis, sc. baculis caedere, but 
here to strike with the palm of the hand. Plutarch. Sympos. vij. 
8, eirj Kopprfi pawil^wy i^ifiaXev. Also Qusest. Rom. p. 267» 
wmowrw eirx Kopptfi koi pawi^ovaiv* Achill. Tat. v. kuI pairt^et 
fjL€ jcara xopptf^ vXiiy^iv Bvfiov yi/xowrav — o o€ in yJSKKo^ 
ofTfiarBeisj oti k€u <f)wv^9f aKpijKaf pairti^ei iraXii/. 

The striking of a free man on the cheek with open palm, 
was only matter of disgrace, and he that did it was by the 
law of the twelve tables to pay twenty-five asses: and by the 
Jewish canons to pay, if he gave one blow on the cheek, two 
hundred zuzees: if he gave him another, four hundred: and 
these mulcts were established and inflicted by the judge. 

Seneca de Ir&, ii. 34, Cum pare contendere anceps est, cum 
superiore furiosum. Percussit te? recede: referiendo enim occa- 
sionem ssepius feriendi dabis. Some others of the heathen 
philosophers perceived the folly and weakness of revenge. See 
above: On Plato^s sentiment oi)£e doiKov^evop oel atrraoiKeiv, 
Max. Tyr. has a dissertation tending to support and confirm 
it. Add Hierocles, Menander, Jamblichus the Pythagorean, 
Metellus Numidicus, Musonius, Lysias, and Zeno. 

-r-^e^taV] In some MSS. wanting; either from negligence 
of the copiers, or the parallel passage of St. Luke vi. 29. 

— aWvy] for eripavj as xii. 13. 

— aTpky\fov\ Scil. yJaKKov. Thus Jer. vii. 19. The Seventy 
have ovyi eavrau^ for otrvl iavrov^ iaSKXov* St. Paul has the 
full phrase 1 Cor. vi. 7) ciarl oi!x^ f^SKKoif ahiKeiaOe; ^piipeiv 


i. q. irapeyetv, Luke yi. 29- This is an allusion to Isai. 1. 6, 
and Lam. iii. 30. Le Clerc thinks it a proverbial expression, 
and compares it to the Latin os priebere calumniis, which is 
found in Livy iv. 36: and Tac. Hist. iii. 31. 

40. KpiOffvai cot] for xpiO^vai avif (xoty Mich, in Bos. EU. Gr. 
p. 468. Sue thee at law: in which sense it is used in the 
Septuagint: Job xix. 3: Eocles. vi. 10: Joel iii. 2: Hos. ii. 3. 
Eurip. Med. 609} w^ ov Kpivoufiai Twvie erol rd irXeiopa, See 
Kuster de Verb. Med. ii. 6. 

— ^cTcSi^a] By the Jewish canons a mulct of 400 zuzees 
was allowed for this. We have no very proper terms in our 
language to convey an idea of the Jewish garments; and the 
words used here admit of different senses. It may however 
be observed, that the j(itwv here signifies the under garment, 
and \fxaTiov the upper, which was commonly more costly. Diog. 
VI. 6, Antisth. i^ioyiyei jftTwva aWoXipTt wrv^at wpocrcTa^e 
OotfiaTiov, Pausan. Corinth, ii. j^iTwy yap oi \cvko9 epeos xai 
ifiaTiov iiri^fiKifrai, -^lian. V. H. i. 16, eviuvra tov j^iTwva 
Kal TO \fiaTtov irepi^XKojuLevov* 

— Xa/Seci^] i. q. aipeiv and afpaipelaBat, Cic. de Off. ii. 18, 
Est non modo liberale, paullum nonnunquam cedere de jure 
sua, sed interdum etiam fructuosum. 

— auTtS] irK€ova^€u Thucyd. iv. 93, T^ 5e 'IiriroKpareif 
4)irrt nepl to AffXioy^ cms avT^ rryye\9fi, oti Bocorroi iiripyovrm^ 
wcMirei TO trrpaTevfia, Pind. 01. a. B. 10, Tav ol TLaTtip 
vitepKpefiaae Kaprepov auT^ XiOov. 

41. ayyapevtrei] Taken from a Persian custom, instituted 
by Cyrus (Xen. Kvp. iratS. viii. 6, 17: Herod, vin. 98), and 
continued by his successors, which was also in use in Judea and 
the Roman empire, viz. that the posts and public messengers 
were wont to press the carriages and horses they met on the 
road, if they had occasion for them, and even forced the drivers 
or riders to go along with them. See also xxvii. 32. Among 
the Jews, the disciples of their wise men were excused from 
such services, but Christ advises his disciples not to insist on 
that exemption. Han way (Travels, Vol. i. p. 262) tells us, 
that in the modem government of Persia there are officers not 
unlike the antient Angari, called Ckappars, who serve to carry 
dispatches between the court and the provinces. When a 
Chappar sets out, the master of the horse furnishes him with 
a single horse, and when that is weary, he dismounts the first 
man he meets and takes his horse. There is no pardon for 
a traveller that should x^jFiise to let a Chappar have his horse, 

CHAPTER y. 143 

nor for any other^tliat should deny him the best horse in his 


. Hesydi. ayyapos* ipydrti^y vrnipirffff iyQotf^opo^. ri Xe^if 

futroKftopdin* Suidos, ayyap^ia* f} ornAoaia irai avayKaia ^vkeia* 
ayyapeiav avayKtiy aKovaiov Xeyofiei^ Kal ix ftia^ ytvoiuevffv 
vmfpeaiop.^^ayyapwttrOM icoXov<riir, wairep tipJai^ pwvy to 619 
iPofmgyiav xal Totavnyv rtwa vmfpeaiar ayeaOai. Joseph. Ant. 
XIII. S, 3, ireXcMs ci fifjce dyyapevetrBai ra 'loviaUov virol^vyux, 
NiooL Dam. teal o/ui irifiwfi nra tAu irurrordrtov ayyapov^ 
ovTw yap iKokaw rov? /SoafXew^ ayyiXc^, Epictet. iii. 26^ 
tof X ayydpBia ri, xal (TTpaTuirrfi iinkaftrfrw^ M^ airrlrewe, 
fufje yiyyv(ii. JBsch. Agam. 27^» <f>pvKTo^ ^ <f>pvicT6y ^€vp' 
atr ayydpov itvpo^ cireM^s. 

— /ilXfov] Originally a Latin word, but in the time of 
Polybius admitted in Oreek, as in Strabo vi. who cites XIoXv/Suk 
f airo T$9 'lairvylat /le^cXfOtfdac ^lyai* xal ehtu jaIXuz <f>^pl 
tW S^ov mXiy. And yii. /ulXia ^ ccrrl, fj>ff(ri IloXv/Sfo^y ravra 
iujLKoaia i^ffKom-a iwru. See Note, p. 131. 

— -wiraYe] Sub. ^uoXXov. 

42. T^ QlradifTi] Sdl. ri. Blair would refer this to vovtfp^^ 
Ter. 39, but it is necessary to limit it : and in this point of 
view it would be similar to ver. 44. This precept of charity 
must be regulated by the circumstances of the giver and the 
wants of the person that asks. See 3 Cor. yiii. 13, 14 : 1 Tim. 
▼. 8. 

-— airo <rov iav^laaa^iu] commonly used with trapa. Theo^ 
phrast. Char. xi. wapd tUv trvfivpecr^vrwy iavel^etrOai. iElian. 
V. tk XI. 9, ^v€iad/x9pa^ irapd TIP09 rAy itoXitiSf. Plut. Solon. 
HctweiaayTo avyyoy apyvpioy irapd TiSy irkovaiwv, Aristot. 
(Econ. II. frupd Twy j^iymy iavetl^ofAtuoi. But in Philo quis rer. 
div. her. p. 680, we find ejourro^ ^fiwv avyKpaOeU itc tw reaffdptay 
" Koi Sayeurd/Aevoi a<l> iKd<rrov dvaior fiMcpd lAopta^ xaff wparapiya^ 
mpidioVf Koipmv itcriei to idy9tov. In the middle voice it signifies 
to borrow, either with or without usury, here the latter, and 
perhaps without returning the sum borrowed, as Luke vi. 35, 
JoM^rrs fAfi^v awcXiri^orres. Theophylact on this vene says 
idw9urfia Si oi civ roic^i Xe^y^f oXXct t^v dirkw XP^^^i ^^' 
Kol iv T^ yofiitp X^^^ TOKoy iSdyeJ^oy. 

-— awoorrpa^^] dmHrrpet^iv signifies to turn away another. 
Midd. drroaTpi^oBah to turn away one^s self from another; 
hence to refuse, to slight, or reject. Joseph. Ant. iv. 6, 8^ 

144 ST. BfATTBSW. 

n/v ieffffiv vfAwv airo<rrp€(f>6iUL€9a, opposed^ to irpOfnpcafttOa Ttj/if 
V fieri pav a^iwariv. And v. 1, 25, ixTpamimov &e ek exepmp 
€0v£v /uiifUfaiVf airoaTpa<j>riao/uL€vov to yivoi v/ulwp. Soph. (Ed. 
Col. 1337 — fin m' avoarpax^ri^j for which he has afterwards 
ari/uaerop irifL'^evs. Eurip. Helen. 77^ tiS^ w ToXalirwp ocrris 
wv fi aire<rrpd<l>fii' 

Tobit. IV. 7i M*} airoaTfiiyfiris ro irpocwwov trov airo iramk 
'ttTWjfioXit Mi airo <roZ oi fui airoaTpat^ti to vpocranroy toS Ocov. 
Fhilo quod Det. Pot. Ins. p. 159» 09 yv9f(rlou9 fiev Oepaweias 
oo-ira^eTOi-— ^09 ie voBov^ a'n'0(rrpi<f}eTaij p* 17% o ^ aT€ 
ayoBoi Kxu iXcoir Tout uoeTW owe diroarpeipeTai* 

43. ayaini<r€i9 ir\ti<riov] Lev. xix. 18. The latter part of 
the quotation fiurti<r€i9 tov iyOpov aov does not occur in the 
Old Testament in express terms, yet it frequently-, occnrs in 
terms that were looked upon as equivalent. The doctors pie- 
tended it was deducible from the first part of the precept, which 
seems to limit forgiveness to Israelites. Besides they suppcHrted 
their opinion by the traditions of the elders, and the precepts 
concerning the idolatrous nations round them. Thus they weie 
forbidden ever to pardon the Canaanites, Deut. vii. 1, the Midi* 
anites. Numb. xxxi. 2; the Amalekites, Exod. xvii. 14; and the 
Moabites they were never to receive into their body politic, nor 
to do them any good. Finding themselves thus exjtfesaly oom* 
manded by their law to hate and extirpate the heathens who 
lived in or near to Canaan, and observing that there was no 
precept enjoining kindness to the rest, they considered all the 
heathens in one light, and thought themselves under no obliga- 
tion to do o£Sces of humanity to any of them, unless they em- 
braced the Jewish religion: but rather looked upon them as 
enemies of whom they were ordered to avenge themselves as 
often as they had an opportunity. Tac. Hist. v. 5, says of them, 
Apud ipsos fides obstinata, misericordia in promptu, sed adr 
versus omnes alios hostile odium .... Transgressi in morem 
eorum idem usurpant: nee quidquam prius imbuuntur, quam 
contemnere Deos, exuere patriam ; parentes, liberos, fratres, 
vilia. habere. They were so excessively haughty that they would 
j^t so much as salute a heathen or Samaritan ; none but breth- 
ren received the least mark of .respect from them. They refused 
the common civilities to foreigners. Juv. xiv. 103, Non mon- 
strare vias eadem nisi sacra colenti, Qusesitum ad fontem solos 
deducere verpos. 

— iiAurn<r9t9f &c.], This addition of the Pharisees agrees with 



those pasanges of Hemod, €py. i. 340, tov i^nKiwr ewl SaHra 
tcaXelv, iyOpov Si eaaaC and 353, kqI S6/UL€y os k€v ocS, icat firi 

COfl€¥ 09 K€lf flfl dw. 

44. evXoytire] Charitably and sincerely wish them all man« 
ner cf good. 

— — iroXm irocelre] i. q. d^yadoirotef re, Luke vi. 33* See jGrlass. 
Phil. Sac. p. 269. Sab. ek^ Bos. £11. Gr. p. 412. Do not en- 
deavour to retaliate upon your enemy, but endeavour to subdue 
him with weapons of a celestial temper, with kindness and com^ 
passion. See Rom. xii. 19) 21. 

— • Tovi /uucrovj^a^] T019 fiurovaiv in a great many MSS. In 
several they are wanting, as well as the preceding dause*. And 
some of the Fathers omit them; Origen seven times ; Theophilus 
Antioch. Athenagoras, Chrysostom, Tertullian, Cyprian, .&c. 

— iinfp€a^ovTm\ In profane writers generally has a dat. 
case after it : in the New Testament always an aoc.. 

Eisner thinks this clause is to be interpreted chi^y of mali- 
cious prosecutions in judicial courts, £ir^pea^€cr and ^uoiceiy 
having frequently a forensic signification. Others again trans- 
late them, sUnder, abuse, revile. But as our Saviour has b^oic 
given directions for our conduct towards those who are evil- 
minded {iyQfum) towards us, and to those who insult us by 
words (jzarrap^fUvov^i) so here he directs our conduct towards 
those who injure us in deed. So Demosth. adv. Mid. p. 395, 
(Atw KJHivepws Kal fuapHs itrffpeai^wv waptiKokoiOTfarw- And 
p. 415, €1 &€ fill mvTcs iwaieaOef fAfiSe iravrei etrfiped^eaOe 
XmfnffoSifTeS' Isaeus Or. v. emipedl^eiv (iovXo^evw. Philo in 
Flacc. p. 97^9 Ti/AiJM Twv <l>t\air€j(09ifA6vioy fierd Tiyym ewtfiou- 
XeuovTWf, Si fiv Of fitv iirtjpedl^ovTei ci oo^ovaty aSiKeiv, to7^ 
^ iinfpeal^ofA€»oi£ ouk cur^oXe^ €vaifTiov<r0ai, ou yap eaTw, w 
yMvwmtHt T1/U11 Karakieiv vojiiov^, e0ij irdrpia laveiv, iwfipeai^eiv 
TOI9 avvoucmkri, p* 983, el^ vtjy auaiav eiriipefUTOfivtu (pdcxKwp^ 
In p. 990, tfinypeia is used in the sense of malevolentia, olS ari 
/uoXcuri^o/tiCM irpoi Oduarov i^ eTTijpeiai oaifiovos ovk enriTpevovros 
fiot nip ddXiav ^^Myr amrrofULwg diroppii^cu* 

This doctrine of loving our enemies, even while they pernst 
in their enmity against us, may seem contrary to the precept 
Luke xvii. 3, where forgiveness seems to be enjoined only on 
ccmditidn the injurious party repents. But the difficulty will 
diaq)peflr when it is remembered that in the two passages dif- 
ferimt persons and different duties are spoken of. In the sermon, 
the duty we owe to mofMnd in general^ who injure us, ia 
described ; but in St. Luke we are told how we are to behave 


146 ^Ts MATTHEW. 

towards an offending brother, one. with whom we as^ particukrl j 
connected, whether by the ties of blood or friendship. The 
duties we owe to the former may be received by them even 
while they persist in their enmity : whereas the forgiveness due 
to a brother implies that he be restored to the place in our 
friendship and affection which he held before; for which his 
repentance is justly required. 

45. iirwi] See Hoogeveen, Doct. Part. c. xxxvi. Sect. 1. 

§ 6. 

— y€vti<r0€] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 326. 

— i/ioi] Some MSS. here read o/uumm for i/ioi* 

-— * vuH Tov varpof] i. q* fOfitrrdi tou Oeov, £ph. v. 1. That 
ye may shew yourselves by a conformity of disposition to be his 
children. Augustin. de Temp. Serm. lxxvi. Similitudinem patris 
actus indicent sobolis; similitudo opens similitudinem indicet 
generis; actus nomen oonfirmet, ut nomen genus demcnstret. 
Hierocles, /ui/uov/mmo; ip toi^ rij^ (fiiXias fieTpoit tqv Qeov 09 
fiiam iJiiv fktjioiva dtSptiirwiy, Toy oe ayaSov otaifiepovrms curm" 
^6T«i. Cic. pro Maroello, hsec qui faciat, non ego summis 
viris comparo, sed similUmum Deo judico. 

— • avarcXXci] properly a neuter verb— here used actively. 
See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 252. Seneca de Benef. i. I9 Quam multi 
indigni luce sunt, et tamen dies oritur. Pind. Isthm. vi. 110, 
111, OFeTviXav wap wr&yiai KdSfjLou iruXauS' Philo de Nom. 
Mut. p. 1053, tMffwov €Tf)tnov avariXkew* Horn- II- e. 777* 

— j(ri] Palairet translates by enim* Schmidt, non causale, 
sed declarativum. 

— — fipiyei] Sub. 0«oc« or o «-ari;p v/jlUp^ See Gen. ii. 5. 
The Greeks sometimes join o Oeev or ZcJ^ to irci* Horn. II. fi, 
25, ve ^ apa Zet/V. Herod, iii. II79 vet a^ o Bcof. Lucian 
Dial. Deor. iv. 2, Vol. i. p. 209, oiie /Wov cZ^er (of Jupiter) 
€V T^ Fapyaptp tov iotrras t^ai, fipovrwrras tcai aaTpawd^ 
irwoSifTo^ : Joseph. Ant. vii. 12, 1, {jp^aTo S vew irupttxpSiiM 

O B«09. 

Thomas M. fipiyei, ouS^h riop apyjaiwf cTirfii^ iwl ierovf aXX' 
v€i. TO fip^X^ ikivTOi €Wi Toiv aVoXvi'o^ciwv etiro iiatoit 0a<rf. 

— ifri ^ucalov9 xai a^ov^'] Plin. Paneg. Sol et IMes non 
oritur uni et alteri, sed ommbus m commime. Seneca de Benef. 
iv. 26, Si Deos imitaris, da et ingratis benefida. Nam et socle* 
ratis sol oritur^ and piratis patent maria. It is highly probaUe. 
that the philosopher took this sentiment from this very passage 
of St. Matthew ; for no such sublime muorality is to be found in 
any heathen writer prewmn to the Christian Revelation. 


46. ayan^atiTc] Sub* iwvov* See ver. 47* Some read dyonraTj!* 

— ix^^l ^^^ ^^^Tc, which is the reading in some, e^d is 
the versiiHi of the Vulgate. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 309. 

^-^ ovjfif &c.] Used for a strong affirmation. See Hoogeveen, 
Doct. Fart c. xxxix. Sect. 1. § 13. For to miro a few read outuk. 

— tcXmku ] These were not the Publlcani whom Cicero calls 
the flos Equitum Romanorum, &c. but Portitores, although 
originally it seems, from the derivation of the wprd, that the 
Fublicani were so called, ot reXm wnimimevoi- The Publicani 
(Gr. i9ifio(Ti£vai) were those who for a certain sum farmed the 
taxes : the FortitiM^s, generally low, abandoned men, were those 
employed under them to levy the taxes in the different towns, 
to receive the customs in harbours, or on crossing bridges, &c. 
Some of them were Jews ; and by how much the mote grievous 
the Heathen yoke was to the Jewish people, boasting themselves 
a free nation, so much the more hateful to them was this kind 
of m^; who though sprung of Jewish blood, yet rendered 
their yoke much more heavy by these rapines. The other Jews 
would have no manner of communicati(xi with them. They 
looked upon the profession as s^^ndalous ; and all reXwvai were 
to them very hateful. The Scribes and Pharisees looked upon 
them as unfit to be conversed with upon any account; even 
though it was to reclaim them from their evil courses. Their 
opinion was that God had cast off all care of them, and never 
intended to grant them repentance unto life. So that whenever 
any v^ry wicked persons are to be mentioned, we find TeXweu. 
coupled with them: Matt. ix. 10, 11 : Luke xv, 1, rekHyai xal 
ofiapTwhol : Matt. xxi. 31, 32, rtXApai Kal Tropvai* Among the 
Greeks also the TtXwwu seem to have been of the same stamp. 
Theophr. Char* vii, iravioytiami Ka\ wopvofiofrxfiaai, ical re^a>- 
tniaaif koi firfi^fiiav ata')(pdv ipycufiap iar^oKifiaaai. Flut. de« 
Vit. J&Jt* Alien, to reXarvsTv ovethoi trfcXftrrag tov vofxov htiovroi^ 
WToi ttapavofkmi ^arci^otfcn T^Xmvovvre^. Stob. Serm. ii. iv fiiw 
TOiS op€^t¥ apKTOt Kal X^uT€^f iv Se raif troXeinv reXivat Koi 

4fJ. iunraanaOe] Denotea all outward signs of friendship, 
such as kissing, embracing, wishing well, &c. more intimate than 
XacpeiF. It is the word used by the Apostles in th^ir saluts^tions. 
See Rom. xvi. Here perhaps in a more extensive sense of 070- 
w^r, in which signification it \» found in common Greek. Max. 
Tyr. Diss, viir, «kftc UTrepi^ioP rod rvpawou, rov tSiwTfiv ticrva'* 
ttro. Dion* HaL A* B. in. p. 151 9 aamXpvraL oXXiJXoi/? . • . • 
MTV i^rrofr fi royf a^eX0ov«. See Herod, i. 122 : Xen. Ages. xi. 

X 2 


3. Philo de Temul. p. 264, koI w <f>lKa rd ejfipa d<nra^€<rBai, 
De Gigant. p. 288, Tfjv aperfj^ <l>l\ffv oKiyoSeiav irpo twv ctv^cq- 
Tos oucelwv dairal^ofjLevoif tov TrdKvv koi clvyivvtov o')(Kov agnroyowv 
ij^Opwv KaraXvofiev* 

— a^eX^oi/v] which is the reading of most MSS. and old 
versions. Some r^ad <f>iKovi^ which seems to have been added 
by way of explanation. The Jews embraced their own coun- 
trymen and welcomed them as brethren. But the Gentiles th^ 
thought unworthy of that honour. Griesbach says tptkov^ inter- 
pretamentum est, quo indicere aliquis voluit, dSeXfpovf desigDare 
non fratres sensu proprio, sed ex Hebrseorum loquendi usu 
amicos. Verum falsa est haec interpretatio. De amicis antece- 
dente commate disseruerat Christus ; h6c vero versu dieXKpol 
sunt Juda&i, qui quoscunque suae gentis homines suaeve religioni 
addictos fratrum loco habere, popularesque suos solos irXjfcrcor 
iavTtSv (Luke x. 29} 36) existimare solebant. Hinc dicXipol^ 
mox scit^ opponuntur iOyiKoU quos indignos putabat Judsus, 
quibus salutem diceret. 

^ — ri ^epuTiTov, &c.] What excellent thing ; or more than 
others do. Herod, ii. 32, iLtiyapajcrQai trepia-ad' Zosimus iv. 
ir^piTTol iv iraiieit^* Long. Past. II. «cXeo9 cl^ei^ eu to7^ iro^yuif- 
TCU9 iiKCuoavvtj^ TrepiTTfjf- 

— oi reXwvai] Many MSS. and old versions have oi iOvtKol 
Most probably TcXwvai was taken from the preceding verse. 

From the seeming jingle between TeXwvai and reXeioc, Wet- 
stein argues that St. Matthew originally wrote his Grospel in 
that language and not in Hebrew: and Lardner adopts the 
argument. This would however be at once overthrown by the 
reading iOviKoh And it is by no means improbable that the 
text was corrupted for the sake of the jingle. ' But even admit- 
ting the received text to be genuine, the similarity of sound 
must have been merely accidental. Whether St. Matthew wrote 
originally in Greek or in Hebrew, these words in the Greek 
text must be equally a translation from the Hebrew or Syriac 
For they are part of a discourse delivered by Christ, certainly 
not in Greek, but in the vulgar Hebrew or Syriac. 

-— ovToi] Some read /TO ai/ro. See Hesiod €py* i« 351. 

48. co-fo-de] The Vulg. reads estote, taking the fut. for imper. 
Abresch. says iactrBe is equally imper. with ifrre^ See Hooge- 
veen, Doct. Part. c. xxxix. Sect. 1. § 18. 

— tcXcicm] Deut. xviii. 13, TeXeios cavi cvavriov Kuplau • tov 
OeoS <Tov* In St. James i. 4, the Christians are reXeioc who 
are iv iJitfi€Ui Xccfro/uevoi. Philo de Abrah. p. 354, Noah is called 


reXeuK, tis w fiia¥ aper^y, oKKa iratrat ixriiaaTo, kqI KTtitTa- 
H€V9i iuicrrri jcard to eirtfiaXKov j^pwfuvo^ iiereXeaev, And 
again, ivslvei^ ort re\eio9 ^v ev Tti yeveq. avrou, ctikoiv ori w 
KaOfiira^' aWa Kara avyKpi(riv twp kut eKeivow rov yjp6vo¥ 
yeyovoTwv ayaSos iv, Sherlock, Disc. xiii. Vol. 3, says the 
precise meaning is. Let your love be universaly unconfined by 
partialities, and with regard to its objects as large as God^s is. 
PcNTteus, Lect. vi. p. 157, i* ^- ^ your conduct towards your 
enemies, approach as near as you are able to that perfection of 
mercy which your Heavenly Father manifests towards kU ene- 
mies, towards the evil and the unjust, on whom he maketh his 
sun to rise as well as on the righteous and the just. This sense 
of the word is established by. the parallel passage in St. Luke 
vi. 36, who uses the word oiKTipyiOPe^^ See also Bp. Taylor^s 
Works, Yol. viii. Sect. 3. p. 278, how repentance and the pre- 
cept of perfection Evangelical can stand together. Joseph. Ant. 
Proem. 4. o ii ifieTepw vofioQerti^ aKpai<l>vij nji/ apertiv e\ovTa 
roy Oeov oiro0^ya9, oSi^di; deiv tou9 auOpwirou^ €jcciyi|9 ireipaaOat 
M€TaXaAi/3ayciv* Max. Tyr. vi. 2, 'jrik oyy yevoivr av o/moioi 
ii>0pwir(H Au ; fJii/ULoifi€VOi ojutw to <r<acrTtKOv Kal ^iKtiriKop Kal 
rarpiKoy Sii toiJto. 

Chap. VL 

1* irpaaej(€T€] Scil. tov vovv or T^y cidvotay* Augustine 
translates it Cavete. See vii. 15 : 2 Chron. xxv. 16 : xxxv. 21 : 
Levit xxii* 2. Thomas. M. irpoaej(w aoi roy vouy icaXXior ^ 
irpoaeviu <rof yjiwoy, Plut. Pelop. p. 282, aTrtfei irpoa€')(wy eaur^, 
Aristoph. Plut. 113, Trpotreye Toy vovv lya iwdti- iElian. V. H. 
XIV. 43, TraiFV aipoSpa Trpoaiyovra Tijy Ziav<Hay> 

— i\efllM(riyn»\ Literally, pity or compassion : in the New 
Testament a work of mercy, particularly almsgiving. Callim. in 
Bel. 152, <ri!>^€0' /mi avy i/neio irdQm kcucov eiyexa^ T^<r^e 'Ayr 
eketifioavyfis' y^apvros ^e rof iaaeT d/xoi^ii. Diog. Laert. Aristot. 
V. 17, trovfip^ ayOpwvtp eXeffjjLoauytiv eowKey* See Gen. xlvii. 
29 : Ps. cii. 6 : Tobit xii. 9, 10 : Ecclus. vii. 10 : xxxii. 2. 

In two Gr. MSS. the reading ^iKaioauvtiy is found : the Syriac 
and Arabic versions and some Latin Fathers also have it : and 
Griesbach admits it into the text. Wetstein says, Approban- 
tibus H. Grotio, J. MilUo, J. A. Bengelio aliisque ; licet de 
significatione vocis justitise non idem sentiant, aliis ea quicquid 
recte fit, prsecipue vero preces et jejunia, de quibus in sequen- 
tibus sermo est, complectentibus, aliis contendentibus, voces jus^ 
tiiifle et eleemosynse ex usu Hebraeorum hie esse synonymas. 


Utro modo iaterpieteris^ non video quomodo hie locum tenere 
•pomt. Si priori modo, desidero loca in quibus jgunium et 
}vece8 Tocentur justitia (Bp. Peerce has attempted an answer 
to this in Comm.) : qin juste vivit, dicitur Sucmoavvtiv voi^lv^ non 
Tero irmeip Tt;v iiKaio&vvrfw uvrcv* Si posteriori, non facile per- 
suadebunty Matthseum ubi de eadem re agit, eodem earn verbo 
ter appellasse, semel autem alio, quod non poterat non obscuri- 
tatem paarere ; neque auctoritas Latinonim apud aequos Judices 
major esse debet quam Grscorum testimonium. It was not 
unusual for our Lord to introduce instructions regarding par- 
ticular duties by some general sentiment or admonition which is 
illustrated or exemplified in them all. See vs. 20, and following 
verses. Hence Besa, Doddridge, Rosenmiiller and others use 
this reading, and think this a general introduction to the follow- 
ing verses, in which the caution is branched out into the par- 
ticular heads of alms, pray^ and fasting. The authorities how- 
ever for this departure frcmi the common reieuling seem scarcely 
sufRdent to warrant its adoption. 

— • TtfM iXefifiocrvvfiP Vfuiv] Middleton says (6r. Art. p. 190) 
the article and pronoun here only imply in our Saviour a pre* 
supposition that his hearers did alms in some way or other, and 
his precept is therefore limited to the manner of doing them. 
The liberality which you and all men exercise, must be free 
from ost^itation. This presupposition having been once sig- 
nified, the phrase afterwards ver. 3, 3, falls into the more general 
form of what he calls the Hendiadys : Part i. c. 5, Sect. 2, § 1. 

— /utf wocecy] He does not forbid us to do works of charity 
publicly, for on some occasions that cannot be avoided; but to 
do them publicly with a view to-be seen of men and to be ap- 
plauded for them. Chsuity to men should proceed from love 
to God : such a principle alone can render it acceptable in his 
sight. See Porteus, Lect. vii. p. 168. 

— tUv ardpctfiraiv] Men generally. See Middleton, 6r. Art 
p. 190. 

— wpo^ TO Oeod^Hii] «yM>9 here expresses the intention with 
which die Pharisees act; to be b^eld and applauded as on a 
theatre by the q>ectators. This and vwoKpcreA are theatrical 

Arrian, Diss. iv. 8, icaXcS^ Evff^pa'nii eXc^ev, ore cwtiroXi) 
ewetp^fk^iu \aMi¥€i¥ fpiktHn^peiv. koi ifr /uo<^ ^Nf(r<, <rovro «!^«* 
XifiiWf. UpmT&v fk€¥ y€ip ^oeiv^ oo*a jraX«S^ citoiovf, ore ov ^ 
TOV( 6carav inoiovv, aXka &i ifiavra^* i/adioy iiiourr^ xakmy 
icttTcaroXfisvov cI)^ov to /SXe^^io^ roy irepliraToy' irdt^ra e/uavrf 

CitAPTER VI. 151 

Ml T^ 0€^. Cic. Tuac II. 95, Mihi quidem laudabiliom viden- 
tur omnia, qua& sine venditatione et sine poptilo teste fiunt, non 
quo fugiendus sit, omnia enim benefacta in luce se coUocari 
volunt, aed tamen nullum theatrum virtuti oonscientia majns est. 

— €1 oi /u^V^] Sell. Trpaae^re fitf voieiv. See Hoogeveen, 
Doctr. Part. c. xvi. Sect. 4. § 13. See Matt. ix. 17: 3 Cor. xi. 16. 

— oiJif e^fcre,] i. e. ovj(^ efcre. The present frequently put 
for the fut. 

— fun(T0ov] They expected a reward fcHP their alm»-doihg, 
for the mere work done. 

— ToT^ ovpawH^'\ In some tois is wanting- 

S. fii^ ftaX'Triarff^'] To be taken here as active, not neuter. 
See V. 4£: and Glass. Phil. p. 3S2. 

It is not apparent from the Jewish Canonists, who treat of 
alms very largely, that it was customary with the Jews to sound 
a trumpet when they distributed their alms: and therefore this 
seems only, as Chrysostom and Theophylact observe, a proverbial 
expression for making a thing puUic, and for doing it in a 
noisy ostentatious way, affecting to do acts of charity in the 
most open and public places. Achill. Tat. viii. p. SO?) aurti 
a ov^ ifo caXinyyi fiovov, aK\d Koi KtffWKi fioiyeverau • Basil, 
'tffi eviroAa% (raKiri^ofkimji o<f>€i\o^ ov^y, Cic. £pist. Fam. xvr. 
91, Quare quod poUioeris te buceinatorem fore existimatioiKis 
meie, firmo id constantique animo facias licet. "^See Bishop 
Taylor's Works, Vol. xiv. p. 398. 

— oi i/irorptraJ] Hesych. 6 ip Ttf crKtfv^ vfroKpivofi€V09. 
A stage-player, one who acts under a mask, personating a 
character different from his own. Hence it is applied to a dis- 
sembler, one who assumes and acts under a feigned character. 
Eustath. in II. if, virotcptnit irapa roh wrrepoyeviai ptiropaiv o 
AwJ €/c '^vjftj^ Xe'ycDF ^ vpaTTwVf fiifce airep <ppoveij oiroiai^ 
^ptormt /AaXurra oi oc t§9 OvfieXtfi, oi (ncf/PiKol, 

— • avvaymyals] Public assemblies in general, probably here : 
though it may without impropriety refer to religious assemblies : 
but hypocrites were not the only persons who joined in public 
prayer or who gave alms in the synagogues properly so called. 

— piz/uuxis] Phrynich : - 'Pi/Atiy, ical rovro julcv 'AOtjvaiot eiri 
'nj^ oppLtit erideo'av' oi ie vvp dfULaOeii eirt toS (rTeponrov* ooKeT 
w fiot Kal TovTO MaKeiifffiKOP flvai. aWa arepwwop koKcIp ypi^* 
pifxifp ie Ti^p opjuLijp. Hesych. pvfifff 6 (rrepunm. Pollux ix. 38, 
Tajja y Slp eipot^ icat pifirpf eiptfitievTjp koI irXareiap w ot i;i/r 
Xiyowrt, In Isai. xv. 3, the Seventy translate by pvfmah ^hat 
other Greek translators interpret by irXaT€?ai. 



— airexovai] for a(l)€^ouah »o v. 46: they will receive, 
obtain from others^ in the sense of dnoXafieiVj Phil: iv. 18: 
Luke vi. 24. In no passage of the New Testament where the 
verb occurs, can the sense of '^ hinder'" be properly admitted. 
Wharever in the Septuagint the verb is used actively, the meaning 
is not to hinder, but to obtain. This is also the interpretation 
of the Vulgate, Syriac, and other old versions. And Wolf 
observes that cerrexw with the ace. fu<rdov always has the signi- 
fication of receiving. In Plut. Sol. p. 90, among Solon'*s laws 
was one to fiti^e rois e^ iraipa^ yepofnevoit evcufayKc^ elyoi 
Tov^ 'nrarepas Tp€0€ii^-— o yap iv Yci/uq^ irapopiv to kclKov, ov 
reKPfov eveKa o^Xoi etrrii;, ctXX' ^Sovij^ ayo/mevos yvyaiKO. top 
re fxi<r96v dve^eij &c. Apothegm. Lacon. p. 217? "frpoi 
'Ay fjaiXaov irXf/yevra iv ^o\n vtto Qtijialwv, aire^cis, el^rc, 
TO, oi^aaicdXia, /ui; /3<hAo^«voi/9 airoih /u^^ eirKFTCQiiivow fJLdj(eff' 
0€u SiSd^a^* Joseph. B. J. i. 30, 6, dXX c'/co fiiv direj(w r^ 
daefieia^ to iwiTlfxiov. Philo de leg. ad Cai. aVe^ci /liv ti 
^dXaiva yaaTijp o dwirrei SdveioV' Callim. Epig. lviii. to xpeos 
0)9 aire^ei^. Anthol. 6r. i. ^9^ 1, cxXtidiyM wapd cau tw 
p^Topoff €1 o* dfteXeiipOfiVf tiiv ti/uiii/ aire^o), xal irXeov cimI 
0iXor. Hor. £p. I. 16. Habes predum. Thomas M. dirij(to 
Tifv ^dptv jcctXXioi; fi Xafifidvw. So Theophylact in loc. €irai- 
PovfA€voi yap to irdv ctveXafiov irapd twv avOptawwv. Theo- 
phanes Homil. xix. p. 121, airiyown tov .luaOw auTwv' o yap 
dperfjv ficTiwv Kul co^av dvOpwrrivriv eij) off wpaTTci {^tiriv, 
Xajiwv ov €^ijT€i fjLurOoiff €KW€irTa)K€ Tov ouTOf^ fiiaOod, 

— jULiaBov] iElian. V. H. Frag, speaking of a person killed 
in consequence of sacrilege, says tov fiiaOov liviyKUTo toStov 
iriKpoTaTov. Lactant. de Mort. Persec. c. v. Ut esset posteris 
documentum, adversarios Dei ssepe dignam scelere wxo redfen 

— TOV fjLiadov avTwv] It is with peculiar propriety that 
human applause is here called their reward^ as being that which 
they choose and seek. The Jews held that Grod punished the 
evil deeds of good men in this life to reward them in the next: 
and rewarded the good deeds of wicked men in this life that 
he may punish them in the next. 

3. ti opifTTepd^ Scil. x^ip* This is a kind of proverbial 
expression, which implies, Let no one, not even your intimate 
acquaintance, know what you do. Be ignorant of it yourselves, 
if possible, and forget it immediately. In a similar manner 
Antpninus speaking of the man who is liberal to the poor, says 
oi&i olStv o 7r€iroi,fiK€v. Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. oKX* ow^ airot 

. CHAPTER Yl. 153 

o eXewp, on iXeeij yimiaKeiv o^cXei. And Chrysost. Horn. xix. 
in Matt. p. 184, oi x^H^^ aiviTTerai^ dW' virepfidkiKw^ avro 
TeOetKev* ei yap tSov T€ i<rrl, ^iprtt kqI aeavrov ayvoijirai, 
irepunrouicurTov c<rrai col toSto' k^ aird^ ivvuToif ^ rd^ Sta- 
Kovavfiiva^ Xeipais \a6eiv* oi/^ w nm ^Muriv, ot< tov9 trxcuoik 
jec Kpuirreiv diSpdvov^i irdprm ydp evravBa Xavddpetv tM' 
\ewre. Ligbtfoot says, he seems to speak according to the 
custom used in some other things. For in some actions which 
pertained to religion, they admitted not the left hand to meet 
with the right. 

4. ivm^ fi\ i. e. yivf/Tau 

— ffy T^ Kpvtrr^^ Scil. x^P^V * ^^ Kpuipa. 

-^ o pKevwv €v T^ iTjOvwr^] i« e. to cm ry Kpvirr^ or xpufba 
ye0Ofi€yoPf sdl. Ttiv eXetifuxrvmiv trov mevoifipmytpf, &c Thus 
xxii. 30, er dpav^ fost which St. Mark has o\ ip oupau^ : x« 23, 
ip T^ wokei^ for o\ iv r^ woXei : Mark viii. 26, iv Ttj Km/utti for 
Tvy iv Tfi icmfiti* 

— avTos] Wanting in several versions and MSS. Palairet 
tranaiates it by sponte, ultro. 

— ip T^ <fHxpep^'\ These words are not found in- some antient 
and valuable MSS. ; are not received by some of the Fathers ; 
and wanting in some versions. Though they occur three times, 
ver. 4, 6, 18, Griesbach thinks St. Matthew only wrote them 
once, viz. ver. 6 ; and that they have been inserted to correspond 
with the ev t^ Kpinrr^ thrice repeated. But though wanting in 
Origen and Jerom and some others, the greater number of Fathers 
insert them ; and Whitby contends for their genuineness. They 
may signify, in the sight of men and angels, at the day of judge- 
ment ; See Luke xiv. 14, where liberality is commended, dpra- 
*>roic0iia'€Tcu ydp aoi ip r^ dpacrrdtrti tUv ^kcuwv, 

5. arap . irpoa€vxvl -^^^ MSS. versions and Fathers have 
oTOP irpotrevx^oBey ovk ecreotfc. 

— ovic i<ni\ for ovk laOi. See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. c. 
XXXIX. Sect. 1. §18. Christ. does not here condemn all prayer 
made in the synagogues; seeing both he and his disciples often 
prayed with the Jews in the synagogues, Luke iv. 16 ; nor those 
public prayers in the streets made by the whole multitude on the 
great solemnities ; nor any public devotions in the house of God ; 
but speaking here only of private prayer, he would have that 
performed agreeably to the nature of it and so in secret: and 
cond^nns them only who affected to do this in public places, that 
others might take notice of them^ and look upon them as devout 
reli^ous persons for so doing. See also Forteus, Lect. vii. p. 171- 


-— or*] quippe. 

^— ^oSdrtif] Hesyoh. ffHXei, eiwOew. Herod, vtii. 138, olct 
^iXcfi yivetrQai iv vxikifjup^ Thucyd. ii. 65, airep ^iXct omcXot 
aroteiv. So.Hor. Cann. iii. 16, 9, Aurum per medios ire satellites, 
£t perrumpere amat saxa. And ii. 3, 9, Qua pinus ingens albaque 
populus Umbram hospitalem oonsociare amant ramis. 

*— d>fXov(rcii w Tcuff • . • • eorrwrey irpoa'wjfeaOai] The Cod. 
Cantab, has ^iXoScrt crr^rai cv Ta?$ ..... «cm»rc$ teal vpotrev-^ 
ypfievou Some omit e0*ri!ir«v, and some for itfioa€ji\€aB€u read 
*n'poa'€V)(pfi€Poi or irpoaevyovTCLi* The Hebrews use the verb 
signifying ** to stand^ for ** to make prayers.**^ See Jer. xv. 1, 
coll. 14, extr.: Gren. xviii. 28, where we have ^^ Abraham stood 
before Grod^^ which the Chaldee interprets by *^ prayed."*^ Gries- 

bach therefore would read ^tXovcrt vr^itu iv rols Trhaireiiii^t 

arwst jc. T. X. and supposes the words itrrwre^y frpoaev^ovroit 
irpo(r€V)(pfii€voi to have been marginal interpretations from Mari^ 
xi. 25 : Luke xviii. 11 ; which have afterwards been inserted in 
the text. 

— ywviais] Sometimes signifies an inn,er comer as Acts xxvi. 
26 ; but here an outer one, i. e. compitum, trivium, &c; 

Such a practice as is here intimated by our Lord, was probably 
common at that time with those who w^re fond of ostentation 
in their devotions, and who wished to engage the attention of 
others. It is evident that the pracdce was not confined to one 
place, since it may be traced in different nations. We have 
an instance of it related by Aaron Hill in his Travels, p. 52 : 
and such practice is general throughout the East. 

^^^itrraiTti] Their usual posture at the time of prayer: so 
Mark xi. 25, crrav crr^jciirc irpaawypfLtvou They never knelt 
except in times of extraordinary humiliation, Dan. vi. 10. 

'-'^oiruK av ^Htymcrc] See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. c. xxxvi. 
Sect. 5. § 2. In some av is wanting. It might easily be 
omitted in consequence of the following ^v. particularly in 
those in which iri is not found. The latter omission might 
arise from its not being found in ver. 2. 

6. TCMiicfoy] A secret place, private chamber or closet; in 
the upper (i.e. most private or retired) part of the house. 
Isai. xxvi. 20. Hesych. rafieia dvoKfwtpa ounyMOTa. BasQ. 
Tapneiov ff <nnf^€ia ovofidi^eiv ot^v oacov axoXd^ovra* ftol 
uvaK€)((aapfllievov, iv if airoTiBifieda iarep aP Tam€V(ract9ai ftov 
Xn0wfjL€v' fi ex ^ Kpvfi^uai Swarip. There is a precept in the 
Talmud the direct contrary to this, << The prayers of a man 
ar^ not heard, except in the synagogue*^^ 

CHAPTER Tl. 155 

— ^ r^ iv T^ KpwTfp] Scil. ovT'f. But in tome the t^ it 
ooiitted, so as to connect the other words with irpoarcvj^m. 

Epictet. Arrian. i. 14, otuv jcXeicriiTe Tat Bipat, ital <ritoTo» 
iwlw ^roiiycnfre^ pApiunoBe fuiiifnyre Xiyetpy Art /uufrot cars* wSi 
i<fTe aXX' o 0€ov Ifi^oy €(rrc} icai o vfieT^po^ Saifuap eviou etrrl, 
Kut rit rovrots XP^*^ iJHorAf eit to fiXeretr re iroieiTti 

-^ o fikiirwp €9 T^ KpirtTT^] Orpheus, who eridently had 
it tram the Hebrew writings, speaks thus of God, Frag. i. 10, 
ouH rif ttvTou 'EcinipBf Qwifrm* avrov ^y^ H iraMras opartu. 
Philem* o irai^ opHv Tt Kairrot ov^ optifieiHPi* 

7- /3aTToXi>7i}crifr€] In those Grreek books which haive oome 
down to us, this word does not occur : but it appears to have 
been in existence from Heqrch. ^TToKoyia' apyoXayUif cLcoi* 
poXoyla, It occurs but this once in the New Testament, and its 
meaning aippears ftpm the following words, ioKcuat yApy k. t. X. 
which agrees with Suidas^s explanation, fiaTToXityla * tj ^oKvK&yla, 
am Barrev rtvog fuucpait xal iroXvcrf^ovr SfAvout froiti<raPT&9, 
TavToKoTfiav jf^orrav. "EXfOk. i| ii fioTToKoyia tftf/naivei nyv 
iroKvkoyUuf, airo Barrov Ttvoi ^EXXifyo?, luucpmk itai iroXv/uif/reis 
arl'jfoui 9rocfidroKro9 efe Ta AimKa^ TavroXoyiap i'xpvTOf. 'O 
BaWof ovrof r^ jrara Ki^H^f^y aitouciat 1^190'aTo, /utKycXoXof 
TK iSi;. airo TovTov Kal tovs fifi ei^wrrifiom fiffii Tpavfi Ke^pfi^ 
jOLerow Tti yXtpTTff^ aXX imtreavpfievwt ipOeyyofieptw xal 
wapatnifuoi, /Sarra/ot^civ 0acri. It seems to correspond with 
ir6KvKoy€iv and ^vrepovi^, the latter of which occurs in Ecclus. 
vii. 14, /tiy ietrrtpwfttis \iyov ep irpocrevyj^ trov. Tertullian, 
Ne agmine Terborum adeundum putemus ad Dominum* The 
Greek fathers seem to think the battology and much speaking 
here reproved in the heatiiens by our Lord, to be << the being 
ardent in th^ desires after Uttle and earthly things.** Origen, 
wcpl ei^%, p« 68, BorroXoYovd-c yap xaTci. ti|V X^^ii^ tov 
wyyeklov fiovoi 01 e0vcicoi, 01!^ ^VTa^'iav /u^^^a'^ iyoyret 
4 eirovpavfaw alTfifutrwy^ frway €v^v twv <rb»/uurriinSv xal Ttir 
iicToi onxmMwoyref • And p. 25, ov ^TToXcytfricP ow, ovie 
fiuffa alTfirioif, ovie wepl ifriyeimp Trpoawteriop* See also 
Chrysost* and Theophylact in loc. 

Plautus Psen., Paucis verbis rem divinam fadto. Terence 
Heaut. V. 1, 6, Ohe jam desine Deos, uxor, gratulando 
obtundere, tuam esse inventam gnatam: nisi illos tuo ex in* 
genio judicas, ut nil credas intelligere, nisi idem dictum est 

— cocrire/o 01 edwjcoi]. Who were wont to fill their prayers 
with abundance oi synonymous names which they bestowed on 


thdr gods, making therein to consist the praises and prerogatives 
of those deities: as in the hymns of Orpheus, Homer and 

— oi eOriKol] Though in John xi. 51 : Acts x. 22 : xxiv. 10, 
&c. we find the Jews called eOvoi, yet the more usual distinc- 
tion between the appellation of the Jews and Gentiles was 
Xaov9 and eOvtfj as Acts xxvi. 17, 23, \ao9 xal i0vti» The 
reason is iOvij imports any collective multitude, Xaov an assembly 
or nation bound by the same laws. Thus Grod calling the 
various Gentiles to the covenant or law of the Goq>el, says 
he will prepare to himself Xoov €^ idvwv. Acts xv. 14 

-»€r] on account of. The Hebrew preposition is- rendered 
in Deut. ix. 4, 5, by &a; in Jon. i. 14, by lyocei^; and in 
1 Sam. xxviii. 10: iii. 13, by er. 

'-^Tfi ttoXciXoyI^] Thus we find the crowd at Ephesus for 
the space of two hours repeating ^* Great is Diana of the £phe* 
sians,^ Acts xix. 34 : and 1 Kings xviii. 26, the priests of Baal 
crying from morning till noon, ^'O Baal, hear us!^ 

Hence it appears what the vain repetitions were which Clurist 
forbade his disciples to use in their prayers : such as proceeded 
from an opinion that they were to be heard for their much 
speaking, after the manner of the heathen; as if there were 
some power or zeal or piety in such kind of repetitions ; and 
that they would be sooner heard and prevail with God. This 
seems also to have been the misapprehension of the Jewish 
doctors when they lay down these rules, '^ That every one that 
multiplies prayer shall be heard,**^ and ^^That the iN*ayer that 
is long shall not return empty.*" Their fault was not repeating 
indeed the saoae things in the same words, but speaking the 
same thing in varied phrases ; which appears sufficiently. Light- 
foot tells us, to him that reads their Liturgies through, as 
well the more antient as those of later date. And certainly 
the sin is equally the same in using different wcnrds for the same 
thing as in a vain repetition of the same words ; if so be there 
were the same deceit and hypocrisy in both; in words cmly 
multiplied, but the heart absoit. 

8. /Ai; ovv OMOtoid^re] i. q. ylveaOe wnrepf ver. 16 ; pvtc €<ni 
Anrep^ ver. $: and £ph. v. 1, yiveaOe futifiToi : Herod, vii. 
15, 8, ariit&iffs H irpoi vfjMWP KvpJiffa^^ ovy^ ofioiwrofiai vfiiVy ciXX' 

In these passages we cannot reasonably conceive our Savioui 
to condemn all rq>ctition of the same words, especially when 
it arises from a deep sense of our necessities and a vehement 


of Divine grace For he himaelf prayed thrice in the same 
words to be delivered from the bitter cup. It is also highly 
probable, that as David composed it by the Spirit of Grod, so 
Christ sung the hymn called Hallel magnum^ beginning at 
Ps. cxv. and ending at Ps. cxviii., where in the four first verses 
the same words frequently occur. See also Dan. ix. 5, VJ^ 18, 
19: Ps. cvi. 8, 15, 21, 31: and Ps. cxxxv. where the same 
words are repeated twoity-six times. 

— — oTJe yap 6 irarrip] This argument would make against 
all prayer in general, if prayer was considered only. as a means 
of making our wants known to Grod; whereas it is. no^ more 
than an act of obedience to our Heavenly Father, who has com- 
manded us to pray to him, and made it the condition of his 
favours ; an expression of our trust in him, and dependence 
on his goodness, whereby we acknowledge that all the benefits 
we receive com^ from him, and that to him we must apply for 
the obtaining of them. 

— -vpo TcS vfias air^ai] Heliod. iv. p. 188, dXX* ^v apa 
Kal vaii wavros o^vrepou to Beiov^ koi Toit xaTa fiavXtiaiV' avr^ 
opwfiiyoi^ iiriKovpov yiyrerai Kcd akkrirov, ciz/uevei^ woXAa ici; 
ip0avo¥ Tfiv alTfftriv. Julian. Orat. ii. p. 93, tpOavouo'iv oi deol 
Ta^ eij^ai. See Spectator, No. S07- Pearson on the Creed, 
Vol. I. p. 61. 

9- ouTofi ovPy &c.] Jesus Christ gives here his disciples a 
form of prayer, as was usually done by the Jewish masters, 
of which se.veral examples may be found in the Babylonian 
Gemara, the tract Beracoth, and elsewhere: not that by these 
forms they banished or destroyed the set and accustomed prayers 
of thenaition; but' to superadd their own to them and to ~ suit 
them to proper and special occasions. John the Baptist had 
taught his disciples to pray : and St. Luke xi. 2, recites this 
prayer as taught upon a request of one of Christ^s disciples, 
who when our Saviour had been praying at a certain place and 
had ceased, desired him to set them a form of prayer, as John 
had dene to his disciples. The form given by the Jewidi 
masters to their scholars was called Kaddish Magistrorum, and 
from this they did not vary. 

It may be observed, that the three first petitions of the Lord^s 
prayer are taken fitim one in use among the Jews, and by them 
calkd Eadesh or the.Holy, which our blessed Saviour has adopted 
into this form with some few alterations. The whole, indeed, 
with 'the excepticm of the words *'as we forgive them that, have 
trespassied against us,"*^ is found in the Jewish liturgies. 


The word ovrw^ does not hinder this fram being a oammand 
to utter the same words, as is apparent from St. Luke^s wrads, 
xi. 2 ; for the same word is used where jbl form of words is 
certainly prescribed. Thus iu the form prescribed for the 
Aaronical benedictions, o6tw9 evXoy^ere, saying the words 
following, Numb. vi. 23« So when Grod put a word into th^ 
mouth of Balaam, which he should speak to Balak, Numb, xxiii 
5, 16, Grod saith to him oirw Xak^crei^f which is the same 
with rai€ XaXif<r€C9. Thus Isai. viii. 11 : xxviii. 16: xxx. 15, 
&c. 061H0 Xe7€« o Kvpio^ is the same ^is Isai. xxx. 12 : xxxvii. 21 : 
lii. 3, &c. TCI je \eyei 6 Kvpios. And had not Christ intended 
this, he would not have given his disciples a form of prayer, 
but the heads only of the things they were to pray for. See 
Bp. Taylor, V<d. vii. p. 356. Mede^s Works, p. 1, &c. 

— — vfiei^] In opposition to the heathens, who used vain repe- 
titions. This prayer of our Lord stands unriValled in every 
circumstance that constitutes the perfection of prayer, and the 
excellence of that species of composition. It is condse, it is" 
perspicuous, it is scdemn, it is comprehensive, it is adapted to 
all ranks, conditions and classes of men ; it fixes our thouj^ts 
on a few great important points, and impresses on our minds 
a deep sense of the goodness and the greatness of that Almi^ty 
Being to whom it is addressed. See Porteus, Lect. vii. p. 174 : 
and Paley^s Evidences, Vol. 11. p. 56. 

"^ wdrep ^fimy] TertulUan de Orat. xi. AppeUatio ista et 
pietatis et potestatis est. Chrysostom says ijfAwif is added ivo 
KOivov irarepa eyetv hiayQ€VT9i doeXxfHxi^v wpog oXXi^Xovf 
iewifwofiev ri}if evvoMir, 

*— o €1/ Toir ov/Mvoi?} Soil. &». Thus Aristoph. Av. 1834, 
flfiiv Toii €v ovpav^ ^oc9. This epithet Lightfoot tells us was 
very common among the Jews. The words contain a compre^- 
hensive though short description of the Divine greatness. Th^ • 
express God^s majesty, dominion and power, who is said to be 
in heaven, because there is his glorious presence, manifested 
to such g£ his creatures as he has exalted to share with him 
in his eternal felicity. Erasmus observes. Pater vocatur ut 
clementem et benignum intelligatis. In ccelis esse dicitur, ut 
illuc sustollatis animos vestros, neglectis bonis terrenia. Vestrum 
appellatur, ne quis sibi proprium aliquid vindicet, cum ex unius 
beneficentia proficiscatur omnibus quicquid habent; et hac ki 
parte est regum atque servonun eqUaHtas. 

— ayia<T6ifra)] Imper. for Optat. When ascribed to things 
capable of being changed for the better, it signifies either to 

CHAPTER yi. 159 

conncrate and set them apart from a proftuie to a taered use, 
or else to adorn diem with such inward habits and dispositions as 
render then inwardly pore and holy. But the Divine majesty 
being infinitely holy in himself, and exalted above all that we 
are able to conceive^ cannot be hallowed or sanctified in either 
of these senses, but by analogy to them. He is then sanctified 
by UB when we do separate him from, and in our conception 
do exalt him above all other things, and when we do ascribe 
unto him the excellencies of his Divine majesty, and treat him 
suitably to them. Hence Chrysost. Horn. xix. aytafrdifrw, tovt 
•(FTi, io^offQifrto, And be immediately adds this explanation 
of a«yia^€iv tov 6eois ^12. to ovrm^ aXijwrou 'wapij(ta^fu filw 
iv iriffWj Ai iKcurrop tUv opmvrmv r^ ^sonrariy Tfjp iirip Tovrmv 
araipipeM¥ €v^>iffAia¥' It is also joined with /ue^aXi/y^crdai, Eaek. 
xxxviii. Si3y coll. Ecdas. xxxviii. 4^ When we use therefore 
tins form we pray, That all men may so speak, so think of the 
Divine majesty, and so deport themselves towards him, that 
he may be thus glorified in their words, hearts and actions; 
sad that all wimrahip of idols and devils may wholly be abolished; 
and that this honour, as it is his due, so may be ascribed to 
him alone. 

— ri iyofta vov] In Scripture ri opo^a is often put for 
the person. Acts i. U : Rev. iii. 4 : xi. 13 : or the glory of lum 
that bears that name, Eph. i. SI : Phil. ii. 9, 10 : Heb. i. 4w 
So here the name of Grod ngmfies the Divine majesty or God 
himself, a« he is made known to us by his attributes. See 
also Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 111. Mede^s Works, p. & 

IOl i\&^T4^] ThiiB obtained for an axiom in the Jewish 
sdKXils, *' That prayer wherein there is not mention of the 
kingdom of God, is not a prayer.** 

— fj fiaaiXeia croi/] The kingdom of the Messiah, or the 
« gospel dispensation. The kingdom of the Messiah the Jews 

then thought ^' should immediately appear,^ Luke xix. 11 : and 
they were then expecting it, Maik xv. 43: and they daily 
prayed for it in these wotds, ^> Let him make his kingdom reign, 
let his redemption flourish, and 1^ his Messiah come and deliver 
his people*" 

In the direct and immediate sense of these words, our Saviour 
instructs them to pray that his gospel roi^t be generally enter- 
tained by men with due faith and obedience; that all might 
own and worship God in truth, receive his Son Jesus Christ 
as their Icing and saviour, and humbly submit to his laws; 
and consequently that it may reign in the hearts of all who 


do profess to own it, dispofiiiig them to an entire subjectiiNi to 
aiid ready (X)mpliance with its precepts, and workii^ in them 
those fruits of righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy 
Ghost, in which this kingdom doth especially consist. We 
therefore by parity of reason are to pray that all men may 
become subjects to the kingdom of God erected by Christ, that 
the knowledge of the Christian faith may come to all nations ; 
that his kingdom may be advanced by the coming in of the Jews, 
and by the fulness of the Gentiles ; that the Christian rel%ioa 
may obtain every where, as well in reality as profession. 

— yeinfiifrw to 6iKfi(ija cow] Chrysostom in Ps. cxiii. wtnrtp 
ayyeXoi tov Qeov ayid^ovat iromipias Traatf^ amiXXayiAevoi, 
apenir ^€ fierlovre^ fier aVpt/Sciav* oirw ^if Ka^a^uaBeu/iik^v 
Koi liimcii avTO¥ cryta^eiv. And Horn. xix. in Matt, cvairc/o 
€K€i irarra ajmKvna^ yiverai, xal oi Ta yi£v vwcucouovtnv w 
ayyekoh Ta ^ ircLpcucovovaiVj aXXa iravra eiKovat Koi TretBovnt' 
ovTw Kal rifiai Kora^iaxrov Tovi av9p(ifrov9 m>7 ^^ jj/iureia^ to 
BeXfjjuLa aov Troiciv, akXa Travra, Kadawep diXeii, irXiypovy. So 
Macarius Horn. iii. p. 30, tva ov rpoifop o\ iv oupavol^ ayyeXoi 
avveiaiy ayyfjXoi^ iv ouovoiff, iroXX^^ ev eipiiyri ical ayamf oca<yor* 
T€99 Kat ouK ecTip €Kei eirapai^ Kal ^ovos' aXX ev ayatrti xai 
eikutpiweUf fier aXXiiXwp eiaiv' ovrcoy, iva xat oi aC€Kif}oi uxri fier 
oXXi/XttiV) K. T. X. We do not here pray, that Grod may do his 
own will, nor that the will of his providence may be done upon 
us, neither do we pray that we may become equal to the angels in 
perfection, nor that God may compel us to do his will ; but that 
in consequence of the coming of his kingdom, or the establish- 
ment of the Gospel in the world, men may be enabled to imitate 
the angels by giving such a sincere, universal, and constant 
obedience to the divine commands, as the imperfection of human 
nature will admit of. 

Arrian. Epictet. ii. IJ, fiti^v aXKo BiXei ^ a 6 Qeo^ OiXet' • 
Tf^v ope^tv Koi Ttfv €KKXiaiv T^ de^ yapuraiy exeiwip jrapaw, 
€K€Tv<K Kv^pvdrw, Seneca Ep. Lxxiv. Placeat homini quic- 
quid Deo placuit. Pythag. Aur. Carm. 17* ''Oaaa xe ioifia' 
vifiai Ti/^aiff Pporol aX^ye' e'j(ovaiVy ''Hv av ^koipav ^xn^j irptfius 
0epe, juLii^ ayavaKTCi, Epictet. xiii. /ui; l^ifrei to. yiwofuva 
yiveaOai uk deXei^' aXXa deXe ra yivofieva m yivercu teal €v 
voiiicetif and lxxix. el ravrfi to<9 Oeoisi (piXop, TavTti yipeaO^* 

— ^ (tfv iv ovpavip jrai ] Sub. ourto. See Hoogeveen, Doct. 
Part. c. xxiv. Sect. 4. § 7- Luke vi. 31 : John xx. 21 : Acts 
VII. 51, w 01 irarepcf vfiwv, xai v/neis' Plutarch, de Ir. Cohib. 
p. 460y cor yap 61 OfLi')(Xfi^ rd awfiara, Kal 8i opy^ ra trpay 

CHkn%B. YI. ' 161 

fiarra fM/tlS^cifa ^euptrai. Herod, vii. I889 m ii eviA/MV^'^f ^^^^ 
eiroaci ^ovra: viii. 64, mg H a<fu iio^e^ xal iwoieop TadT€if 
Athenagoras ApoL pro. Chr. p. 41, m yap o yewpyo^ icaro/SoX-* 
\wv 6CP y^v TO awipfiaraf ofxttrov irepi^vety owe eiriairtipmv\ 
roi iffuuw fULerpoy iindviuLias if tra^iovotui. In the same. way 
the Latins frequently understand ric or iia. Ciesar B. G. yiu 
88» Quos ille multa jam nocte (iia) silentio ex fugfi excepit, — ^ut 
procul in vi6— deducendos curaret. Virg. Ed. v. 33, Ut gre» 
gibus tauri, segetes ut pinguibus arvis, Tu decus omne tuiss 
for sic tu es decus. 

^^eiri T^ ytji] Some copies want 7-1^, probably because 
aipav^ has not the article. After prepositions the usage id 
anomalous. Middleton thinks that where nouns are connected 
the general practice is in favour of uniformity. See Gr. Art. 
p^ 191* ' 

11. aprw] Under this is comprehended all that is necessary 
for sustaining human nature ; ni i'trtrifSeta roS atofiarof Jametf 
ii* 16. See Gen. xviii. 5, 8: xliii« 31, 34 : 1 Sam. ix. ^i xxi. 6« 

»*--^ eirioiMnoj'] This is one of the words Ta>y oTra^ Xeyo/xivwyy 

in the interpretation of which the learned are far from beings 

agreed. It appears to have been formed by the Evangelists^ 

in whoee writings only it occurs, after the analogy of irepiovtriasf 

a word in like manner coined by the Seventy, in whose version* 

alone, besides the New Testament, it is to be found. Origea 

de Orat. xvu irpwrop ^ rovvr Urrewp on ij Xe^i$ ij eirtowrtoi^ 

irof! oooevl twv 'EWiivtvif ovt€ twv ao^JHiv wofuxarai, oire itf 

TJy TiSr iiiwTwu trvwfieiq, r€T^irr<u» oXX' €ouc€ irenXao'dai vwa 

ri^ €vctyy€Xjurrwy. The most natural and easy interpretation 

seema to be that of Chrysostom and Theopbylact, the former 

of whom, Horn. xxx. Tom. 5, explains aprov irciovato^^ 

TQVTe<mVy im rtjv oualav roS frwmaTo^ Jia/SaiVp^ra ical xrvy^ 

Kpctriiaai Tavripf SuyofiBvov: and Hom* liv. in Gen. airrl roi? 

T^v T^9 lifiipas Tpoffnjy : and the latter says, in loc. apros^ 

iiTioiaio^ id aproi €Wi r^ oifauf, nm av<n'aa€i, ^/awv avrapKffi. 

So Basil* Caes. in Reg« Brev. Interrog. cc1.11. p. 624, roy 9irioi^ 

aiQy apToiff Tovrdgrri, tov irpos Ttiv ei^ipiepov ^wifp rii ov&uf? 

ty^wv j(jp9i<TifA€voyTci. Etymol. eviovaios* o ewl r^ ouai^ tmwy 

ipiaotwv* So Suidas, and Phavorinus. The Schol. to the Gi*^ 

Glossary of the New Testament explains iwioiaiov by rov fkiX** 

Xpirvwiy TOV iwiovTa, top *n'poaSoK(i/ii€vov, tov /uiij tou iv^arwTo^ 

oiKeioVf ciXXa tov aTO&oStitrofievov iv r^ txeKKovTi tols ayioi^*'^'-^ 

ij TOV trvvtcrrwvTa to ^r&^a ijumv. The word therefore may be* 

explained sufficient for one^s support, convenient for one^s 9ub«ft 


163 9T. MATTHEW. 

sifitenee* So that the petitioo ia Dearly parallel to that of Agur, 
Prov. XXX. 8. See Mede^a W<^kg> p. 125. We meet with an 
expresaion of aimilar import in Eurip. Electr. 333| roc xaff ntki- 
pay /3Jov. So also Soph. (Ed. Col. 1429. Heliodor. vi. p. 384, 
Jf mSf iimepav omiyKcuoi Tpoipn* Jamea ii. 15, ^ i<f^/uL€pa9 

The analogy of the language (aa in ivriXjiMoi'y eTtrtufuoi^) 
and the Syriac tranalation favour thia interpretation : nor ia the 
objection vaMd, that according to the derivation, from iirl and 
ovaia the word should be iwovaio^t ^^^ iwiai^tosy since in many 
other worda compounded with cxt and beginning with a vowel 
the I ia retained, aa ranti/ciff, iirlopKoSf eircoTrroyftai, eiriovpos, 
iinaWw, &c. 

There ia probably an allusion here to the proviaion of manna 
made for the Israelites in the desert, which waa from day to 
dbiy* Every day^a portion waa gathered in the morning, except 
the aeventh day^a. But in ordet to prevent a breach of the SJbh 
bath, they received a double portion on the sixth day. 

The Fathers Jerome and Ambrose tranalate aprov im-toiaioi^ 
panem aupersubstantialem, by which the latter (Saotun. v.) un- 
deratood the bread of life mentioned John vi. 48, necesaary to 
austain the substance of the soul. Others suj^xise imoiatov may 
aiffiiify bread for to-morrow, for the time to come, becauae t» 
«ircowi7 nM^p^fi ^^^s ^^- 26, aignifiea the morrow. It haa alao 
been taken to signify our promised bread, the portion of good 
things which as God^a children we have a right to by inhe- 
]dtance; from Luke xv. 12, 13, where cwria signifies riches or 
inheritance, or auch a portion of either aa a father givep to any 
of hia children^ A variation in reading has alao been proposed 
APTONEniOYSlAN by changing O into A, apror ivl ovo-cair. 

-<— tntfiepop] Chrysoatom, Horn, in Matt. xlv. Kaff exaViTry 
«y^i;rai n^v tHukpav r^ pijaiv eK€iv9f¥ r^u ayku^ Xe^orrcv* 

12. a^ iJMiv] Remit. See Pearson on the Creed, Vol. ii. 
p. 453. £cdua. xxviii. 2, atp^s to a^ori|/us r^ TrXtftriou <rwj 
iKol Tore ^ffiivTo% cov at ofiofrrlai aov Xvdi|94»rrat. Lucian. 
Saturn, v. xai irpoi to Xoiiror atf^iripLi aw to. xP^^* ^i%- Laert. 
V« 73> Koi t£ Tt fioi i<p€Sk€it at^bifu arrf». Herod, vi. 30» a^ifxe 
miT^ T^¥ fUTuiv. Flute Lye. a/^lym 1-019 ^roXcroi^ top optcop* 

*— o^iXti/uuxra} o^Xi/fui koi oifi^iSjifia iia^peC o<pikiifi€L 
yap TO ix t^ icara^on^^ Xe^ercu* oif^eiXfifia Si o iSaweufUTQ Tt$. 
Thus 1 Mace xv. 8, ira» o^eiXifMtt /Sa^iXacor difkiaOw o-of. See 
Maitt. Xviii. 32, coll. 27- Henoe it oomea to signify a* treapan 

4nuirrER vt, 163 

inbidi obligM to reparatim ; and a deUnqiMiKTf of any kind ; 
whence St* Luke xi. 4* uses the word* cvfoprm in the coir«a< 
panding puaages, which is the meaning dao of tha Synac tnm- 
ktion of this passage* And in ver. 14, we £nd the word cfaangad 
Id wopaiTTw/MiTa* Chrysostom, Hoh. cix. Tom. Sy aKp€f lifiiw 
'^a o^eiXifMcrra ff/uaar, Totfrisruf, a(p€9 i^uiv rd ypeti i/Amm^ roi;« 
7V(m^ Tck a^Lapfria^ ^fiww mt Ta wrcucj/uaTa. And afterwatda 
m Kok ^(xeit a/pUfAMP wan rot^ wraiomn xal aiuxpripov^iv €C9 

— w ica2]- See Hoogeveen, Doetr. Part. c. lyii. Sect. 6. §^14. 
. — ^ Tot9 0<pmXerai9 i/AiiSr] Sab. to. o^iKiyiarra avTw. 

1-3. pLfj oatviyKfff ek n^paerpov] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 107' 
The Jews were wont to Im^ of God in their prayers, that he 
would not delirer them into the kand or power of temptationf 
whereby they ifid not desire that he would keep them firora 
fidling into temptatioiv but that he wovld not give them \xf 
to ity or suffer them to yidd thereto. Origen on Fs. xYii, 29^ 
says eif weipaafAoy owe e'uripxirrai ev r^ m^ weifMaOijvat, dXkA 
Ti^ fuj dX£mu raif irayicn roS weipturfui. Matt* xxviv 41, irpoa^ 
ni^eade mi /i^ enreXdifre cff vmpaafAov. On whidi Isidore £p« 
ecvi. lib. 5j p. 6S8, obsenres, wpo<rtvj(je90€ iva fxii i^Ttfifir^ t^ 
9€ipacrM^, ou yap ^Ivof, /uij ifiareereiv^ ciXXa m9 efereXdeir, rov^ 
Tiartf pL^ KOTctTTcO^vat vw aurai;. Mtf c^T6<r€ir fiey <yap ov^ 
elcMT T-tfy eyLic&TovTa ^e areff^auwOfivai ctiv re. To aitter into ^omp* 
Miofi is to be oftercome by it ; as to lead or cause to enter into 
temptation is to suffer men to fall a prey to it; to make ship* 
wreck of faith and a good conscience ; to suffer men to be drawn 
by its iUurements to commit iniquity. See GaL ri. 1 : 1 Tim, 
Ti. 9. This is the primary import of these words ; though they 
may also secondarily request the providence of -God would hot 
us to those drcumstances which lay us under a great 
of offending; or when he does think fit so to do, that he 
would -not deny us strength sufficient to repel the violence of 
thoae aasauks. 

-— ' pSkrcu] 2 Tim. hr. 18, koI pwrtrai pne o Kvpiot aira wovre^ 
ipyov troin^pov* MMasL. V. H« xi. 4, ri}r worrpwa pitmtiTBot Tffi 
ooiikelax* Theognis lOS^ ovr av o mk yoKMiroio mroo picavro^ 
It is oonstmcted with er, ktt x^ipo^ and airo. 

— -» avo Tav wai^/MH/] Masc. gender ; the Wicked One, the 
DeviL See Matt iv. 3: v. 37. So Tertuilian, Origen, and 
Chmostom rniderrtand it: the latter of whom^ Horn. xnc. ia 
Matt. c# VI. p« 140, says, irovnpov cvroSAx ro9 &o^Xoi^ Kok^n* 


]64f ST. MATTHE-Vfv 

Kcuiim, KOI €W€ioa» fJLfiSiv irap ^julww aouctiOel^, aairolfioy irpot 
ff/uLav ex€i TOP TToXeM-op, We pray therefore here that God 
would graciously preserve us from those evil frames of heart 
and dispositions of spirit which render us so prone to yield to* 
a temptation, and from the violent assaults of Satan, who being 
once let loose upon us, will not fail to hurry us into sin. 
' Augustin does not understand this of the Evil One, but of the 
evil of a£9iction, Ep. cxxx. c. 11, 21. 

— - oTi] See Hoogeveen, c. xxxviii. Sect. 4. §.4. 

■' — OTi <rov iaTtVf &c.] The genuineness of this doxology has 
been doubted from its not being in St. Luke ; from its being 
omitted in a few 6r. MSS. and all the Latin Fathers, even those 
who wrote commentaries on the prayer. No Greek Father older 
than Chrysostom cites it. Cs&sarius Dial. i« Q. 29, quotes it not 
as a part of Scripture, but of a Liturgy : t^ Si ayyeX^ iiroficpot 
jcac ^jieis otov evt<r)(yojuLev eirirortftis tov XpuTTOw, ep r^ Kcup^ r^ 
Oela^ t£v fivoTijpiwp TcKeTtfi fioSpTei^ oti aov cctti to jcparor 
xai rj fiatriKela Kal ii Suvafjii^ xal j; &>^a. tSou to eviKor t^s deia^ 
^Pvaewi TOV iraTpo^ koi tov viov koli tov ayiov vpev/iiaTOi* And 
3DiaL III. 116, T^v irapd twv lepewv axovofiev r^ Oerp eiy(apia^ 
Tiup ai;a0€porra)v-^T€ (JKuri, to KpaTog Kal if fiatriXela tati if 
cvpafu^ Kal }j oo^a tov TraTpo^ Kal tov v\ov Kal tov ayiov irvey- 
/UMT09 PVP Kal aei Kal ei9 tov; auopa^ twv aldvwp, a/ifjv. Gries* 
bach thinks it crept into the text in the fourth century from 
the liturgies which annexed sometimes this and sometimes similar 
doxologies to this as well as other forms of prayer. Besides 
however being in almost all the Gr. MSS. it is found in a Syriac 
version which is nearly of the first century, and two later, in 
iEthiop. Armen. Arab, and Goth, and in the Apostolical consti- 
tutions, and in Chrysostom. The Jews in the temple at the end 
of their prayers, and ia reciting their phylacteries, at the name of 
God, repeated << Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingt 
dom for ever and ever,**^ from which probably this was taken* 
And the early Christians certainly had some doxologies similar to 
this, as we find from the Epistle of Clemens, where there is one, 
though varied, occurring five times. Whitby thinks it very 
unlikely the Fathers of the Greek Church should presume to add 
their own inventions to a form of our Lord^'s own composing: 
and he agrees vrith Lightfoot in thinking it probable, that our 
Lord delivering this form twice upon different occasions might 
add thia clause at the first time, and leave it out at the second ; 

CHAPTlR'Tr.' 165 

tad that the Latin copies which are full of errors, might leave it 
out in both, lest the Evangelists should seem to differ in a matter 
so considerable. 

The import seems to be this, We pray thy kingdom may come, 
and that thy name may be hallowed, and thy will be done by all 
men; for thine is the kingdom, and all men are concerned to 
honour thee, and to obey thy holy laws:-*-we pray for temporal 
blessings to be derived from thee, for the pardon of our past 
sins, and preservation from them for the future ; for thine is the 
power thus to provide for and protect us ; and thou alone canst 
pardon our offences :-*-we pray for all these ; for by thus hallow- 
ing thee, owning thy kingdom, and doing thy will ; by thus par- 
doning, providing for us, and protecting us, thine will be the 
glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

— 17 ji/vo/Ai$] So Archilochus in Clem. Alex. Strom, v. w Zci/, 
cov fuv oipavcXf Kparo^, Theognis 373, Zsi; 0iXe^ dav^JLa^ta ere. 
cv yap nrajrretruiv avJuro'tis, Tifitiv avT09 e'j^^v^ Kai lULeydXrjv Suva'^ 
fu¥. And 376, aov ii. Kparos irdvrwv ecff vwaTov, &c. 

— • ofif)!/] Is read in some MSS. which want the Doxology ; 
but many emit it, in which that is extant. We find it at the ^nd 
of Ps. xl. and Ixxi ; and it was probably spoken here by our Lord, 
as usual among the Jews by way of response. The pec^le said 
Amen at the end of the Chazan'^s prayer; and also at home 
when the master of the family blessed or prayed: but seldom 
or perhaps never any one praying privately joined this to the 
end of his prayers. In the public prayers of the Temple they 
did not make the response Amen, but only in the Synagogue. 

From the Jews the custom came down to the Christians; 
Justin M. Apol. 11. p. 161, 01/, irpoearwroif avvreXiaavro^ rat 
cvjfos Kal Ttiv. evyapiaTiaPf fra^ o irapwv \ao9 67r6i;0i/Mei Xe'yo'i'^ 
A/iiyy. Chrysost. in Ps. cvi. to eBiti €r rais iKicKriaiai^ fiefiivijice 
TO Tfi io^oXoyitf to5 lepioK ^ toS 'Aiiijv avvrideirOdi tov Xaor. 
See V. 17. 

14. 7a/o] In some omittted. It will be here redundant, or 
refer* to the £fth petition of the prayer. 

— « iav a(p!iri[ In this and the following verse, the same 
precept is put affirmatively and negatively, after the custom of 
the Hebrews, in order to enforce it more strongly. See Isai. 
xxxviii. 1, 3, 9 : Jer. xxxvi. 11 : Deut. ix. 7- 

In these words God promiseth remission of sins to him that 
fbrgiveth others; not that this virtue can alone obtain favour 
with God, where other Christian duties are neglected ; for though 

16^ ST. MAmirar. 

negiUive {xreeepti are ab8olui9» yet tdBrmatire promises admk 
'this Umitatkm, if jio olhcr oeaditioD of sdviAion be vaatiag. • 

Seneca, Ut absolvaris, ignosce. Det ille veniam fEuale, cui 
yeai& est opus. See Ecclus. xtviii. 1, 2. 

— o vrarijp v/eievr o m/pciyiov] After these words m sone 
iCDpies follow TCI irafaTT(i$uvra ipjuiwf which seem to hare been 
added to complete the construction. 

16. oTcuf &€ pfiareiriTe] He here speaks of priTSte and volun* 
XBiy fastings. For on public fasta it was lawful to use tha signs 
.of repentance and huiniliation« The PhariaeeB Essted on Mondays 
and Thursdays : those that would be thought more devout that 
the rest, futed besides en Tuesdays and Fridays, and abstained 
from all kinds of food tfll sun-setting. On the great day of 
expiation, when the Jews were more strictly obliged to fast, they 
continue so for twenty-eight houra^ Men are obliged to fast 
from the age of full thirteen, and women from the age of fuU 
eleven yeara. Children from the age of aeven years fast in pTD«> 
portion to their strengths During their fasting they not only 
abstain from food, but from bathing, from peifumes and anointing 
Bud ndt unusually covered themselves with sackcloth and ashes* 
This is the idea which the Eastern people have generally of 
fasting.; it is a total abstinence from pleasure of every kind. 

^— fiLij yiveoBcf &c^] Do nothing which may signify you fast 
to gain the applause of men. See Glaas, Phil. Sac. p. 1302. 

*-*- atcvSpmiroi] properly denotes a fretful, angry countenance i 
but here it signifies gloomy and dejected looks, a £aoe disfigured 
with nKNTtification ^nd fasting. It is perhaps in some measure 
explained by the words following. The Seventy have used the 
same word to express a sad countenance. Gen. xl. % tI in ra 
TrpoawTra ifiww aKvOptova a^fuspov ; See also Dan. i. 10, 15 ; and 
£cclus. XXV. 23. Joaephus giving an account of Nehemiah 
mourning the calamities of his country, uses the word Ant* xi. 
^,6. euOus CU5 elj(€, fiyjo mroXovaafiepo^j SiOKoviiaaHf irnrewTt 
T^ pacrtXcI Ttiif eiri tov msrcit) Suucoptaw. C09 ^ jmera to Settrvov 
o fia<Ti\€V9 oieyyOfi koi fihluv avroU yevofievos avefike^p €19 rot 
N€€iuiay fcal xareirKvO pwiraxora Oewrd/xcffOff, Sid ti urari/^i;; 
Sii;, duiicpivep. Whence it appears to include what is implied in 
IU90 dvokauadfievas and what follows to Korrfibi^ tov w/MxrcJirav 
Kal auyKexyjiiivov dv&cdBrfpe. Philo de Nom. Mut* p. 1060, 
wtcvOptofral^wy fiiv ry vpoaw^i^ fA€i^w¥ Se t»J iiavfAijf. p. lOyij 
Xoyos yJip otfruK Koi \p7fi<rfio9 eari Oeloi aKv9po)frov Kal iirlkwep 
teal jiep^xop fiapvSmiiovim nluai. roir n4X¥T09 fioyQfiptXi fiiop, mf 


irpoairoinTai rp itpovmwp lUiiiS^* Theodortet in Levit..Q. xxxii, 
On the day <^ expiation oc 'Icvimoi oi avSfmfral^oucru', akki 
yeKwtTip ml ircu^avai xai yopmvown koX m{dSaaTQi^ fiitAiuri mai 
wpayMOffi Kejfpnimu. Iqoct. ad Demcmic. c^i^t aaurov fi^ cZnof 
CKHfOptnroPp aXAa aivpcw* A/ eMtwo /Mr yap avSaStis, ^«a .^ 
ToSrro 0poyi/uo9 elrai &i^et9. Plut. Quieot. Bom. 286, ito Jcai 
n/v ipka/iiytKav Upav rfj^ ''Hpas etviu SoKoSaaVy vevoiutrrai aKv^ 
0pm9ra^€ip, fufre Xovofiiwtiv TfimmaSrn^ M^^c Koaikavfiivfpf. Thus 
Teeenoe, Phormio, i. 2, 66, CapiUus paMus; nudus pet, ipii» 
horrida, Lacrumae; vestitus turpis. 

— a^oW^ov^i] Properly to hlot out, so that no trace of il 
should appear. Suidas ix^iaai' iXw rv dreXeIr ica2 a^v€9 
woiSiaiu. Xen. Mem. i. 2, 53, to a£fui ifyviyKavres dtpayil^ovai^ 
Arrian. Exp. Al. i. 9. ai^riam nyV iroKiv* Joseph. Ant I. 11« 
1, xai Tfiv T€ iroXcv airmv KoraaTpi^turQag Koi riy v ^^ttjpar oiruK 
a<f>awl(rcu, w fiijTe tf>vTO¥ en /uuyre Kapvov erepov i^ at/rfir^ 
ara&>0$MK. Philo de Vit. Mos. p. 6S9|, i|i^ i^crre <rrpa7%a¥ 
evowXoHaav owe ex auTiTeraynivfiv oyf/efFBe* TretrelToi yap wpo^ 
TpowaSfiv vaaa, xal fivOuK ixfniPurQfiaeTai^ m M^ Xel^ffovov, 
avTijg virvp y^ en ^avifyor. De Char. p. 7^4, avaTtSXayros 
ffXcoi/, TO jiiev afcoTof oKpapS^erm. Here it signifies to disfigure 
or defoim ; to change, spoil, applied to such an alteratioa of the 
natural countenance as proceeded from their emaciating them^. 
selves, and contracting their faces into a dismtil form. Chrysost 
a^ayi^ot/ai, Tovri^m, iio/cpOeipouffi* Thec^hyhurt in loc p. 36. 
a0painaim irpoamrov itrrip ij wyportu* orav oi^ tXo^ itTTi rx^. 
ifkuvnrm, oKXa TrpoffroiifTai aTvyvoTf/ra. Theophanes Horn* 
XIX. speaking of the Scribes and Pharisees o^tck yap ti^v mvtiv, 
ioJ^av ifcroirwi 9o4<nurr0Sf Kai nyv aXXi^v /ueif iiKOioainiv ev ifBei 
wefrKatrpLePfp jnenipxpirrOf /uaXiora ie iv t^ vtirreieip frtcvOpm^. 
irprjyr m iroXX^i/ itrmeacwurro, ^wuri^ovrcv roiv opidrras ^mI toS 
€^a90eu ay^fjuvroi, Koi riyr em/rkiarov Tm¥ ^pocmrmp wxpoTfiro^. 
£tymoL aipa^Urai oi miXaiol oiyl to fiokvvai ms t^y, .aWa ri. 
T€kiw9 a^ay^ nouiiv, Eustath. in Od. ^. p. 261, to aAfiui 
XovrpiH^ T9 T^fAieKavfMvov KoSXtow yiverai kox IfiaTlusp Xa^wpip 
wwpi&eaei eiv to jcclXXiov s^oXXaTreTcUy tiairep av waXiv aiyfioS 
wivapoTtj^ Kal KOtLa trreipa to Xo/iir/sov sloov a^KufS^own* It wan 
a custom antiently to express bitter sorrow by sprinkling ashes 
and day upon their heads, or if theiv griefs were of a lesser kind^ 
by neglecting to wash and anoint tbemselTes : which custom our 
Lord probably had now in his eye as appears from v^. 17, where 
lie mentions the anmnUng the head and washing. the face, ia 


oppositibn. Cicero describes a fiimilar dtae, RuU. Agrar. it. 5, 
vestitu obsoletiore, eorpore inculto et horrido, capillatior quam 
ante, barbaque majore. And Quintil. Proem. Inst. Or. 15, 
Non virtute ac studiis ut haberentur Philosophi laborabant, sed 
▼ultum et tristitiam et dissentientem a cseteris habitum pessimis 
moribus prsetendebant. 
* <— - ifmvSci] i« e. ffyavepol cocri* 

' 17* aXeiyffai] Except in times of af&iction the Jews were 
wont to wash and rub themselves with oil, which, was commonly 
perfumed, especially on festivals, which seems now the case in 
the Sast. So Horn. Od. <r> 17^9 XP^'"'* ^'fovi^afieinf tcai evi- 
yjpiGafra nrapeia^. 11. ^. 17l> <t^o X/^^ ifiepoevros Xvfiara 
m'dvra icaBfipeVf aXeiyffaro Si Xiw eXa'up. Herod, iii. 124, iSwi" 
tFffi T^ Ovyarpot oyf/iv ivvwvlov Twiivie, eioKce oi *rov irarepa 
iw T<^ ffc/CH luriwpop eovra XwaBai ijmv vwo tov Ato9> "XpieaQai 
0€ I/WO Tev ijXiov. 

Chrysostom in Ps. xlvii. trv Si orav yfi<rr€Vffir, aXeiyffai, &c« 
OvK aXoi(pffv KeXevwv tovto Xeyei {ovSets yap tf/iiSv tovto wocci ) 
iKXa Tfjr tiSoviiv ivSeiKVVo'Bai xai to (patSpov tpj^ Siavoia^, xeXevwp 
yeytfioTas vtl<rrev€iVy /uti} axvOpwiral^ovTa^* See also Horn. xx. 
in Matt. p. 144^; and Photius Ep. cxxix. p. I70. 

18. €P Ttf (pavep^] Wanting in most MSS. and versions. 
See ver. 4. 

- 19- OfjtravpiJ^ere'] dfirraupil^eip synonymous with airoTtO^oBai, 
Phuiltiutus de Nat. Deor. c. xxviii. ovk opQm eipYJadai ccwo tov top 
seapirov avoriSeaOai xal Otiaavpil^eiv, In the Eastern countries 
where the fashion of clothes did not alter as with us, the treasures 
of the rich consisted not only of gold and silver, but of costly 
habits and fine wrought vessels of brass and tin and copper, 
Kable to be destroyed in the manner here mentioned : see Gen. xli. 
14: Juc^. xiv. 12: Job xxvii. 16: James v. 2, 3: as well as 
com, wine and oil, which composed the Qfi<ravpo\ of the people of 
Palestine, Amos viii. 5. See also Odyss. /3. 338, ode vtrro^ 
ypvtro^ Kai ^oXim 6if6iTo, 'Ecfl^? '^ iv x^Xoi<T«ifj aXiy r eiwSe? 
€Xaioif0 Od. tf. 38; '^.341, j^aXxop re ^^pwcror re 0X19 iaBijra 
T6 c6vT€9. ^lian. V. H. vi. 12, TeOfgaavpurro Se avrfi icai <riT09 
€19 eKaTow ^eSifivwv M-VfAoSa^. And Hist. An. iii. 10. 
> But by treasure we are not to understand every thing we lay 
up for the future, provided we be ready when the glory of God 
or the duties of charity require us to part with it: but that is in 
the forbidden sense our treasure, which we chiefly prize, delight 
iiii, and set our heart upon (ver. 21)^ and that which we do 

CMAPTSR r 16d 

chiefly spend our time and study to pursue and prosecute with 
the neglect or to the hazard of our heavenly treasure,' as appears 
from the opposition here. 

— Offtravpovi] properly the repository for treasure : See ii. 11 : 
the place where treasure or stores are repodted, in which sense 
it is used by Greek writers, as Thesaurus is in Virg. Georg. iv. 
229 : Curtius v. 2, 11 : Seneca Ep. xi. 5. Here used for the 

— <ri7$ Kal flpwcTii] This has been sometimes considered an 
€r Sm ivoiv for a^f fipwTKovaa^ or fipAm ctrrof, but that seems 
negatived by ver. 20, on^v oire fipHa^' Varro in a similar way 
has both, Frag, in Corp. Poet. Latin. Singulos lectos stratos ubi 
habuimus, amisimus propter cariem et tineam. The literal 
meaning of fipwri^ is the act of eating: here what eats into 
another substance. It has been supposed to signify a little insect 
that gets into com and eats it ; and that our Lord refers to 
clothes, grain and gold, as the chief treasures respectively ob- 
noxious to moth, smut and thieves. In the Septuagint, fipwais is 
used Mai. iii. 11, for the worm or animal that destroys com. 
The common interpretation explains it by canker or rust, which 
corrodes metals : and this seems to agree with St. James v. 2, 3, 
Ta ifiaTUM vfiwv crffTofi/xvTa yeyove, o jQ>v(ro9 v/ul£v xal o apyv-^ 
po^ KaTiWTatf Kal o !o9 avrwv. In Menander we meet with kcu 
iravTa to. Xvfiaivofxev ivearuf ivooOeVf ctov o /lev I09 tov trlirfpoy, 
ap aKoirth, to S iiAoriov 01 <rfJT€iy j} ^6 dpvyf/ ^uXoP' Hor. Serm. 
II. 3, 117? Age si et stramentis incubet, unde Octoginta annos 
natus, eui stragula vestis, Blattorum et tinearum epulae, putrescat 
in arcd, Nimirum insaous pauds habeatur. See also Seneca de 
Benef. iii. 3. 

— a<f)a¥il^€i] i. q. itaff^Oeipei. See ver. 16. Inoert. Auct. 
in Poet. Gnom. anravr a^avitst yrjpa^ ifT^vv adfiarot, Diod. 
Sic. II. p. 123, *0 'Xjpovos ra fiev oXwiyepHi ii<paifur€, Demosth. 
adv. Mid. p. 682, 16, to 0X019 ai(f)ayll^€iu Upa» iaO^ra, which is 
explained by itatpOeipeip ro c/iaTiov xal XvjULaiveaOai. Polyb. i. 81, 
iav Se iraXiP d^^, «raTa ti|v e^ avrwv <l>oaty (pQelpoirra to (tvi/c- 
j(it, cvK ia^et wavXav, ea»9 ap aipavitrrf to vvoKeifAepov. 

— iiopvKraovai] SciL tov toc^oi/, ti^v oUiav. The accusa- 
tive is added in Matt. xxiv. 43 : Luke xii. 39. Xen. in Sympos. 
IV. 30, /iff t<( fiou Tfjv oiKiav Siopv^a^* Demosth. adv. Con, 
p. 1268^ 12, Toiyoi;t toivuv iiopuTTotrrti* Aristoph. Plut. 565, 
iravv ywv KXiirreip KOtrfiiov itTTt, Koi toi/j toij^ow hiopvTTeiv, 
Whence that frequent term of reproach with him Totx^P^X^ ^ 
perfossor Plaut PseudoL iv. 2, 23. Thucyd. 11. 3, 


SiopviTxrovT9s T0V9 Kouwis Toi^fovs. The elliptical phrase occurs 
in a fragment of nn Anon. Pythag. in Mythog. Graec. p. 7I81 
apa ov iUaiov iiopv^avra K\eyf/ai koI <rwrai top traripa. 

20. &ncavp(m ey dpav^^ What St. Luke xii. 33, calls Btiarau- 
poi aveicXef 9rro9 ev Tot9 avpavoii* Martial v. 43, Callidus effracti 
nummos fur auferet arcd, Prostemet patrios impia flasnma Lares ; 
Extra fortunam est quicquid donatur amids, Quas dedms, solas 
semper habebis, opes. Isocr. ad Demonic, rois ayaOou^ 4v iroiec, 
#caXo( yap dtiaavpo^ aw&pi tnrou^up \apii o^iKofiluti. Themist 
Orat. XVIII. O9ro0er irKeovoKTOiVdw o\ roii; aya&wv irpaJ^et^v Otiactv^ 
pot, oi fi0¥Oi €Lay\oi kcu avdXwToi Some take iv avpav^ here, 
and €irl Ttjt yiis in the preceding verse, with Ofi<ra»pil^eT€» 

21. oTTOu] See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. c. xxxv. Sect. 3. § 1. 
— • On^avpoi i$tm\ For vfxmv in the two cases in this verse, 

two MSS. and several versions have Voi;. MiU thinks v/JuSi^ is 
St. Luke^B) and trov St. Matthew'^s on grounds which Wetstein 
does not consider to be sufficient. 

— eKei ioTQi Kai ij Kapiia v/uuSir] Cic. Att. xii. 12, igitur 
animus in. hortis: quos tamen inspiciam cum venero. Plaut 
Pers. IV. 6, 27» nam animus in navi est meus. Meniechm. iv. 3, 
15, mens est in querelis. Ter. Eunuch, iv. 7^ 46, Jamdudum 
animus est in patinis. 

22. o Xv-xyof TQV awfiaroi:^ Artemidorus Oneirocrit. i» 28, 
calls the eyes rov awfUiTos oStiyol Kai f/^c/uoivs. Aristot. Top. i. 
14, c0$ oyjfi9 iv o00aX/i^, pov^ iv ^^X^' ^^ Philo de MuniL 
Cond. Qirep yap row iv "^v^Vi toSt 6<p6aXtmo9 iv cwfAart. 

— dxXovr] Clear, oKoKXripoiy as membra sincera in Lucretius* 
Opposed to an eye overgrown with film, which would obstruct the 
sight. Chrysostom and Theophylact explain the word as sjoiony- 
mous with vyivf^. Epicharmus xadapov av tov vovv ^^lys, awav 
TO frUfia KaOapo^ cl. Themist. Orat. xxii. fiXifi/uLa carXoSv xal 
yewcuov^ Hierocles prsef. in Aur. Carm. wairep yap otbOaXfif 
XffftMVTi Kol ov K€Ka6apfiev(pf rd a<pi^pa <f>ayr€ivd t^ely ov^ dtivTe*' 
ovTto Kol ^X? ^^ dpertiv Ketrniftivri t& Ttjq dXtfieia^ ivoirrpi'^ 
<raa9ai icaXXos ofuliyavov. As the body must be well enlightened 
if the eye be sound and good, or greatly darkened if it is spoiled 
with noxious humours; so the mind must be full of light, if 
reason, its eye, is in a juroper state ; or full of darkness, if it it 
perverted by covetousness and other worldly passions, but with 
this difference that the darkness of the mind is infinitely worse 
than the darkness of the body and attended with worse conse- 
quences, inasmuch as the actions of the mind are of far greater 
importance to happjsiess tj|H||tlwae of the body. 

CHAPTER Yi; 171 

Whitby and most oottimentators by ifpOoKfiot airkmi^ uader- 
slaod a liberal person) and by o<f>0dkfiof wovfipit the covetous 
man: because the prec^ng woids are a dissuasive from laying 
up treasures on the earth, the fdlowing from the We of riches ; 
and therefore the intermediate words probaUy relating to the 
same thing. And in the sacred writers and among the Jews it 
was said proverbially, He that gives a boon, let him do it with 
a good eye, i. e- fredy and liberally. Eodus. xxxii. 8» 10. 
Give thy first-fruits €p dyaS^ o^AoXm^* Pi^v- ^* 35, ^rvx^V 
avX^ is the liberal soul. And to give avXm and iv airXonyrc 
is to give liberally. James i. 5 : Rom. xii. 8 : 2 Cor. viii. 2 : 
ix. 11, 13. And on the contrary 6<p0aXfio8 wovffpot is the covet* 
ous eye that envies others any share of its good things. Prov. 
xxviii. 22 : xxiii. 6. Wetstein gives instances from the Jewish 
writings. So Lightfoot. 

Hor. Ep. II. 2, 193. Scire volam quantum simplex hiUrisque 
nepoti Diacrepet et quantum disoordet parens avaro. Tac. Hist. 
III. 86. Inerat tamen simplidtas ac liberalitas. 

*-~- OTKOTOi^ Thomas M. o (tkotoq xal to tTKoroi, *H oe 
ffKcria ovK iv yptiaei, EupcTPt^ iv ^otviaaai^p (jkotov oeoopKW* 
Eustath. Tov ie pffiipra CKorov oi imeff ''Ofitipov koI ckotos 
^KKTfv. Kal ^tcupofrnirai ^iv ^tap avroi^, rd irX^ioi ce Kara 
yivoi apceviKop irpoar/eTai, <o9 oiyXoc xai to* ovoe trmnrov (ppia'^ 
aoucri TOV (rwepyaTtiv. Schol. Eurip. Hec. i. ypn(f>eTai Kal to 
iTKOTo^ oveerepws soai o aKOToHm mt r^ pjev oioeTepfp ypwpTcu ot 
KOiPolf Tip o€ dpcrevuc^ oi 'Amtroc. 

24. ovjielr] Scil. SovXo9, implied in SovXevew, as Luke xvi. 13, 
ovists oi/rcnfr, whidi is also a reading here. . Here the particles of 
comparison are wanting, ofcrTrc/o oviels SvpaTm»..ovTws ov SvyaaOem 

— '^Sval Kvploi^] L e. of contrary dispositions, as appears from 
Be^ jcat MaiuLwv^. Chrysost. Hom. xxi. in Matt. p. 160, &iw 
Tov( TO epoPTta emTaTTovraf Xeyet. Athanasius Dial. iii. de 
S.S. Trin. Tom. ii. p. 222. cvSeh ^panai, jc. t. X. Svo Se wiv, 
0T€ 6 pip tcvto deX«i, o Se tovto, 

Phrynichus, p. 88, ivat /ui} Xiye^ dXXa iuolv'^wl yap fiopi^ 
y^vueSjii Xeyeraty ovyl Se ^rcirijs. Thomas M. iuotp oJ watp^ 
o<ra yap /u^f <rvpttii<paiv€i yivo^^ oiJSe frTw<riP iej^eToi^^-^ro oihtiVj 
ApfiTtu /»ipTo$ Kol TovTo TTapd Tocs pf^Toptn. In the New 
Testament ivo is used for the nom. gen. ace. of all genders : and 
the inspired penmen, rather, as it should seem, than, express a 
word in the dual form, of which there are none either in the 
New Testament or in the Septuagint version* of the old, employi 
Iml tw the dative. > 

172 8T. MATTHEW. 

— • SovXeieiv] Dio Chrys. lxx. p. 608. iraaa ftiu qvp isrrt 
iovXeia yaXeirii, tov£ Se airo ti/j^i/s ev oucl^ t^ avrij oouKevoyra^^ 
iv fi Sio ri Tpeis ^(nrorai, Kai Taura rais re i/Xuciciif teal rait 
^pitretn ita<f>opot, Xc'yoi £e TrpeafiuTtj^ aj/eXei/depor, kqI tovtov 
fralSe^ v^aviaKoif iriveiv koi awaOqlu BiXovre^, nV ovk av tSw 
aXXiov oucerUp 6fio\ayii<r€i€V aOXioyrepov^j orav Toaovrov^ oifi 
OepaireieiVf Kai tovtwv exao'Tov aXKo ti (ioyXofievov koi irpocrratr" 
^ovra ; Ter. Andr. i, 3, 4. Nee quid agam eertum ^st : Pam« 
philumne adjutem an auscultem seni. Si ilium relinquo, ejus 
vita timeo : sin opitulor, hujus minas. Adelpfa. iv. 2» 16, Non 
hercle hie quidem durarc quisquam, si sic fit, potest. Scire 
equidem volo quot mihi sint domini: qu» haec est miseria? 
Persius v. 154, duplici in diversum scinderis hamo, Hunccine an 
hunc sequeris : subeas altemus oportet Ancipiti obsequio dominos. 

— « fiuniaei] i. e. posthabebit. Gen. xxix. 30, 31. 

— avOi^erai] hold fast to, adhere to. Joseph. B. J. v. 10, 3, 
irviTTovTo oe yepovre^ avreyofievoi t£v trtrlwv, Diod. Sic. xxiv. 
Exc. p. 665. AM<Xica(— aVre^o/uieyoff ixev rtj^ ^o^V^j jcara0/ooiwr 
oe Twi; KiuSvvtav, Suidas, avOe^eTaC avTiXipj/eTai, Hesych. 
ai'Tej^erai* anfTiXa/xfidveraij (ppoirrii^eif 'irepnrotciTat* Theophy- 
lact. Tit. I. 8, avT€')^6fjievov, €ppovTil^ovTa, TertuUian ^v. 
Marc. IT. c. xxiii. p. 7^6, Quibus duobus dominis neget posse 
serviri, quia alterum offendi sit necesse, alterum defendi, ipse 
declarat, Deum proponens et Mammonam. 

Casaubon says Distinguendum diligenter inter ayair^v et airre-* 
yeaOai, ut nuUam hie fore (popriic^v repetitionem, ut quidam 
puteiit. Docere Dominum nostrum, qui fieri nequeat, ut duobus 
dominis idem serviat. Quia, inquit, vel unum odio habcbit 
alterum amans : aut etiam, licet amet utrumque, fieri poterit, ut 
dum in alterius voluntate exequendA erit intentior, erga alterum 
gerat se negligentius. avTe')(€<r0ai signifying something more effi-» 
cient than cc'yaTr^r which is used to express the inward affection 
of the mind, and the former the outward act so that he will be 
diligent in executing the commands of the one and negligent in 
those of the other. Polyb. xxvii. 1, 9, 'OXv/jLirixov Se rod 
Koprnveats ^pwrov fieradeiiivov Kai <l>d(rKovTos oelv avTeyetrBai 
Pwftictiwv V. 1, 8, expivev av9t9 airreyefrdtu tS>v ircpi tov Aparov, 
Demosth. vepi <rT€(f>. 290, O? avre'^^eaBat rti^ iavrHv Kai t^v tw 
aXXoft; ^EXK^vww eXevOepla^^ Pind. Nem. a. 49, iyw Je 'JH/oax- 

— 6iw] One MS. of inferior value has rod* The true read* 
ing therefore must be without the article. But why (says Midi> 
dleton, 6r. Art. p. 192) should it be omitted before ivovy when in 


the preceding clause it was inserted before wa? The answer 
seems to be that c& opposed to o erepot usually takes the article, 
where eh has not recently been mentioned : but if this practice 
were to be retained, where eh has recently occurred, the article 
might be supposed to indicate renewed mention; a purpose to 
which in 6 eh it is frequently subservient. 

— Mafiwy^^ Suid. Mafjtwva^* ^uco9j yijivoi wXoJJroy. Au- 
gustin de Serm. Dom. ii. Mammona apud Hebrsaos diviti» 
appellari dicuntur. Conyenit et Punicum nomen: nam lucrum 
Punice Mammon dicitur; and in this sense it is used by the Tal- 
mudists. Mammon is here represented by our Saviour 3s m 
person ; whence has arisen the supposition that it was the name 
of an Idol, or Grod of Riches worshipped in Syria, and corres- 
ponding with the Greek IlXoi/roff. But there does not seem 
8u£Scient proof of this. 

Clem. Alex. Strom, viii. p. 742* ov^h hvifarm^ Jt. r. X. oi ri 
ipyvpiov Ae^itfv <j>fi(ri ^iXcSs oinrivv, aXXo riitf ex rod apyvpiov 
clff Tar irouci\a9 iJSoiwj j^opiryiav. Hence Porteus, Lect. vii. 
p* 1799 understands it to be, every thing that is capable of being 
an object of trust, or a ground of confidevice to men of worldly 
minds; such as wealth, power, honor, fame, business, sensual 
pleasures, gay amusements, and all the other various pursuits of 
the present scene. It is these that constitute what we usually 
express by the word world when opposed to religion. 

Sallust. Ep. II. de Rep. Ord. Ubi divitise clarse habentur, ibi 
omnia vilia habentur : fides, probitas, pudor, &c« Plato de Rep. 
Vlilr avKovv SrjjXoy i^ofi tovto ev woXci, on vXovrov Ti/juav xai 
0io^po(yvvfiv a/xa iKavHi KTocrOat ep To7i TroXirai^ aoJyaroir, a XX' 
oifayKff ^ Tod erepov a/xeXeiv ^ tov erepou. Demophili Sentent* 
<l>i\o-)^rfftaTov KQi (f>i\6deo» tov avrop dovvarov eivai, 6 yap 
0<Xoj^iJ/jiaTO9 ef amyKfis acinos. 

25. &a TouTo] If these words connect this verse with the 
preceding, the meaning is. Seeing ye cannot serve God and Mam* 
mon at the same time, do not serve the latter by taking thought 
for your life. 

*— - juiepiffivare] Expresses taking anxious thought, or being 
anxiously careful, having excessive anxiety. See Luke yiii. 14 s 
X. 41 : xii. 11 : xxi. 34: and Phil. iv. 6. Our blessed Saviour 
condemns here only that immoderate carefulness .which is occa^ 
sioned by the love of this world and of its advantages and enjoy.* 
ments, and proceeds from distrust and incredulity. St. Luke xii. 
29, has made use of the word pLerewpil^(o which signifies to have 
a wavering and doubtful .mind, disquieted or tossed about with 


mistrust and fear. In othor passages of Scripture diligoice in 
business is inculcated, that men, instead of being useless loads 
on. the earth, may at all times have it in their power to discharge 
the several duties of life with decency. Tk. iii. 14. 

The construction of this verb is sometimes with the dat. 
as here ; sometimes widi the ace. as ver. 34 ; and 1 Cor. vii. 32, 
dya/iiOf fieptfiv^ rd tov Kvplov, wm apetr€i t^ Kvpiipi also 
V. 33, 34: xii. 25; sometimes with the preposition eU or xepi, 
as ^j; (rtfp pLeptfivffO'nTe eh t^v avpiow* 

— T^ ^*^p] ^-q- w*p* '»'% ^•'X^^- Here signifies the Mfe, 
as X. 39: xvi. 25: John x. 11, &c. in which sense it is used 
in the best Greek writes. Xen. Kyp. iraii, iv. 4, 3, rce? yj/vya^ 
irepnroiiiffaaQe* Eurip. Phoen. 1012, >/'ti^f7v ie Swrw T^a^ 
ivepOatmtif yOovo^* Heraclid. 551, t^v iimi^v ^X^^ ^V^ Siiwfi 
eKovaa rotcroe. In the same way the Latins use ponere spiritum 
Val. Max. vii. 8, 8, ponere animam, Ovid. Eleg. x. 43. 

— Ti] for iro<or. See Viger. iii. 11, 4. 

-*-<irai Ti irurre^ Some MSS., versions, and Fathers omit 
these words. Oriesbach doubts their genuineness ; and Erasmus 
supposed them superfluous, as being included in the preceding. 
But in ver. 31, we have also ri <f^yirre ^ rl Trifyre both in 
the MSS. anul versions. 

* •— - oi^( i; ^i^x^] i* e- ^^ i^t he who has ^ven the greater 
blessing, give tbe lesser also? An interrogation for a strong 
^rmative. For rrXeiov some MSS. read frktwv. 

«— - gal ro awiiUj 8rc.] Aristid. T. ii. p. 30, A<nrep air ei rc$ 
Ta vTToSifMaTa KpetTTw tAv irocwv, Ttfv 5c iaOfjra tov atifiaro^ 
kpivot Tifuju/ripav. cat »9 cocice to. /ucir '^^p^^aTa tUv vopf^oirritfy 
aaira ml ^ctifMVttn/ aTifkirepa tiyov/neOa. 
. 26. €Ai/3Xe^aT€] has the signification of KoravoiiiraTe, Luke 
xii. 24. See 2 Mace. xii. 45. 

• — ^Tiei ireretvd tov ovpavov] See Ps. cili. 12. Thomas M. 
vnyvoy Xs^e, to ^6 ^reri^y cAoKifkoi^, Ovpavoi here redundant, 
•r perhaps a Hebraism. To the names of animals it was not 
uncommon for the Hebrews to add the place in which they lived 
oit were pacing their time. Homer has vwoupatvunf vsreifiwr, 
11. p. 675. 

Our Saviour cannot be supposed here to countenance idleness 
and n^ligence ; his whole design in these words being to recom- 
mend trust in 6od*s providenoe, and calmness of mind while 
i^e are employed in our several callings, and to impiove all 
those means which Crod has set before us. 
. «^*jov tnrBipmfcrt, &c.] Od. c^ 106, KvK^mTrmv ^^ c$ yaia» 


Jr«|p0i€iXc0r, oBefiicrrwt, ^Ixo/Aeff oi pa Oeoici 'treirotBore^ aBavd-' 
Touruf Om-tf ^vrevovai X^P^^*' (f^vrov our apoihtw' AXXa ray 
aanapra koI op^pcra Travra (ffvoyrai, Uvpol koI KpiOai, tfS^ 
afLinXoi aire fpipowrw Glvw kpurrai^vKov, koi o'iJHv A^9 ofufipoi 

— Kal] et tamen. 

— rpiff^ei avra] Dent. xxii. 6 : Job xxxviii. 41 : xXxix. 26, 
29 : Ps. ciii. 27, 28: cxlvi. 9. 

— /AoXXop] irapekKet. Mark vii. 36: 2 Cor. vii. 13 : Heb. xi. 
25. It is also translated longe multum; or as Glass, multum 
amnino ; see Phil. Sac. p. 443. 

'^-^ iuKpepere] Excel, are of more value. Hesych. Sia<f>€pet* 
a»^K€iy irpov\€i, vTrepex^ij /SeXnW iari. Thucyd. i. 84, ^oXJ 
Te cux^peiv oi iei vo/ui^eiv avOpwirov awQpwrou. Isocr. in Hel. 
ly Koi T^ yiv€i icai r^ jcaXXec jcac r^ ^^^? iroKv SiijveyKe, Joseph, 
c. Apion. I. 22, Ilvda^opas-— tro^i^ xal Ttf vepl ro Oeiov eiacfieitf 
mvTww vneiXfififiivas ^€pey kcIv twv ^i\o(To(f>fftravTwv. 

27* tU ^i €^ v/ucSm] Seneca, (Ed. 981, Non sollicitse possunt 
curse mutare ratilstamina fiisi. Hor. Carm. iv. 7$ I7» Q^^ ^^ 
an adjiciant hodieme crastina siunmas Tempora Di Superi. 

— liXuciay] Commonly translated stature, in which sense it 
is used Luke xix. 3: but here perhaps it may better signify a^«, 
because ihe caution is against anxious care about the preser- 
vation of life, and about food the means of prolonging it. So 
Plut. PericL p. 167, ^roXXaTs efiwpoaOew iJXutiais tcv vepl 'Skxhiop 
mlSe^av. Besides, the measure of a cubit agrees better with 
a man^s age than his stature. And in the parallel passage in 
St. Luke, be calls the adding of a cubit, to eXa^^urror, the 
thing whidi in the interposition of Divine Providence appears 
least, as it really is if understood of the addition of a single 
moment to the length of one^s life. In the Old Testament we 
find the length of a man'^s life compared to a span. In Diog. 
Laert. viii. 16, we have <nrida/bii7 tov fiiov, Alcseils in Athen. x. 
7) ^KTuKos u/Mpa. And Mimnermus in Stob. intyyiov eirl 
ypovov avOeatv 0tj9 Tepfrofi/s6a. Macknight says, Among the 
heathens the expression took its rise from their allegorical fable 
of the thread of life, which the Parcse spun out for every man, 
and which they no sooner cut, than the person for whom it was*^ 
designed, died. In this light, a cubit added to the thread of 
one^s life will signify the shcMrtest duration imaginaUe. Yet 
it is not certain that the Jews borrowed this mode of expressicm 
from the heathens. Wetstein ccmjectures that i^Xiria, ot the 
ordinary term of life is here considered under the figure of the 


Stadium^ or course gone over by the runners; of which, as ii 
consisted of several hundred cubits, a single cubit was but as one 
i^tep, and consequently a very small proportion of the whole, and 
what might not improperly be termed eKayyrrov. It adds, he says, 
to the credibility of this, that the life of man is once and s^aia 
distinguished in Scripture by the appellation Ipofio^y the course 
run over by the racers : it occurs too in places where no formal 
comparison is made or even hinted, to the gymnastic exercises. 
See Acts xiii. 25 : xx. 24 : 2 Tim. iv. 7 • James iii. 6. 
, 28. ri] i.e. iiari. 

— KaraiJLdBeT€\ i. q. KaravoricaTe, Luke xii. 27- So in the- 
Septuagint ; Job xxxv. 4, ecpa)3Xc^y €19 tov ovpavovy ical 1^' 
irara/Aa^e ve v€<l)ri, w^ vyf/ffka airo aoV' Philo li« AUeg. p. 94^ 
KaroLfiad^ ye toi t^v dceXipfiv aou A^iav, xai eipijaeis i^ ovoevov 
y€vinjroS Xofifidvowrav ti)v avopcuf koI t¥Iv yovvivm Epictet* 
Enchir. xxxiii. to fiovXevixa rij^ (j^uaean KaraMCLOwiv iaTiv* 
Xenoph. xarajJiaOwv avrov ovre Ovowra Oeov^, Plutarch de 
Audit, p 42, d<f>opq.v j^prf irpo^ iaurov, Karro^avOavotfTa Tf}M 
'^vyi^Vm Demosth. Orat. Amator. p. 1413, ev irpwrov exeivo <re' 
^€1 KaTOfAaOeiv OKpifim, Strabo iii. p. 211, KUTaikaBovre^ oJi^ 
Tfiv <j>vaiv t5>v TOTTtav 01 avdpu>Troi, 

-*- Kpiva] Ace. case. Michaelis thinks this the crown imperial^ 
so abundant in the vallies of Judea and the East. Sir J. Smith 
calls it the Amaryllis lutea, or Autumnal .Narcissus. Plin. H. Nat< 
XXI. 5, Est et rubens lilium, quod Grseci Crinon vocant ; alii 
florem ejus Cynorrhodon; laudatissimum in Antiochia et Lao* 
dicea, Syrie mox in Phaaelide. Here Synechdoch. for flowers 
of the meadows in general {rod dpyod distinguished from gardens) 
for in the following verse he calls them the grass of the field. 

— -av^ciFei] This verb is used both transitively and intran* 
sitively in Greek writers, as well as in the New Testament, 
though among the Attics . it properly signifies augere. When 
taken intransitively it signifies crescere, augeri, i. q. av^dyeoQui* 
Catullus Lxiv. 323, O decus eximium, magnis virtutibus augens, 
1. e^ aucte. Thomas M* to fiev ai/^eiy ewl evepytfTucoVf clov 
av^ei o fikioi Kal 17 uyporti^ to. ^i/tcc. Af/fioadeiftf^ ip t^ i/wip 
Tov crT€(fkivQV' tos ivio^ia^ t^ TrarpiSo^ OepajrcveiUf Taira 
au^ciu. Kal ai^eif dvTi rod ai^eTat. 'ApttrreiStj^ iv r^ ccp' 
Pwfi^Vf aXXd Kal eUorm ^v^tjaev 17 a/'X^* avj^dvei £c iwl 
TraOifTiK^s (Fmiaaia^ 6 airos £^nf^oa9ivft^ iv t^ ai/r^ \6y^, 
eirei ye oh tj trarpis tfv^dveTo* Kal au^dvei xa ipvrdp otov ai^tfaiv 
Several. Kal au^dvojuiat iirl tov airw c^jpiawofAivoiu Luoian. 
"■^--^udosoph. tv, 63, Qvie av^dvoirra xatSia croXoiKia^oi; rronjcret^ 


CHAmR rr. 177 

i^ fULffciv ci&JTi. Pdlyb. xvi. 21, 16, tJ Xoiiro¥, iiv^awe to 
faiotf^ ij[ tsuTcXi XafA0dvo¥ njir eirtWiy. ApoUodor. BiU. i. 
p» 4fjj ouroi KoT imauToif tjfv^at^y irXaTiK futw x^iMuor^ /li^or 
€€ opyvuuov. It oocon in thiff ngtuficsdcm ^Tett tunes in 
Joeeplnur. But see Not. p. 558r Vol. iii. of Hemsterhns. Lncian; 
iHiere it is denied that it oecuxis in s piMte signification ift Ihr 
best authoTB. 

-^-^ ffoircf } Denote that labonr by which the body is wearied 
and the stixngtli exhausted, from xiirof. 

29* oHi SoXo/uwf} Ne quidem. HoogeTeen supplies iri ovt« 
6t ovpaaT4io1rr*9i, cire fiactKei^^ aXX' oiii SoXoM^y. Neque 
is used for ne quidem^ Virg. Mn^ ix. 71' See Doct. Port/ c. xxxixl^ 
Sect; 11. § 11. 

— 'SokofnHtf] Here ilientioned rather thah any other prince,' 
because in wealth and power and wisdom, which are the instru* 
ments of magnificence and splendour, he excelled all the kings 
that had ever been before him, or were to come after him. 

— io^i?] Splendour,. Acts xxii. II : 1 Cor« xv. 40, 41 : here' 
Sfdendid garments : 1 Mace. xiv. 9, oi peavUrxvi i»$&i<Tavro ^^agi^ 
In Esth^ ^* I9 we find ^rv/Mff/SoXXero ti^it So^aw airifs* See 
Isfli. lii/ 1. Comp; 2 Chrcm. ix. 16, &c. 

The royal rolm which were put on the King of Judah at; 
his coronation were rich and splendid, as appears from these 
words. Josephus describing Agrippa*s robes. Ant. xix. 8, 2, 
says oToXiiv ivSutrdtaevot c^ apyupou ir«iroii|M€M|v traatan m^ 
Oa»fkaato¥ v^v einu. And Jennings (Jew. Ant., Vol. i.' p. 184) 
tUliks tjie allusion in this passage wUl be more appdsite, if as 
Josephus says, Ant. viii. 7) 3, Solomon was usnidly clothed 
in white, XevKfji^ ifAifHetrfiipiK iaOnra, On this supposition, 
it is probable this was the colour of the royat robes of his 
su c cessors. But it being Mkewise the colour of the priests^ 
garments-, the difference between them must be supposed to lid 
in the richness of the stuff they were made ofr 

-^^wvpic/SaXcTo} Herodian viii. 6, j^KaftitfSi Tropifnfp^ nrefH-* 
fiaXkovatv. Plut. Public, p. 99^ rd Ifidria w«/M/3aXXdyre9 
avTMir T0I9 T^^iyXoiv.' 

Something similar to this is that saying of Solon^s to Croesus, 
Diog. La. Sol. i. 51, Kcafujaat iavritf o Kpoicos irapro^wn-m cat 
KtSitrat W Tor 0fM^ot, lipero avrov^ ei rt OeafUL xoXXioir rsdsaTou; 
i'ii dKeKTpvo¥a9 elve, ^ooiayov?, koI tcuS?, fpvauc^ yap av0€i 
Kmco{r$ugmu koI ftvpitp «rcitXXiori. 

89. x^®^} "Fbe Hebrews divide all kinds of vegetables 
iikto trees imd AerAs^ the fonrisr of which the Hellenists call 


178 ST: MATTHinr. 

^i/Xoy» tho latter yiprpiy comprehending grass, com and floversi 
Here x^f^^^^ drldently indudes <ra Kpiua <n>S aypcS^ of vhich^ 
our Saviour had just been speaking. So great is the scarcity 
of fuel in the East^ that the withered stalks of plants are used 
to heat the ovens. From Shaw^a Travels, p. 86, ifcre learn that 
myriie, rosemary and othei" plants, are made use of in Barfaarj 
for this purpose. Ulpian L. lv. de leg. 3, Lignorum appdla«> 
l3ona in quibusdam regionibus, ut in iEgyptOi, ubi arundine pro- 
ligno utuntur, et anindines et papyrum oomburitur, et herbolss 
qusBdam, vel spinse, vel vepres contiaebuntur. 

-** (T^f^epov ivTo] , q. d. i^^Mffou. Antbol. i. 90, 7^ to p6c<» 
aK/MU^€i /Sofor ^f/M>yoi/, ^v £« if(Mpi\Bri, Zjjrriv €UfK^<m^ ou /9o^ 
dXXa )3aroi'. Plin. H. Nat. xxi. 1, Flores vero odoresque in 
diem gignit(Natiira), magna, ut palain est, admonitione hominum, 
qu« spectatissim^ floreant, oelerrim^ marcescere. Plaut. Pseud, i. 
1, 16, Quasi -solstitialis harba pauliqier fiii^ Rqpente exorsus sum, 
repentino occidi. 

-•^ /cXi/3aM>i'} Thomas M. xpijSctyof 'Arrcxei, ovyl KKifiwHK 
Sia Tou X. £tym» Kpifiauof (nmaiwei rip KaiuuoPf iv&a mirrovw 
Toik aprovif Trapd to Kpi mt to fiewvos ij KOfJuvof* Ol os ^wpieif 
xXiliavov XeyowFi^ Philo uses the word, Quk rer. div. lier. 
p. 624, KXifiavov e'dkocpiyi^ trvp ovic Jf^ovrof. Some have inter- 
preted §cXifiaPov by a MtiU for distilling herha: but there is no 
reason to alter the translation. Vegetable substances were used 
finr fuel: and if annuals, they might be sufficiently dry far 
immediate use. Or, as the expression is proverbiat, aiptov may 
mean any time soon after, ace<mling to tiie Hebrew idiom. See 
Gren. XXX. 33. 

•*— fiaiXXofiwotf] Conjidendum, as S Pet. iii. 11, XwofMvwvy 
and Eph. v. 13, eXcy^o/iei/a. 

— ^afUL<piivvv<Tivl^ Expresses the putting oii a complete dress 
^t siurrounds the body on all sides. 'AfitfuewwoBai and 6f3v» 
aaaOat, as also the Latin verbs indui^ vestiri, cingi, used of 
pbnts and trees when laden with flowers or leaves and fruit. 
Virg. Ed. in. 39: Gkorg. i. 188: ii. 919: iv. 14S. 

-^- ov iroW^ fiSXXov vyuaf ] Sell. a/iKpteatTcu* 

'^^oXiyoTTUTToi] Who distrust the providence of Gtod. This 
ia an expression frequent in the Tahnudists* 

31. Ti <pdy4afiev'\ The sanie anxiety in the Gentiles is repre* 
headed by Epictetus, a Gentile philosopher? t. 9> ore -xpfyroffO^n 
Gfipi£povy KaQfitrOe Kkalovre^ vepl Ttj^ avptoPy iroOep (fidyfiTe. 

32. Ta eBptf] It was the general character of the healhens, 
thay prayed to their Gods, and laboured themselves for 

OHAFrBa ¥!• 179 

to blessings but the temporal ones hete mcittioneclf as is plain 
from Jiiv. Sot. X.; and that becaasa tlioy vfere in « great measure 
% nanu i t of God^s goodness, they had erred fundamentally in their 
notions of religion, and had no certain hope of a future state. 

— — eiri^jfrci] Hesydi. esri^i/Tei' ^voykei, iirt)(flp^i, CTrmfpei* 
The compound iwi^tirelv and ^ifreii^ Lttkexii^ 30, used iff 
die sense of jneptfLP&i^f ter. Si ; and iadieates too great eagerness 
and afiaciety. 

— otie yap o trar^p, be.} In no part of this disoonfae doee 
Jesus ooll God the father of the fowls, but be oalls him our 
ftidier, to make us sensible that men stand in m much neoorer 
rdntioo to Crod tbad the brute creation does; imd dierefofv 
Oat we may joitly expect gresrter expressions of Us lore. 

AntboL X, 89, 9, ei rd /uiiX^ip ^Mcrfoi n, /Mpl/uva, teal /aeX^i^ 
<foi. £i ^ MeXti ittiffi <f^v iaifAovi^ (foi ri /uieXe^; See a beautiful 
psssoge in ArriaDf Epictet. in. 26, -on expecting the necessary 
supports of life with sure hope and confidence from Grod. 

•^-^(fO^^rrtf} EtymoL Xf^'^* n^uca <nffudi^t ri iiofitUi e^tfi; 
Ttij ^po&y^pafA/uiiifow, awo yap too x/kos yiperat ^P^^^f ^f^^ 
nrp&ne^ tou e eh n> ypvf^^* XP^'^'^^ ^^*^ oAroi, Ka\ K&fra av9al^ 
peam X/^^^'^' ^^^ ^ eyifutiif€i to ypffjfkmiSf ionrop^ To9 *r 

33. wpirov} In some read irpirrtpov, end in some it is want' 
ibg, u& bring omhted in Luke xii. 31. Here signifiea imprimis, 
ptseo^ne; let it be your chief afan end prineipai core* Josw 
Ant. %* 19, 0. 

<*^^ Tifif ^a<n\eia» 'foi Ocev] i. e: true roligion^ the advantages 
of she kingdom of Otoi : so Rom. lar. 17" The trta^res meisu 
ikmed ver. 90« 

'^^ n^r itnatofwnt air^] That figkteousnesa which consists 
ib » coofarmify to the dedared will of 6ed« The peffomance 
of his commandments, reidly and sineerely; not as they were 
ex|Mned by the Pharisees. 1 Mace. ii. Si9, l^f/roivre^ SutauH 
aitnpf Kal KpifJM* 

-^^ Xtarra ravra^ All those things whieh tare necessary to 
the support of life. 

"^ irfPo&reSiiiTerai] Shall be added over and above. Lueian. 
deLiqpe- inter Sid* xf. «y roiro ifv^^To iyialvtw^ m €<rT dt^ rovr 
jvff, pahiwi avrip'Trnv aXkwu '!fpoaymnittoiativt)v» Philo depronah^ 
el pem. p. 986, sf^es in a simikt manner, of? ^i¥ yap a\n9ari9 
irXeiro^ ip oipaw^ KerraMeiTcu, ^mJ <ro^a9 Km o^Urifto^ a^Kif* 
ftrJf, 'Torfreif Kal o riy ^P^f^^'^^^ **"* 7^^ irtp^ovffial^ei 
irpovoi^ xai ewc/ieXci^ 0t<3S t£v TOftttwy ee) 1l'Xf^/Mli//fir^i^s»r-*^f 
ii o icXtipo^ ovK icTiP ovpavio^, &c. 



J ; ^ . " • •' 

84. 619* T^y avpuni^ Scil. tifiepaw. For Ta eiv T9|y avptaw^ 
as ra eavr% follow. In one MSS. €19 » wanting. Pollux, i. 66,* 

fffULepcu9f ciov eis aiptov^ xal els rif y iwwiaav, Kol ek j/m^/mv^ 
nrpiTffv. Antpnin, xii. 1, to fieXKop iwvrphfniv t^ wpovouf. 
See iv. 33: vii. 8: x. 11. 

; -. ij yap mpiop] The time to come in general. The Hebrews- 
UB^ this word to denote any time to come, though at a distance : 
the expression also is in use among the Greeks. - . * 

— Ta 6ai;T^9] Scil. wpay/Mtra or fjutpiiivfifiara* Many MSS. 
ondt ra^ but /Aepifipav elsewhere in the New Testament goTem» 
an. accusative, as 1 Cor. vii. 82, 83, 34: Phil. iv. 6: jiepiiuLvai^ 
|ias been supposed in these, passages to denote not »so much the 
care, as the effect of the care; metonymy, of cause for effect. 

— dpKerwy Sec] Common proverb among ■ the Hebrews. 
Sub. 'xpijua or vpayiAa (ccrri). See Matt. x. 25 : 3 Cor. ii. 6» 
Isocr. ad Demon, ripy^fi^ yap auv t^ «raXi^ fiev apuxroif* Liban< 
£p. IX. ^povrh KaXov. Clitarchus apud Stob. Serm.. 84^ 
awXf/poiTOi^ 17 6Wf0i;/i<a, &a tovto xal awopov* Diog. La«rt.'ii. 
p. 266, kclKov riv twv Toiouratv apSpHy aupaywry^. Achill.' 
Tat. I. p. 27, TTovtipov flip yvvfj, Horn. II. /3. 204, oitz ayaOoi^ 
TToXvKoipavifi. Virg. Eel. iii. 80, Triste lupus stabulis. 

^-^Tfj vf^eptf] Scil. cKaarri Hieron. £p. 147) Suffidt nobis 
de . pra^sentibus hujus sseculicogitare angustiis. Seneca £p. 13,^ 
Etiamsi futurum est malum, quid juvat dolori suo occurrere?. 
Satis cito dolebis quum venerit: interim tibi meliora propone. 
Ep. XII. Ille beatissimus est et securus sui possessor, qui eras- 
tinum sine sollicitudine expectat. Ep. xxiv. Quid enim neoesse 
est mala arcessere, et satis cito patienda, cum venerint, prsssumere, 
ac praesens tempos futuri metu perdere! See Hor. Catm. i. 9 : 
I;. 11: II. 16: III. 29, &c. Athen. VII. p. 280, €19 avpuw H 
tf^ovTiXfiv—'^irepiepiyov iari. Anacreon xv. 1, to tnjfiepow fiSkett 
fkOi, TO S aipiov Tk otSev. Soph. Trachin. 960, cirir cvo^H 
§cai wXeau^ rif fffiipas XoyS^erm, Maraios itrriv. , Oi ^p iaff 
t/y aupiov, TJpiif ev iniBfi T19 nji; irapovaav tifiepav. 

— 1} Kcucia^ i. q. KaKwnsj Tcikanrafpiaf by which 'words 
Chrysostom has explained it. Eccles. xii. 1^ ectff crrou fAti 
ikOwaiy at ijyutepcu t^^ /raicfof- Wisd. vii. 30, ao^ia^ ^ ouk. 
oPTurjfiei Kcucla. This seems an Hellenistical use of it, though 
in Thucyd.. III. 58, xaxia is. opposed to ^ov^* if&ovtiv Sdyrai- 
aXXoi9, Muclav. avTcvs ovTi\a^iv« Xen. Kvp» w<u^» ^i^* 6, 24,? 
cf^ls those who are . in want KOKofitwraTaw. , ^ - 

Chap, VII. 

. 1. fAif Kpumre] /r^Miv here is used io the aeaae ot^KxtraKpitdetP^ 
which is used for it. Bom. ii. 1 : as is iraroXoXeir James iv. 11. 
This is to be understood of those rash and censorious judgments 
whereby we disapprove and condemn pec^le^s actions.- See Luke 
vi.37- M9 /raro^a^tfTC) kuI d fi^ /raro^acacrd^rey which have 
also in some copies been added here. And not only rashness 
is forbidden . here, but also severity and rigour in judging of 
others,, for eXso^ is sometimes opposed to Kpiavs^ James ii. 13, 
fi npiatf a¥ikeu9 t^ m>I woiiiaavri eXcor. Crrcg. Nyss. de 
Poenit. Tom. ii*. p. I70, 01; Tifi/ tcpiaiv teal Tffy euytwfUHrvytii^ 
cr/3aXXcx. Kpiat¥ ce oro/uA^ei njv TpayvTipav Koraicpunv. Theo- 
phylact in Loc. ovj(i to eXeyjo^^y Kwkiet, aXXd to KaTOKpltfetv* 
'O jutev yap cXeTv^t ^^^ ci^cXcff iarlv, ^ Si KaTaxpun^ swi 
oi«i&<rM^ xal i^ovo€V(i(T€i' 

3. iv ^ KplsiaTi] For ^ simply. Cic. Vierr. iii. 1, Qui sibi 
hoc sompsit, ut corrigat mores aliorum, ac peccata reprehendat, 
huic quis ignoscat, si qui in re ipse a religione • officii aberra;-. 
▼erit ?— — and iii. 3, Non modo accusator non, sed ne objurgator 
quidem ferendus est is, qui quod in altero vitium reprehendity 
in eo ipse deprehenditur. Thucyd. zii. 40, sXsor rs yapirpo^ 
TOU9 OfULolov9 iucaiog ovri^ifSoffdai, koI /mi) wpo9 tov9 oAt omtouC" 
Tt^SinraiSm Polyb. xii* 13, 4, ^g-ucpo^ yap 'ye^ivW teal airaparrn^ 
TO? iviTifAifrrii twv ire\a%, mucotws av ical viro tw» irXtgatotf 
€UfT09 aarapcuTfrrov Tvyyavoi Koniyoplais*- 

— fiirp^] Longin. ProL in Hephaest. Enchir* p. 140, Xiyerag- 
$€ fieTpow Kcd fljuTo TO fAerpoiv, xal to fUTpovfuvov, ws oray 
eiwmfiev tov fki^fufov fieTpoVf xai to iv auTip fk^Tpffiev fieTpou. 

^ .^^ In the measure that a man measureth, others measure to 
him.**^ This is a proverbial expression much used by the Jews, 
Syrians, and Arabians. It occurs in the Chaldee Paraphrase 
on Gen. <xxxiii. 3d,»36: and Isai. xxvii* 8. So in 3 Cor. x. 13, 
auTol iu itwTots iauTou9 ftsTpoivTt^. And Hor. £p. i. 7» 98, 
Metiri se quemque suo modulo ac pede verum est. 

— opn/AeTpffiiiaeTiu] A very great number of MSS. some 
vecsians and Fathers here read the simple verb /irr/n^Vervu. 
The other may have been inserted here from St. Luke vi. 38, , 
where. theve is .no variety of reading. 

3. * Ti a^ i* e. Ota tL oe. 

— TO KapiJHK^ Hesych. tcapffHKf Kepaia l^vkov Xeirrii, a little 
splinter of wood;- from Kapif^eatfaif i. e. ^i/paiMorAit. The Jews 
themselves used this proverb familiarly in this very case, against 

183 8T/ MATTHEW. 

those who reprehended the least offences (ra/txj^) in others, 
when they themselves were guilty of very heinous crimes (&mcof.) 
Hot. Senn. i. 8, 25, Cum tua pervideas oculis mala lippus in- 
unctis, Cur in amicorum vitiis tarn cemis acutum, Quam aut 
aquila aut serpens Epidaurius! At tibi eontra Evenit, inqui- 
rant vitfa et tua rursus et illi. Seneca de Vit. Beat, xxtii. 
Papulas observatifi alienas, obsiti ulceribus, Hoc tale est, quale 
si quis pulcherrimorum corporum nsevos aut verrucas derideat, 
quern vera scabies depascitur. Cicero de Off. i. 41, Fit, nescio 
quo modo, ut magis in aliis cemamus, quam in nobismetipsis^ 
«i quid delinquitur. Tusc. iii. 80, Est enim proprium stultitiie, 
aliorum vitia cemere, oblivisd suorum. Theognis 489) Niyirtor 
C9 Tov ifipv fiiv e^ei v6ov iv <fiv\aKri<rt, t^v J* avTcv tctow oi^v 
€irurTp€€f>€Tcu, Menand. Frag. ouOel^ €<f> avTcv ret kokcI awop^, 
IlaM^iXe, Sa^o!?, iripov ^ atrytifJLOifoSvTO/s i'^erau See also 
Phsedr. Fab. iv. 9. 

— -^ tA kv T^ o^oX/ufj^] SciL ov or ipaivQfitvor, 

4. TTcS^] Not so much an interrogation, as a mark of admira- 
tion, with what fece, with what confidence can you say. 

— €^19] Erasmus and Besa take this as fut : Uie eU trans- 
lation, as pres. The passage will admit either. 

-**< &^p€9 eic)3aXai] for 6ip€i tm or m^ eicj3aX». ffine ejieiauL 
Pearson on the Creed, Vol. 11. p. 489. 

Democratea, Kpeiaaov rd oucela eXe^y^civ afiapT>ffiam ^ ra 
iBveta. Isocr. ad Demon. /jLokitrra 9 ap cv^ttxoiti^, ci i^ipoto 
Tavrd fi^ irparTwy^ a toii aXXoiy, civ Trpdrrwirip, iiriTifiolif?. 
Menander ATraifre^ kafiiv €19 to vouQereiv (ro(f)ol, avrol c afiap- 
Tavotrre^ oi yivwaKOfiev, Demosth. adv. Aristog. Vol. i. p. ^83^ 
roy Kartfyopfiaovra raJv oXXttiv Ka\ iravrcn^ Kptvovvra^ avroi^ 
avej^eXeyKTOv virap\€iv iei. Plut. de Curios, p. 515, tI t cIXXo- 
TptoVf avOpunr^ patrKcuvoraTe, icaic3v o^viepxeiv, r^ o iitop 
'trapapKiTreti ; 

5. j(aj3Xe^€i9] ftit. for imp^. JiajSXr^ov. . Properly this verb 
has the signification of perspicere: but in the New Testament 
where it occurs but twice, here and Luke vi. 4fi, it signifies se 
componere ad aliquid, curare. 

'6. rd iyiQP T019 Kwrtv] See Middletbn, Or. Art. p. 198. By 
dogs and swine here we must not understand all that are wicked 
and profane either through ignorance or vicious habits ; but such 
wicked persons only as by experience they found, after the Gospel 
was preached and confirmed to them by miracles, were still re- 
fractory and pertinaciously continued in their filthy lusts, after 
t^*— ^^-^ "^ccivcd the knowledge of the truth, and were so far from 


emfaracing it» that they resbied and blaspb^ned it, arriXryoinrer 
Kol fiXaaffnf^ovvTeSf Acts xiii. 46, and were ready to persecute 
and destroy the professors of it. See Philip, iii- 2 : and perhaps 
Rer. xxii. 15. Some read here ra ayia, and ^re. 

There is a simihur maxim in the Tahnudical writings *' Do nol 
cast pearls before swine,''^ to which this is added by way of ex«> 
planation, Do not offer wisdom lo one that knows not the price 
of it. 

Isocr. ad Demon, toup kokovs €v Trouiv Sfiota veiati roiv rot 
aWoTpia^ KVVQS triTti^ovci^ kKeivaire tovs ^^irrav wavtp rovi 
Tujprra^ vXarroScriv, o{re KOimi nm ttf^eAovjrrav Arwwp tomc 

— /itiii] See Hoqgoreen, Doctr. Part. c. xxth. Sect 9* § 9. 
— ^ /carawariftrtfaii/] Literally tread under foot; it is used 

either alone, as y. 13 ; or with the addition of roU wocri, as here. 
See Isai. xxviii. 3. Hence to treat with contumely. Suidas 
frareifr v/S/c^c^siv, and also iranycraf* tooTaxppovfitrais^ Herod, ii. 
14i, uses the same word whan speaking of swine, iredv Se Kara-* 
TTaTf^ati Tfici wtI to frwipfxa* And Epietetus x. 8. in a similar 
argument uses the same word ctiyl ii warrov Tovf \6yov9 rov'* 
TOW KaTairaniaoBf mfptMPOQ iifiiif ffoi Tnxpiv<ffipApoi6 iFeptmrei'i . 

— €¥ Toi^ noalp] See Bos. EIL Gr. 437. 

-«— fcal} This is one of those cases wherein koI is better ren- 
dered or than and. The two erils mentioned are not ascribed 
to both sorts of animals: the latter is doubtless applied to the 
dogs, the farmer to the swine. The conjunction and therefore 
would here be equivocBl. 

-*• arpa^wrei^] Eustath. in IL X* p. 7^> ^^ '^^ <p€uy6vif 

KaTuirari/o'cM'fi^ avToiv diould be referred to j(oipam and arpa- 
<pipT€i ptfj^wtriv v^9 to icutrtm Theophylact crTpa^>err€f pii^werw 
oi «vr69 ^i;Xa^. fUirdOeaig yap tSv Xoymv, wtrvep ky r^' cocrrs 
tiv Tv^Xov Kai KW<f>ov «u XoXai^ teal pkerrttv^ xii. 98. This 
arrangement is very frequent with the prophets, and not unusual 
in the New Testament, as xxiii. 16, 20 : xxiii. 25,. 26 : Rom. ii. 
12, 13, 14: xiv. 3, 4, 10: 1 Cor. vi. 11 : 2 Cor. ii. 16, 16, &c. 

7- airfiTt Ka\ Sod^eroi] The same thing is here expressed 
in three different forms, which seem to have been proverbial* 
There is 41 similar construction in Plut del^ Cohib. p. 469, m9 
Kkme Koi Xif^yy, fu| o*ireS5e icoi fioKKoy a OeXu^f ywiiaerai, 
, ... ^ifreTrc, be] Arrian. ni. 92, ^tirti teal ^ip^ttw. Libaa. 
Tom. II* Omt 24, e\X ovv tAre il^ffnifraref c6t€ eip^earM, P|i»« 
tarch de Fortun. adduces from Sophocles ra itAe¥ SiCoKrd funSJaw 

184. ST* MATTHSW. 

Ta S eiperA Tstfrm* TciZ evicrci mapa Oeȴ irnfov^uyir.. Sopb*. 
£Ed. Tyr. 110, to H ^nToifiwau akarrov' etaffviyet M rapm^, 

— Kpouerey &c.] Sub. n}ir dv/Mir. See Blackwall'^fl Sacred* 
Classics, p. 34. Phrynichus, Kpoi^a^ fikv t^v Qipav* ivw^ irov 
vapafiefilatTTcu tj XP^^^^* afieiyoif ^ to Koirretv t^v Q6pa»* 
Aristid. Art. Rhet ii. 13, to H fcpowxtn ti;V' Oipay^ vapave^ffi* 
Xcucrat /mm, oti oi ico^ay fiopov aXXa kqI Kpovaaa Xeyertu, Ejnoi 
Se ovpf ovTtH olavTQi* ''On &b *EXKfiwKO¥ i<m, w^p Sti ota- 

B. va9 yap, &c.] Here Christ teaches us that God grants 
«11 our requests, provided we observe these two conditions, viz. 
that we ask aright, and pray for what is agreeable to his will. 
Hierodes, ai^i? fAeOoptcw rij^ trap ^fup l^fjTii<F€as9 xal lifi ^rapd 
Tov Otfov ioaemSf i^fof^ipti t^ aWias lifJLwy t^ eif Te to elmu 
wpoayoifrtff ff/UM^ ical ftrpo^ t^ eu ^Ivai TeXetai^ffi, 

9. 17] At the beginning of a sentence, no other particle pre- 
ceding, Whitby says, signifies an ; so Judg. xiv. 15, ^ ixfitaa-tu 
lifULci^ K€K\9fKaT€ ; 1 6am. x. 12, ^ koI ^ov\ tp 'irpof^^aiis ; See 
also Matt. xx. 15 : 1 Cor. xlv. 36. fio ver..4. But see Glass* 
Phil. Sac. p. 537* Or Grotius, who takes t{9 for cent- 

— avdpiinro{\ There has been supposed to be an en^hasis 
in the word ovOpwirQ^', otherwise it would be superfluous ; and 
its situation aC the end of the clause has been considered another 
proof of the same tlung. The wotd ap&ptnroi here .makes .the 
intended illustration of the goodness of the Heavenly Father, 
from the conduct of even human fathers with all their imper- 
focticBs, much niQce oiepgetic. See also Pearson on the Creed, i. 
p. 51* 'ficrni; is wanting in several MSS> 

— OP cay] for ov ov^ as viii. 19) coll. Luke ix. 57- Here 
euTcty has a double accusative after it, as the corresponding 
Hebrew word in Ezr. vii. 21 ^ Jos. xv. 18 : Isai. xlviii. 2, where 
see the Septuagint. John xi. 32, iaa ap ainiffti top Qeop- So 
Virg. JBn. xi. 362, pacem te poseimus omnes. See Matt. Gr. 
Gram. p. 584. Abresch. thinks it is for o^ edp o tiio9 arrov aU 
Tfjati avTov apTOP- 

— $1!^] With an interrogation, implying a strong negative ; 
as Gen. xviij. 14, fitj a^paniaei^ 17» MV /c/^v^a); 23, fitj <rw 
airoXtlon^; Jer. xxxii. 27, n^ Kpvfi^trerat^ This proverb of a 
stone and bread seems . to have passed from the Hebrews into 
other countries^ as we find in Plautus, Alter& manu fert lapidem, 
panem ostentat altera. Midiael. Apoatolius Pro. 346, ap ,otpop 
ghyf WPOvXow avT^ Si8ov. cwl . Tcfy jeird (mp XafUifiapopTWP, 

etikmEti VII. 185' 

ififoBa ii ampiprmf. Arietoph. Pac. 119) ayBbfiai v$uvj i^ifhc 
ay oiTiTifr' aproF, irainrav pii Kakowroif ivicp ^ dpyvpiov fkffii 
y^axas fiv nravu wdfArrav, 

11. wtmfpoi] Being put ia oppositioQ to Grod who is mogt 
land and liberal, this word has bead taken to signify here illiberal, 
greedy ; which is agreeaUe to the Hebrew manner of speaking. 
See. ProY- xxiii. 6: coU. xidi. 9: xxviii. 22: Eoclus. xiv. 15, 
o. itovtipof iavTM^ Tin aya0a9 iarat ; or perhaps dejMraved with 
corrupt affections. 

— oliare St^oyai] for iliorey as in Prop. I. 2, 12, Sciat cur- 
rere,' for ourrat. Isai. Ivi. 11 : Eccles. iv. 17* 'This is common 
in all languages. Julian in Anthol. 6r. i. 18, 12, iroXii; ippiyat 
oliev iirai^€i¥. Adsus ib. c. xxxiii. critf^eiv '!A/oT€/u<f oT^c /rvvof. 
Lucian. ib. c. viii. 22, ov Opvov, oy /ioXan^K avefto9 voT€f Tas 
oi tA€yi<rra^ tj Sptias ^ vXaravoyf otie Xl^fJiCu KaTayeiv- So 
Livy I. 53, Donee ad eos perveniat, qui a patrum crudelibus 
et impiis suppHdis tegere liberos Mcianf, i. e. tegant. Glass. 
Phil. Sa<;. p. '830, ,oi&ire novistis, h. e. potestis, non obstante 
imlitia innata, benefacere T^stris. 

•v-^ Sdaei ayaOa] Whatever is proper and necessary for them, 
and will prove to them a real good. Luke xi. 13, has nvev/Jia 
iyum» See Bp. Taylor^s Works, Vol. v. p. 162. Aristoph. 
£ccles. 810, jcoi 'yap oi Oeol .... irap yap €uy((bifAe(y0a iiUvai r 
«<yaAJ» Thesmophor. 366, toiv ^ aWcuo'tv vfiiv tovv 9eov^ 
BP^effOe nrdtrcu^ iroKKa icSvai K^yaOd, 

— T<nv airoddrtp] Scil. vto7t, tcjcwhs. 

12. Trdvra oi/v] Some copies omit oZv, and Griesbach sup- 
poses this (xnission may have arisen from its bang the beginning 
of. an ecclesiastical lesson, or from the passage being constantly 
quoted by Christians in the way of a proverb. 

Gtlass and Blackwall think the particle has not the force of 
drawing a conclusion from what has gone before, but merely 
prepares the way for a new moral precept. Potest etiam did, 
quod sit particula wdinisj non eausalis. Phil. Sac. p. 546. Others 
oonneet the words thus, viz. that in the immediate preceding 
words our Lord instructs us by a comparison taken from men, 
that we may reasonably expect our Heavenly Father will confer 
upon us all those blessings which he sees needful for us, and 
we can reasonably desire, provided that we .ask them with faith 
and importunity, and do with diligence seek them ; and hence 
our Lord infers that we who stand engaged to be followers of 
our Lord as dear children should be as ready to afford to others 
all.needful aid, which they on the account of equity, humanity, 

1^ S*r. M4TTHfiW% 

and Cbristian charity desire tisi this being only that which in 
like cases we desire from others. 

TrdvTa o<ra av OeXfjTe, &c.] This precept was familiar to the 
Jews, and <Hie of their maxims ; as in those words of Hillel, Do 
not thok that to thy neighbour, which thou hatest when it is 
done to thee : which is thus expressed in Tob. iv. 15, o fumi^, 
fUffievl voniam* ^^ ^^ likewise heea delivered by several hea- 
then writers. Nilus yewcd iraaiv, m tra OeXet^ vatrras. HenxL 
III. 142, 10, c^yfli Se, to. t^ irekas eiriTrXifercru, cmto^ Kara 
hivafxiv ci iroi^ta. Isoer. ad NicocL a ircuryovre^ iifS cTepov 
o^i^€<rde, Tavra toi9 aXXoi9 fi^ Troccire. Seneca Ep. xciv« 
Ab altero expectes, alteri quod feceris. Ijactantius Epit. § & 
Transfer in alterius personam, quod in te sentis, et in tuam 
quod de altero judicas: et intelliges, tarn te injuste faoere, si 
alteri noceas, quam alterum si tibi. 

-— ot;ro9 eoTip] Some copies have aSrwSy which probably has 
arisen from the carelessness of the transcribers, avrw having been 
used just before. See xxii. 40. This is the sum and substance 
of all that the law and the prophets have delivered, concerning 
our duty towards our neighbour. See Rom. xiii. 8 : Gal. v. 14: 
James ii. 8. See also Porteus, Lect. vii. p. 190. 

13. €iff€X0eTc] Strive to enter, aywpi^eoBe eureXOelv. Luke 
xiii. 24. 

By these figurative expressions our Saviour gives us to under- 
stand how easy it is to enter into destruction, and how hard to 
proc\u*e our own salvation; intimating at the same time, that 
the generality of mankind tread in the wide paths of error, and 
follow their passions, while very few know how to find out truth, 
and to adhere thereto, notwithstanding all the discouragements 
and obstacles they meet in their way. 

We find similar expressions and images in heathen writers, as 
Cebes xii. describing nfy iUv n^v ayovaav irpos t^v oKtfttw^v 
wcuSiay. Oi/KoSr KcA Oipaw ripa fiixpav Koi o&mt nva ^po r^ 
0ipa9 ^Ti( ov iroKv o^^Xeirai, aXXo irauo oXiyoi iropeiovrm^ 
mawep Si apoSiat Ttpo^ Kat Tpajfelat xal w€TpoiSov9 el^ai Satcxi* 
Hesiod has given a similar description of the path of virtue ipy» 
Kol fjM* I* 288^ ficucpoi ^ K<u opOiof oJ/oiOf ew ain)p xed tpviyi^ 
TO irpmrop, ewi}v S cJy axpop iictfcu 'PtjiSifi o Ifirevra wcXct ^aXenf 
wep ioiffa ; imitated by Silius Ital. Ardua saxoso perducit se- 
mita divo, &c. &c. Lucian. Rhet. Frsec vii. Vol. iii. p. 7' 
opor ovo TivJk o^oi/i* fioXXop ie fi ftip arpawos ion aT^yi^ mi 
aKapdiM}otj^ jca2 rpo^^io— ^ eripa ^c ^Xorcia xal apOffpd kom 
€PV&po5* Mlian^ V. II. xiii. 32, av fitv yap im n/r ffarayriy 


direis TOvrar ay€tf* iym H ivl Wp aptnip Jltceip fiidl^ofuu, 
*Of0la Si fj ivoco9 itrrh Koi atfiffs roi? iroKkai^. See abo the 
dory which ProdieHs tdls of Hercules, Xen* Memor. ii. 1, 21 : 
Cic. Off. I. 32. Philo de Agricult. i. p. 316, rpijiifg ^rtp ij 
Ttrpmpivfi irpo£ re avOptiwrnv Kol iwoi^vylfar, WwtiXaTos kuI 

^ ippomi^Wi Kou <rmfPpaavptff xal tUp oXXwi^ aperwv oSoi Kay 
c< fui afiaroiy oAXa toi vomits arpurroi' o\iyo9 yap apiOfiOf 
€(m tAv airas ^Sijl^owrmp. 

— arev^] The Seventy use the word (ttwo^ Num. x|di. 26« 
when spemking of a narrow road in which there is no way of 
hendiog off to the right or the 1^. 

— ^ wXareia] Virg. Mn. n. 127» Noctes atque dies patet atri 
janua Ditis. 

14. ori] But . . « The Hebrew which answers to it often sig-« 
nifies and is therefore roidered in the Septuagint, aXXa or oAX' if 
but; as Ps. xliii. 3 : Amos vii. 14. And sometimes on in the 
s^ise of buif as 1 Sam. xxi. 15 : 2 Kings i. 4 : Numb, xxvii. 3 : 
Deut xi. 7: Judg. i. 19: ii. 17 : 1 Sanu xvii. 47 : 2 Sam. xxiv. 24. 

For ore in a great many MSS. and versions is read rij which 
Crrotius says is for luf Hellenistic. As in Ps. viii. 1, where the 
Seventy have ws dav/jLotrrop to ovofia aou, the other translators 
iiave tI fi€ya to ovoiui <rov. So in Ps. xxx. 19, m voXv tv 
wX^fiof Tiff ypnvTOTfiToi iTou, Syuunachus has Tt ttoXv to a^a-* 
Olp <rov. This reading Photius seems to have had, ito koI 6 
4neTfjp T40avfuuc€ Xeywv* tL Theophylact, OavftLaariKov iaTi 
Txi Ti^ 0avfidl^€i ydpf fiafial voaop i<m (rreyi}. This also Cries- 
bach has adopted, taking it for oi?- Etym. rfe, to ^ oiSeTepoy 
tI afffAulvei ipwrrmiariKOU^ iiikol he jcoi iirlpptifia iwrl tov Xiav, 
wf Ti' itipi€, TI iirXtiOuvOiiaap oi ffXifiovT^f /em* di;Xoc ^ teal 
OavfiQaTULiu iripfuisuM. tit iv r^' Ti »po^ ainaTai ; Koi tI icoXif 
9 irXrfffiopi still however ' there does not seem to be sufficient 
reason for deserting the recdved reading on^ which answers to 
the preceding verse, on ^Xort lay be*' 

— o-revi?] Some commentators have thought that our Lord 
here alludes to the private and public roads, whose measives 
are fixed by the Jewish Canons, which say that a private way 
was four cubits broad; a way from city to city eight cubits; 
a publia way sixteen cubits; and a way to the cities of refuge 
thirty-two cubits. 

•*^ WXff] Under this phrase are very many things in rdi* 
gion expressed in the Holy Scripture, as Gen. xxviii. 17 : P^* 
oxvii. 19,20: Matt xvi. 18: and also in the Jewish writers. 


The Gale of JEUpeataiice is maitioned by the Chaldee Paraphrast 
upon Jer. xxxiii. 6, and the Gate of Prayers, and the Gate of Tears. . 

-— 'aira^owra] A. q* ayavaa. Cebes, p. 14, woS Se airayefuo'iP , 
auTiHff ; at fuv etc to {rwl^eaOaij at ie cct no awoXXvaOcu* Philo . 
de Vit. Mos. i. p. 639, n}y ayovaav kox iwirofMiw exTpari^ 
^€VOi ojov. De Spec. legg. p. 77^' ''W iyovonw o&iv ovk . 
opivT€%, €19 avoSiav eKTpeTTOirrai. Dc Vict. p. 841, iicrpeatofievc^ 
Ttfi €T aperffv koX xaXoKifyaBiav ayoutrffs oSov. . The Liatina 
frequently use ferre in this manner: Val. Place, iv. 438, Et 
via jussos QuA ferat. Virg. ^n. vi. 295» Hinc via Tartarei . 
quae fert Acherontis ad umbras. Liv. vix* 30, Stare omnem 
multitudinem ad portas, viam hinc ferentem prospectantes. 

— oi ct/pfiricorTev] He does not here say oi €iaefy)(0/uL€voiSi 
avrtj^i as of the broad way, but oi evpioKovrei auniv, to point 
out that this was not so obvious as the o^ evpvywposy and 
to shew that it was necessary ay(ovil^€<r9ai (Luke xiii. 24) to 
find out and to walk in it. 

15. irpoa€')((eT€ diro yffevioTrpo(f>frriip] The expression npo<ri^ 
y€iv airo ripoi corresponds with ^ofieiaOat airo Twoi^ Luke xii. 
4, and ipevyeiv re. See Deut. xxiii. 10 : Ecclus. vi. 13, airo 
Twv (piXwv <Tov wyioovjfe:— xi. 33, wpocejfe diro Kcucovpyov. 

.-*— - >/^i/Joir/9o0irriSy] Called elsewhere >^ei;^i&unraXo<, as 
3 Pet ii. 1« See Waterland, Vol. v. p. 105. Palse prophets,, 
both in the Old and New Testaments, signify such persons as 
falsely pretend a commission from Grod for what they teach, 
or who promise or foretell things falsely in his name. See 
Matt. xxiv. 11: Luke vi. 26: Acts xiii. 6: 2 Pet. ii. 1: Rev« xvi. 
13: xix. 20: xx. 10. 

— 6V e^Svfiiatri wpofiaTwv] i.e. Clothed with garments made 
of sheep^s skins, elsewhere called /tii/Xorrai, hipiiara alyeia, which 
was the usual habit of prophets. Or we may understand that 
external appearance of sanctity and innocence which the false 
teachers put on : whom St. Paul calls 2 Cor. xi. 13, o\ rowSroi 
yf/euSwiroaToKoif ipywrai &iXio<, ^TiKr^/uiari^o/uevDi ei^ *Airwr* 
roKovi Xpttrrov, 

Philo de Vit. Mos. i. p. 628, etr oKiytp vtrrepow €ir< \6<j>ov . 
fAerimpo^ i dvritraXoi Kara^aiverm dvya/u^ ipToif irrXois erre- 
Tayniemi rrpoi fiaytiv. Joseph. Antiq. vi. 9, 4, <rv /jiip i^fX? • 
/not iv pofifpaiif. Kfu iv ^part Koi iv Otipcuct. xviii. 6, 7» Agrippa,. 
o ev Tfi wopipvpiSt, for which St. Luke, speaking of the same 
Agrippa, Acts xii. 21, uses ivSvo'dfi^vo^ ioBnTa )3adriXua}i^. 
The Latins imitated this manner of speaking. Ovid* de A. A. u. 
297? Sive erit tn Tyriis, Tyrios laudabis amictus; Sive erit in 

CHAPTER^ yn^ 389 

Cois^ Coa decere puta : for vestimaitis Tjriis et Coos ii 
esse. Virg. Mu. ▼. 97^ Occumt Aoestes HorriduB in jaeulis et 
pdile Libystidos unae. Florus i. 1, Juvenlus in equis et armis, 
i.e« armis equisque insthicta. 

' — XvKoc apiraye^] This the common epithet of wolvefl# 
Lycoph. Cassand. 1309, eir€fLyf/av ofpirayas \vkov9' Hor. Carm* 
IV. 4, 50, Cervi luponun pneda rapadum. Hor. Ep. 1. 16, 44, 
has a similar sentiment, Sed videt hunc omnis domus, et vidnia 
tota, Introrsum turpem, spedosum pelle deoorfi. Ovid. Am. i. 
8, 104, Impia sub duld meUe venena latent. See Acts xx. 29, 30. 
16, airo TW¥ KapwAv] i. e. from the works of iniquity they do. 
Matt.iii. 8: xxi. 43: John xvi 3,5: Col. i. 6. Lysias, 0X170V 
ypovoy ivycwr ay ri9 7r\€ura<rOat tov rpoirov Toif iavrov, and 
Syrus, Cito ad naturam facta reddunt suam. 

— iwtyvw<Te<T0€] You will be able to distinguish. Here 
joined with am' in Luke vi. 44, with eir. 

^^^fiifTi] See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. c. xxxvii. Sect. 13. § 3. 

— auXkiyown] i-e. colligere poterunt; Glass. FhU. Sac.* 
p. 198, and also 246. 

This is a proverbial expression ; something similar to which 
we meet with in profane authors. Plut. 'tr€pi ^iQvfiim^ TjJv 
i§kic€ko¥ mica <f>ipeiv owe a^ioG/tACv, 01;^ riyi^ eXacai^ ^Tpaw, 
Gralen. de curat, o yewpyo^ ovk av irare h¥vtiatuTo ^KOiviaiaA rw 
fidxoy eir0e/Mii/ fiirpvy. Theognis 537, ovm yap mc axvXXiff 
p^iia ffyieroi^ ov^ vokivOos* See also Theocritus Idyl. i. 132. 
Seneca Ep. lxxxvii. Non nasdtur ex malo bonum, non magis 
quam ficusex oka. Ad semen hata' respondent. And Senec. 
de Ira. 11.' 10, Nemo natures sanus irasdtur, quid enim si mirari 
venit non in silvestribus dumis poma pendere? quid si miretur 
spineta sentesque non utili aliqufi fruge compleri? See also« 
Virg. Ed. IV. 29. 

17* aawpovy i. q. vomipov^ which word Chrysostpm uses as 
synonymous. What is here called Kapiroi itamipoh is in Luke vi. 
43, called Kapiroi trairpoL Phryn. p. 166, aairpav oi iroKkol 
arri rod aurypav. In xiii. 48, in the similitude of the net 
whidi endosed fishes of every kind, the worthless which were 
thrown away are called rd aawpcL They were of a noxious 
quality, and consequently useless. See also Ephes. iv. 29. 

— TO Je aairpov Uvhpov] Middleton, Gr. Art. p. 193, says 
the article here is not without meaning in the Greek, but is 
equivalent to trap in the preceding clause. The English version 
might have been every corrupt tree, as is evident from what 
he had said of the hypothetical use of the article in Fart i. In 

190 ST. MAmr^w. 

the next Tcrse, netther imp not ri » uscd^ hecBjam the propo« 
aition is there exdusiTe* 

18. ai ivwvrrm] i. e. wfaflst it coAtinues such. Memnd. 0V&19 
'Kovfipov TrpayfJLa 'j^ptinro^ wv iroiei* AotOiini* o pjj O^Smp tip 
ipaikop afkapraptip^ ofMHtfi T^ ^17 AtfXorri ipmafw pTrip ip tois 

19. Mif itoioi/r] See Hooge^een, I>octr,Part. c. xxvir. Beet. 1. 
§ 99. For o iiv fi4 irM97, e. xxvir. 8tct. % § 12. In Bowyer** 
conjectures^ this verse is supposed to h«re been brought hem 
c. iii. 10, where it is found word for wcntL It seems to hmv^ 
been written first in the nmrghi, and from thence taken into 
the text. It is quite foreign to the purpose here, And interrupts 
the reasoning, which is very accurate withont it; but with it 
the argumentation is quite confounded, and instead of keephig 
to the proof of knowing them by their Jhiits, the discourse is 
shifted to their punishment, with which ndther the position 
verr 16, nor the inference ver. 30, have any thing lo do. In 
Luke vi. 43, 44, where the same thing is expressed, the sense 
of this verse is totally omitted. 

— sjoroTrrcriu] pres. tense. See iii. lO. 

21. oi mi] i.e. Among those that acknowledge me for the 
Messiah, none but such as do the will of God, shall be admitted 
into his kingdom : oi iricrrtp iypvref ov p^KpaVf dkXA &' aytim/f 
ipepyovftipfiy. Faith and purposes of obedience, without actual 
obedience to the commaads of Grod, so long as we live and hirre 
opportunity to do so, will avail no man to salvation. 

— ifi/pie) i. e. ^iwrftaXe* Who is ready now in words to 
acknowledge me as his master. It may be observed,- that as 
often as this word occurs^ repeated^ in the New Testament, iV 
is always by persons reprobate, as here and ver. 22: as aho 
Luke vi. 46, which is an illustration of this passage. 9ee also 
Matt. XXV. 11, where the sssne form of expression is used by 
the foolish virgins. 

— jSao-iXsioy T&v &vpavmv\ See v. 19* Here mvst signify that 
of glory above ; for calling Christ Lord is the very chrcumstanoe 
which constitutes us the subjects of his earthly kingdom, or 
members of bis visible churchv Comp. Matt^ viii. 11 : Luke xMi. 
28 : 1 Cor. xv. 60. 

-^^AiXifAAdi Tov wfvrpot] i' e. the precepts of Christianity. In 
the paralU passage, Luke vi. 46, in place of this is read lenl otf 
irefslre a Xiyw. Justin M. in Apol. ol 3* av /tAfj tvpkrtwptat 
/3ioSrrc9j •)9 iiiiai^€j ypwpi^etrdmtrap fni opt€9 X/Mcrrtavor, icaP 
Xs'yaie'c ^td yXurrrtiv rd t<A Xpt^rov itidyfietTa. ov^ Ta/s- ToJr 

CHAPTER Til; 191 

ptiwm^ Xryorrasy oKka roi/s cat rd ipya trpirrrorroi <ruBif€f€a9ai 
9<p^» Ignatius Ep. ad Magnes. irpivou ion fi^ /notwu KukfitrOat' 
Xpurriapaii^ akXd cot cImu * oi yap to XiymrOai oKKa to ttptu 

Aiber roS ey oipapot^ in one MS. and most of the Latins, is 
ressd ovrof eireXeva^Tai ei9 Ttjv fiaatKeiaw rw oipcamwj probably 
added by some grammariaii. 

22. vdKkoi ipovaiv] It cannot be certainly inferred from these 
wocdsy that any persons will thus pkad at the day of judgment ; 
but only that such pleas, if made, will be of no account with 
God from workers of iniquity. 

— -<y acecrii riy i;im/o^] The day of judgment. Matt. xi. 24: 
Luke X. 12 : the w<Hrds v^ipa mini and lifupa Kpitrmat are used 
as synonymous. 

— •ovj I.e. oiTjfti 

-"^T^ a^ ovo/MaTi] Which Wolf renders jussu el aactoritate 
tu&; by virtue of power and aitthm^ from thee: in which 
sense it frequently occurs in the sacred' writings ; as Luke ix. 40, 
he. In Acts xwu 18, where St Paul commands an unckan 
q>irit to leave a woman ev t^ ovo/uloti 'ItitroUf he testifies by 
wbose authority and power he commanded and could effect that* 
See also Acts iii. 6, 16. Joseph. Ant. iv. 1, 1, iw owofAOTB 
Tou Oeov KwXveir : vii. 1, 5, irpoaeTuJ^ey avT09 JtoXcfr eic tov 
£iay&w oaoMaroi. So viii. 13. 8 : xi. 6, 12. Beza, vice tu6. 

''^'n'po€<fniT€uara/ii€v'\ Have we not received coandsgion and 
authority from thee to preach the GospeL 

— ioi^ovta ij^efiaKofAsw] Oiigen. coatr. Cels. iv. p. % Taira 
yip Xryo/seva woXXosi^ tovs ^i^opm wsworifMCv avOprntrmu 
"jfmpiaOiirtUf xal fAoktaff otop oi Xc^orrcs avo htj&Biatwg vymS^ 
KMi wetruTTevKulof ywfaiwi aura Xiywri^ TotrovTop /asr ye Uporras 
TO opo^a TOV iifffop Kara tcop ocufiopwp ws €m ots KOt a'wo 
ipau'kmv opofujj^pikepou cufiouf, ScHne MSS. here add xoXXcu 

— - £i/va/x6f9] Miracles: frequently so used in the Goqpels, 
the name c^ the cause being put for the effect. Matt. xi. 20 : 
Mark vii 2 : Acts H. 22, fcc 

That mivades were actually performed by such men we leam 
from the passage of Origen cited above» Grod put many true 
prophecies concerning his people into die mouth of th^ Bahiam 
who. loved the wages of unrighteousness: and Judaa wa» one 
<tf those tw:elve to whom Christ gave power to cast out unclean 
q)irits and to 1^ all diseases, x. 1. 

Frc^hesying, ejecticm of devils, aad other miradps, are. men* 
to shew that no gift, endowment,, or- accomplishment 


whatioeTer^ without iSuth and holineso, will avail .to <mr accept- 
ance with God : a caution very proper in those days, when the 
giftf of the Spirit were to be bestowed in such plenty tm thoae 
who made profession of Christianity. 

28. ofjLokayiiaw] I will openly profess. So JBlian V. H. ii. 4. 

— in] See Hoogeveen, Doct. Part. c. xxxviii. Sect 2. § 6. 

— oviiiroTe iyiwv] To know, in Scripture frequently sigmfies 
to acknowledge and approve. Matt, xxk^ 12 : 1 Cor. viii. 3 : 
Gal. ir. 9^: 2 Tim. ii. 19 : John x. 14. Though I caUed yotr 
tot be my servants, and you professed yourselves such, I neter 
knew you to be such, nor approved of you. That this is the 
true meaning of the expression will appear, if the import of 
the appellation, Zxird, Lord, wherewith these wicked men ad- 
dressed the Judge, is attended to. For in this connection it 
is as if they had said. Master, dost thou not know thine own 
servants? Did we not preach by thy authority, and by thy 
power foretell future events, and cast out devik and work man/ 
miracles P 

Plant. Mil. Glor. ii. 5, 42, Neque vos, qui homines^ sitis/ 
novi neque scio. Lucian. Timon. v.. ovKen yvmpll^ofiou wpo^ 
avTwv* Eurip. Hec. 259, M^^i ytpwctcaurff e/uoc^ oi tov9 iptkcw 
/SXairrovrcv oi. <f>povTil^eT€. 

— -07rox»^«T€] The words of Ps. vi. 8. 

— o( ipyal^6fie¥oi] Several copies have vdvT€9 oi conformable 
to the Septuagint. 

24. war i^ oa^it] This is commonly considered a Hebrew* 
construction. The common Greek would be min-a ovvajKovorra 

fioy Toik Xiyoif^ toAtovs ofiouiata awifi. There is indeed 

one of a similar kind in Herod, i. 114, 10, eU ^ tovtw¥ twp 
waioim¥ a¥fiirail^w», caJr Apreikfiapeoi ic€u^y opSpo^ ioKifto¥ er 
Mfyooccrtv (ou ^/^ '^'^ ciroi^e to TrpoerrayOip ix toS KvpO¥) 
cireXcue a v r o k tovi oXXoi/f ralScts MoXa/Seeir. But see Matth. 
Gr. Gram. 310. 

Hence it appears that this sermon on the Mount contains 
those rules of faith which are sufficient for salvation; since 
otherwise Christ could not promise it to them who observed 
and practised these his sajrings. 

"— omomJo'*^ mrop] In several o/itocatAftrsroi. 

"— ^Ppoptfu^] i. e. yryvwrKO¥Ti a Set wotecp, as 'Siea. (Eoon. xi. 
8, «a«rafic|UidifK€Mu Sotdi oti oi Oeol toi^ ayOptiwotff atmv ficr 
ToS yiy¥^<rK€i» re a Sel woiecv, itai ewcMcXccaAit owwr 
Tofra W€ptwnfrm, ov Oc/urw iwoitiaap cv wparTCiy, ^PpomfUMS 
j* o5n ffcU cwi#icXc9t TDi^ M^y ^^oooty eiScufumiwf rois o oi. 

CHAPTSB Til. 193 

— irl r^v Terpap] On the rooky or stony ground. Mark iw. 

y €Wl TO 7r€TpW0€S, 

In St. Luke, though the moral is the same, the illustration 
is somewhat different. There the wise man builds his house, 
first laying a foundation on the rock : the foolish man builds 
€7rl Ttiv ytivy and that too ^oipif 0e/AcXuHr. 

By this parable our Lord has taught us, that the bare know- 
ledge of true religion, or the simple hearing of the divinest 
lessons of morality that ever were ddivered by man, nay the 
belief of these instructions, if possible, without the practice of 
them, is of no importance at all. It is the doing of the precepts 
of religioii alone, which can establish a man so steadfastly, 
that ha shall neither be shaken with the temptations, afflictions 
and persecutions of the present life, nor by the terrors of the 
future. Whereas, whosoever heareth and doeth them not, will 
be overwhelmed and oppressed by the storms of both worlds ; 
(^pressed in this life, and utterly overwhelmed in that which 
is to come. 

25. ly fif€fj(fi\ See Middleton, 6r. Art. Part i. c. iii. Sect. 1. 


— Kori^fi] Isai. Iv. 10, w 741^ a» xara^ o veros ^ yuiy 
ec Toi oipauoS* Ps. Ixxi. 6. So deddere. used in TibuU. i. 
2, 30, quum multa deddit imber aqu&. 

-— TcarafAOi] Luke vi. 48, trXvifi/iiupai* Land floods or 
torrents formed from tempestuous rains. Homer^s yelfiappo^ 
TnrrafUH^ II. ^. 452. 

— irpoo-tfircaoy] Were carried with violence against. 

— TSttieKimTo] For ercde/MXiaiTo, the plusq. perf. being 
3iere without the augment., as in Heb. vii. 11^ vevo/uLoOenfro, 
dot €ife9OfJLe0€TffTo : — Acts xiv. 8, ireptireiraT^Kei for ircpieire- 
^rariiKetl — ^Mark xiv. 44, SeiwKei (or iie^Mi. In Joseph, we 
iraquently meet with irevotiiKei. 

26. Kol] Sed. This and the following contain a sentiment 
"the exactly opposite to the former verses. 

^-^fAwp^] Opposed to ff>povlfiip9 see ver. 24. Joined in the 
Septuagint with,a<f>pmyy Ps. xdii. 8. 

— ml rjv oftLfiov] Luke vi. 49) eirl ti^p y^v X^pfS de/ueXioi/. 

27* TTTwais fJL^yaXfi] Gloss, vet. vrwcrts inl ooroJo/u^v ruina, 
rues. Philo de Migr. Abr. p. 400, cirtijay yovv aStiXorepa irm^ 
97 rd voJifiaray xara K€vcS fiaivei koI oXiaOoii^ > ^oXXawiV fiiya 
VTwfia eirccrsv, m^ fMfK€Tt avcurr^yat &W€urOm» ill. AU^. 
p. 1106,. irccroi. Toamrcp fiov wrw/ua. 97 ^*0C^ jcat- /uiif^frare 



dw&^Tahi iwl to (inraoy koI <napKffriKi» mAx. Ex quibus, 
says Loesner, apparet quid potissimum ait wrmaK myoKfh 
nimiruin) unde returgendi non est facultas. Virg. Mn. ii. 310, 
Jam Deiphobi dadit ampla ruinam Vulcano superante donms. 
lb. 465, £a lapsa repente ruinam cum sonitu tnhit. 

aso. Kai €y€V€To ore J i. q. ot€ ,oe. 

-— ^crwrreXetf-er, flee] Hence Doddridge would infer that this 
discourse was delivered at once, and consequently that sereral 
passages rdated by St. Luke as spoken at diAsrsnt times, are 
repetitions of it. See also J. Blair^s Sermons, Vol. iv. p. 856. 

-— « e(€9rXi7(r(rerrD] Hesych. ij^^itkayfi* i^aifuurevy i^ev^vf^ 
In Ps. xlrii. 5, ^Symmachus renders by ij^^Tkiyf/armv, what 
the Seventy translate by cdai;/eicurav.-^This is repeated Mark i. 
82 : Luke iv. 32. See also Matt. xiii. 54 : xxii. 83 : Mark yi. 2: 
xi. 18 : Acts xiii. 12. ^lian. V. H. xii. 41, iicwXayei^ c^i r^ 
wapaio^tfi Oiif. Thucyd. iv. 36, rovr fnitf r^ Ji^Ktfrw e^tfwXij^c. 

•?-f 01 o')(\m] Matt. v. 11, o^Xoc iroXX^i iiri Ttft TaXtKaiait 
Kol AeKairoXewi Koi ^lepocoXvjiuov xal 'lovoaias ical wipav toS 
'lofi&iroi/, mentx>ned Matt. iv. 25 : and dn-o r^ ira/saXiov Tiipov 
Kat 2f^vo9^ Luke vi. 17* 

-— eiTf Tif Stiax^] The word denotes often the docteine 
taught : sometimes the aft of teaching s and sometimes ev«i the 
manner of teaching: whidi last, from the verse following, 
Campbell thinks is the import of the expression here. See 
als6 Paley^s Evidences, Vol. ii. p. 52. 

29* iv yap it^aKwv] For iii^aaKe' Beaa observes that 
these words refer to the oonHnued course and gen«ral character 
of his teaching, of which this discourse is a specimen. 

He spake as a prophet ;— having much greater authority than 
any of the prophets who went before him ;--^mmediatdy from 
God to deliver his message to them : not as the scribes, who 
pretended only to deliver the traditions of thrir fore&thers; 
and used to say, *< Our rabbins or our wise men, say so.**^ Such 
as were on the side of Hillel made use of his name, and those 
who were on the side of Shammai made use of his. Scarcely 
ever would they venture to say any thing . as of themselves. 
But Christ spake boldly of himself, and did not go about to 
support his doctrine by die testimony of the dders. See Porteus, 
Lect vii« p. 194, &c. See also J. Blak, Vol. iv. p. 364 Pearson 
on the Creed, Vol. i. p. 138. 

'^^WQ t^ovoW iywv] Utpote: see ^oogeveen, Doctr. Part 
c. Sivn. Sect. 1. § 9. See also Middleton, Gr. Art. Part u c. v.. 


Sect. 2. § 1. If we may ju«%e of the tcadunga of the aetibetf 
in Christ* $ dajs by the Jewish Tahnuds^ or even by their Mishna,. 
nc^hing could be more contemptible. 

Philo. Alleg. I. p. 58, ei Se a^ffvid^ot viro rev Kvpiau ti^ 
Actf^Ttw Kol ij^awriav ij(ovTot, oKopaKiS^oFro. PUn. Ep. i. 22, 
3, Jam quanta sermomlms ejus fides! quanta auctoritasl JambL 
Vit. Pythag. 217) i^ooaimrrucm iiny^lpei Xiymw* Philostratus 
ascribes something similar to ApoUoniua, when 1. 17» he deseribea 
the character of his speaking, &i^at ftpaxeim koI aiofuivrtvoi, 
nfpux TO oM^iara jcai wpoave^mKoru xols irparyfuiai' Kat ra. 
XryoM^ya ^m J^evy wcvep atto aK^irrpov Qitfuartvifieva. 

**~oc ypafiitaT€it\ One MS., and the Vnlg. Syr. and Armen. 
▼ersions add /roi oi <bapiaaiog. These last grounded thdr doc- 
trine on tradition and human authority. After ypafi/juereit 
acme MSS. and versions add emrmf* 

Chap. VIII. 

1. ^] Here ikera^ariKoi. See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. c. xiv. 
Seet 1. §12. 

-^^Kora^m't a ai!r^] For xarafidirrai ie aircSy as xxi. 23. 
In which way the Greek writers sometimes use the dative. See 
Thueyd, it. 93. Wessd. Diod. Sic. VoL ii. p. IdfJ. In sraae. 
few MS&. KarafiavTOf wrev is read to avoid the recurrence of 
avT^ twice in the same verse; though this is not uncommon 
with St. Matthew. 

— owo Tov opov^] See V. 1. The mountain on wfaick he 
ddtversd the instructions contained in the three preceding 

2. Kal iSoi] An introductory j^ase lor the better transition- 
from one part of the history to another. Many other expressions, 
which apparently fix the time of events, must also be concddered 
in this point of view, as iiw ie— «a€ e'yei'eTo— <coi «Xft»i^— 
KUi wjcHNreX^oii^— ei^eXdom je— -we/^nraTiSK ^€— Hca! apoil^av to 
CFT opm n ' ore-'^/uLeru raSr a - i v toIj fjfiepaii ticciitwp— -ev fu^ 

— -o Xeitpog] The first miracle specified by St Matthew is 
the healing of a leper: and he seems to give it the precedence, 
though it was not the firrt in order of time, that he might 
begin with a work, which proved* to them on Scripture authority 
and tkeir own principles, ^e divine misston and power of Jesus. 
Per by such a sign did Moses convince die- house of Inrael 
that God had sent him to he their ddiverer* And the Jewa 
themselves confess that lepro^ i» the finger of God^ a dBeease 



pecidkorly of his sending and removing, see 2 Kings v. 3, 7 * 
and that it is not lawful for the physician or any but the priest 
directed and appointed in hi& course, so much as to attempt 
the cure of it. 

. Leprosy was a most inveterate and infectious kind of itch. For 
which reason. it was considered in the law as an extreme unclean- 
ness ; see Stanhope on Ep. and Grosp. Vol. ii. p. 99. It made a man 
unfit to converse and keep company with others. Other unclean- 
nesses separated the unclean person, or rendered him unclean 
for a day, or a week, or a mcmth ; but the leprosy perhaps 
for ever. Levit. xiii. 45, 46. Those infected were not allowed 
to inhabit towns. See Numb. v. 2 : 2 Kings xv. 6 : 2 Chron. 
xxvi. 21 : Luke xvii. 12. So Herod, i. 138, o$ av ie rwv d<rrwv 
\iirpav $1 XevKiju €^17, €S woXii^ oSto^ oi- KaTepyerat avoe cvfifua^ 
yerai roccri aWourc Ilepo'fio'f^-v^Mio'c Se fiiv er tow ^\i0v Ofiafyriirra 
Ti TavTa e^ecK. 

— -eXdoii^] Several MS6. and some Fathers read rpoaeXOw, 

"^wpoaeKuimi] See ii. 3. Mark .i. 40, yowvwerSu oi/roir: 
Luke V. 12, irecrcJy ewi to wpoawwov. Some read irpoaeKvvfia€p. 
. This word being usied to express civil adoration, Whitby 
concludes that the adorations given to our blessed Saviour l^ 
those. Jews and Gentiles who knew nothing of his divinity, 
could be no argument, of his. divine nature, but rather were 
paid to fiim as the Messiah, or as a. prophet sent from God, 
or as the King of Israel. So also Wall. 

— icvpie] A title which the Jews usually gave to those with 
whom, they were not acquainted. See John iv. 19: xii. 21 : 
XX. 15. In the same manner the Latins. Senec. Ep. iii. .Obvios, 
si nomen non succurrit, Dominoa salutamus. MartiiJ. i. 113, 
Cum te non nossem, dommum regemque vocabam; Cum beni 
te novi, jam mihi Priscus eris. And as the disciples addressed 
their master by this name, it may be equivalent to ^f&zo-KoXe. 

: — iav OeXffit ^i/vao-cu, &c.] Del. 226, oXXcr 0<X]f, 
cvvaaai yapf afxuveiv voTina oojiXoi^ vM^epois, Hor.. Sat. il.. 
6, 39, Dixeris, experiar: si vis, potes, addit et instat. Arrian. 
£pict. III. 10, r< Ko\aK€veit. tov uiTpou; ti Xeyeng KJpie iav 
OeXffif KciXw e^oi. Appian . de B. C. . iii. et , fkevTot jcai Tm 
yfyovoTwv fieTaBiaOat OeXet^, Svpatrcu yap ei deXecv, ei ^e fi^. 
Hor. Epod. XVII. 45, Et tu, potes nam, solve me dejnentia... 
. — KaOafuaat] L^p^osy rendering a. man unclean, the. curing 
it was. termed cleanHng, and m0apil^<^iv properly used to express, 
title cure. In ver, 3, eica Ai/aiVdi; n Xiirpa, and in Luke v. 13, 
air^X00v It Xirrpa arr oirrpv. . . See Mark i. 42. 

CHAPTER VIll. 197 

3. eicrecMis rify X^fif^] irapeXc^i. for ^yj/aro implies it. See 
Gen. viii. 9 : six. 10. Perhaps a Hebraism. 

The Jews ^^aonot reasonably object that our Loird violated the 
law, either by touching the leper here, or the bier of the dead, 
Luke vii. 14 : for as the effect wrought upon both demonstrated, 
that the Grod who gave these laws approved both these actions^ 
they being done by the finger of God; so it was a received rule 
among them that a prophet might vary from or even change a 
ritual law. So did Elijah, 1 Kings xvii. 19, SI ; and EUsha 
S Swings iv. 34. Whence Theophylact observes, that our Lord 
touched the leper, to shew it was not necessary that he should 
bbterve these lesser matters of the law, and that a pure person 
is not defiled by touching one unclean. 

— • deXoy, KaOaplaBtjTi* Kai eudeoKj &c.] This seems an in^ 
stance of that fieya\i>ff>p(Hrvyfi, which Longinus admired in Moses^ 
See § 9* 

— iKa0api<T0ri] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 664 and 874. Hy^ 
pallage : i. e. ipse mundatus fuit a lepr&. 

4. opa juLt/cevl eiTrffi] Sub. iva, 

— fifii€vi eiwn^] viz. that thou wast healed by me; till thou 
hast offered thy gift to the priest, and he by receiving it hath 
owned thee clean from thy leprosy : lest they hearing that thoU 
wast cleansed by me, should out of envy to me, refuse to own 
that thou wast cleansed. See ix. 30. 

— iei^ou T^ i€/oef ] To the ofiidating priest (the Syr. has 
^'to the priests^) to him that was appointed to examine and 
enquire into the nature of the leprosy, and to prescribe what was 
proper for the cure of it. This was done by him without the 
dty, because no leper was allowed to go within the gates. Leviti 
xin. S : xiv. 3. ' 

Here Ligfatfoot observes, that though the priesthood was much 
degenerated from its primitive institution and office, and many 
human inventions were added to God^s law, touching the priest^^ 
examination of the leper who pretended to be clean; yet doth 
Christ send this leper to submit to aU these human inventions) 
as knowing that they did indeed corrupt, but not extinguish the 
Divine institution. Herod, iii. 119, ol Se r^ /Sao-iXei SeiKpJaatu 
ewVTovt, Kol Ttjv aWifiv ettroify ci ijv ireirovOoTes elijaaP, 

— TO Swf3ov] Two sparrows, one of which was sacrificed and 
the other let go: See Levit. xiv. 4, &c. where is an account of 
the ceremonies used at the cleansing of a leper, and the gifts he 
was to offer. It was necessary that the. priest should have ocular 
evidence by an accurate inspection in private before the man was 


adsiitted into the temple and allowed to make the oblation : but 
his obtaining this permissioii and the solemn oeremonj consequent 
upon it, was the public testimony <^ the priest, the onlj legal 
judge, to the people, that the man^s uncleanness was removed. 

— Months] In a few MSS. and versions Maiucr^. And 
Joseph. Antiq. ii. 9, 6, to yap vimp piU o\ 'Aryi/irriot caXoSo'i 
v<ngi he ' Tovf e^ Haroi caSepras. But Philo and the old MSS. 
of the Septuagint write tAwtrij^ which agrees with the Hebrew 
fHTonundation, and as scarcely any MS. of the New Testament 
constantly isdiibita the word, as often as it occurs, in the same 
way, it seems advisable to make no change here. 

— €is pLapTvptop auToh] viz. to the Jews ; and particularly to 
the priests and Pharisees, who withstood the doctrine of Christ 
That the sacrifice offered by the leper may be a proof of the 
reality of this miracle, and consequently of my divine mission. 
Ai/ToTs is by some referred to the people who were present ; by 
others to [epel considered both collectively and distributively. 
And sometimes it is rendered against them, i. e. the priests ;-if 
hereafter they should wish to deny my having cured this leprosy. 

5. T^ 'Iffaov] In many MSS. Versions, and Fathers, the 
reading is avr^y and probably r^ Itfcrov may have been inserted 
from its being the beginning of a lesson of the Church. 

~ 7rpoa^)i0ev eKarorrapjfo^] From St. Luke^s larger aftd 
more circumstantial account it appears that he did not come at 
first in his own person, but sent some of his friends, the elders 
of the people, to tell Jesus what is here related ; see Luke vii. ff. 
In the Hebrew style a man is frequently said to do^ what he only 
iMiuses or orders to be done. See for instance Matt. xx. 90, 
compare with Mark x. 35 : — John xi. 3 : — ^Matt. xi. 2, 8. It is 
conjectured by Chrysostom, that he himself as Jesus came nearer 
to his house, came out of civility to meet him, because Christ 
says unto him, Gk> thy way ; as thou hast believed, so be it dmie 
unto thee. 

From the circumstances related, it seems probable that the 
centurion was by birth a Gentile, but by baptism had beep ad- 
mitted as a Proselyte into communion with the Jewish Church ; 
one of those that are termed in the Acts, fearing God; but 
whether he was a Roman or employed in Herod^s service has 
been doubted. It does hot however appear from History, that 
the Romans had any garrisons in Galilee ; and many of Herod^s 
subjects being Gentiles from Galilee of the Gentiles and Scytho- 
polis, it seems not improbable that this centurion may have been 
one in his army. 


—^ va/MKoiXtivl Thomas M. irapeucakw, to wporpiin» wt ivi 
TO iroku, KAi TTo^mXifiriff i} trporpoirvi. cnro^ ^ xal to itofuzu 
Joseph. XIII. 5, 8, Overlap r^ Oe^ wfMrfpipovTn^^ Koi vvip t$9 
v/ucT€pof <ywTfipia9 T€ jca2 KuriT? aiirov TrapoKaKaSfiev. 

6. o ff-aiv /aov] In Luke vii. S, £ovXo9. Pollux iii. 8, jca- 
XoSyroi iraidtfy 6i ooSXcm vapa Toi^'ArrfKoi;, Kq» itri trpeapirepot. 
Mcms ircu ja top hovKov^ ic^v ^ yepwvj 'ArriiccSr. Aristoph. Vesp. 
18879 Ti c itrriv, w woi ; waloa yap k^ jJ yipt^v^ Kcikeiv iiKmov, 
itfTVi aif vXtfyJ^ Xa/3n. In the same way puer is used in Latin. 
Hot. I. Ep. vii. 63, Demetri, puer hie non Issv^ jussa Philippi 
Acdpiebat. Bo Sat. i. 10, 9S, I puer atque meo citus haec 
anbscrihe libello. So Propert. iii. 22, 28. Macrobius, Nostri 
nwjotes omnem dominis invidiam, omnem servis contumeliam 
detrahentes, dominum patremfamilias, servos familiares appella- 

— jSejSXsrrai] In the pass, and its perf. and plusq. perf. the 
▼erb is used in the sense of decumbo, jaceo, particularly of sick 
persons who are confined to their beds. Matt. viii. 14 : Mark 
wii. 80: and more fully Rev. ii. 22: Luke xvi. 90, o Adl^apos 
ifiifikfiTo irpo9 TOP irvXiiifa avrov liXKWfievos, 

— - iv Tp (Akujl] In my house, or at home. 

— ietpck] Plato Protag. p. 237, 'ro yap Seiviv, kokov icrrip. 
Oucek yap \iyei ejcocrrore 0€ivod ttXovtov, ovie Seivfj^ eipffVfi^, 
ovC€ 0€iprJ9 vyteiaf, a\Xd 0€ip^9 votrov, Kai SeiPov iroXe/xoVy Kal 
S^uffi^ wtfWas, «u9 TcS ietpov kokov oi/ror. 

— fiaaavil^oiULepos] properly applied to the torture : but it is 
ndt confined, especially in the Hdlenistic idiom, to this significa* 
tion ; but often denotes simply afflicted or distressed, as e. g. here, 
by disease: so Joseph. Ant. ii. 14, 4, ovk ^iropet to Oeiop t^p 
irovfiplap avTov (^apadBov) voucliXoi^ k€uco79 Kal fiei(^o<riP t£v 
irpoepieStjfULfiKOTwp iierep^ofiepop fioxraplaoi. Philo de Abrah. 
p. 583, cJf Tat i(f> i^oopai ayovtra^ 6p€^€i9 dirdarat €KK€k6^€u, 
TOT ^ ipapTiat trapeur^XfiXvOipcu <f>poPTihis, irepl aVoXXa'y^ 
dtniPVTWp (ia<rdpt0Pf v<^ oii/ yvjuipal^ofiepos /iieff tifxepap Kal pvKTwp 

8. dtroKpSeU i<pff] So Herod, ^^i; Xeywr, and o Si <r(pt 
iXeye^ <pd9 wporov fiiv ouk ei^rai. 
. .«.. o^ff eijui wavoi\ i* £[* al^i^^ John i. 87 : Matt. iii. 11, 
Eisner thinks this said not only because he was a heathen, to 
whotti d$ifuTop iff TIP dpSpi *lou^(p TpoaepyeaOat, Acts x. 28; 
but also because he seemed to himself so great a sinner, that 
according to his owft religion it was unlawful to be ofitopofpiov, 
or ofAOToi'Xpp. 


Ciceio pro Rose. xvi. Non fiiit causa bur tantum labcnrem 
caperes et ad me yenires; per nuntiiun hocquod erat tarn leve^ 
trajisigere potuisti. 

-^ fiov VTTO T^v irriyfip] House ; as tectum, Virg# ^ii« i. 
631. So MUaxi V. H. iv. 1 : Gen. xix. 8. 

— eiwi X070V] A great many MSS., some Versiona, and 
Fathers read Xoy^j See Lukevii. 7> which seems preferred by 
Wetstein and Kuinoel. If it be the proper reading, \oyop must 
have arisen from the termination of iaovov, or been altered by the 
copiers who did not understand the phrase ciire Xo<yf». In this 
case it will be like the phrase Quin tu uno verbo die quid est 
quod me velis; Ter. Andr. i. 1, 18, and Fhorm. i. 4, 20, Atque 
id ai potes, verbo expedi. Dcmatus, deest uno. Falairet retains 
\oy6¥ and understands era, as in Aristoph. Acham. iitt&k \iy€ 
iff av X070V, sc. €va» 

9. vwo a^ovaiav] Scil. Tiao'O'O/uevo;, which is added in Luke 
vii. 8. So also e^cuK vw efuwrov aTpaTiwra^. scil. toovomcimovt 
or rayOivTos* 'E^oucrca here is put for the person in power as 
the tribune, &c. I who am but an inferior officer, can make 
the soldiers under my command, and the servants in my house, 
go whither I please, merely by speaking to them, much more 
canst thou make diseases go or come at thy word, seeing th^ are 
all absolutely subject to thee. See also Glass. Plul. Sac. p. 628. 

— VTT iiuufT&v\ The same mode of expression is used by 
Xenophon speaking of soldiers subject to centurions, Kvp. Tnui. 
III. 3, 6, cf* Tiraf ayaivTo (oi ro^ia^^oc itfkai^) rHw v(^ eavnwr. 
And I. 5, 3, ftoircfiwcrai wpo^ rov^ i)0' iaurov ircirras. But 
in II. 1, .13, iypy o\ ra^cop^^oc v<f> eai/rols tos Ta]^€i^» Polyb. 
V. 65, ^SMKpartti Si 6 Howrioi ^reXroo'Ttft^ v<f> iavror elx^ 


— — icai Xeyw rovTy,' &c.] Arrian. Epictet. i. 26, xaray^k 
*Ayapifjivwv Xrycc /uoi^ vop€vov irpos tov 'A^cXX^a, Kai airoo'iro- 
aov n^r Bp^o'i^fdo, iropeiofim. "E^fyov^ ipyofioti^ See also c. xiv, 
p. 62. 

10. iOavfiaffe «ai cTire] Admirabundus dixit. Thia by no 
means implies that he was igncM'ant either of the centurion's faith, 
or of the grounds on which it was built. 

— ^ roaavrtiv iriariv] Nothing can give a greats idea of the 
centurion's faith and reliance on Christ's power than what he says 
ver. 9f where he looks upon him as tlie absolute disposer of 
diseases, who can command and be obeyed by them as- he was 
himself obeyed by his soldiers. See Porteus, Lect. ix. p. 209> 

CHAPTER Yhl. 20) 

His fakh teetikB to have taken its rise fioin the miraculous 
cure that was performed some time bef(H« this, on a nobleman^i 
son in Capernaum; for as the centurion dwelt there, he might 
know that at the time of the cure, Jesus was not in Ciq>emaum 
but in Cana, at the distance of a day^s journey from the sick 
person when he performed it. 

— -'la/NUfX] The Jews seem to have thought it necessary 
£ar Christ to be present and touch the sick in <irder to heal theni : 
the centurioB had a more sublime idea of his power. 

!!• woXXot] The Grentiles: for to them are opposed oc vioi 
T^ fieurtXMioSi i* c. the Jews. The words contain a prophecy 
of the calling in of the Gentiles, which was at hand. 

— ^awo dpaTokw Kol ^vafiwp] Sdl. liXiiw* From all parts 
of the earth. When the Hebrews wish to express the whole 
world, they sometimes mention the east and west, as Isai. xlv. 6 : 
lix. 19: or the right and left, i. e. the south and north; or idl 
the four quarters, Ps. cvi. 3 : Luke xiii. 29« Xen. Kvp. ttoi j. i. 
1, 6, ^ T« vpoq iiw, $1^ Te wpo9 itnrepav, lyv re w/oov apKTOw, tjv 
re fitafnuifipiap, 

— aPw^jdii<raifT(u] Shall sit down at table. The verb will 
signify the same as eaOUiUf ieivveip fierd TUfo^, synonymous with 
mroKMOah Mark ii. 16 : and ayoKuoQaih Luke viL 36, 37- In 
Matt. ix. 10, 11, trwavaKetaQai and i<rOi€$y fi^rd Ttvoif are used 
for each other. In Judith xii. 15, we find KaraKXlvtaBat els ri 

Hereby is expressed the future happiness of the Gentiles 
(though the Jews would perhaps understand it of their becoming 
proselytes to their religion) agreeably to the phraseology of Scrips 
ture which represents the rewards of the righteous under the 
idea of a sumptuous entertainment. Luke xiv. 16 : Matt. xxii. 1 : 
Rev. xix. 9. And though the joys of heaven be all of a qiiritual 
kind, this metaphor need not be thought strange, since we can 
neither speak ourselves, nor understand others speaking of our 
state in the life to come, unless phrases taken from the affairs of 
this life be made use of. The metaphor is not peculiar to the 
inspired writers. The Greeks, as well philosophers, as poets, 
represented divine pleasures under the notion of a feast. 

*Whitby thinks the phrase does not here signify to enjoy ever* 
lasting happiness in heaven with them: but. this shall be the 
blessing of the believing Grentiles : they shall be sons of Abnu 
ham and heirs of the promises made to the Patriarchs, and 
meitiwed by all the prophets of the Old Testament; whereas 


the unbdieving Jews wanting tUe faith of Abrahani,' shall be 
deprived of the blessings promised to his seed. 

12. 01 i/iot T^$ ficuriXeia^] Sub. 0€ovy Bos. Ell. Gr. p. 114 : 
this being frequently understood in the New Testament after 
/SacriXcia when speaking of the times of the Messiah and the New 
Testament. See also Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 101. Here are meant sudi 
of the professed people of God, as come short of the faith of the 
Patriarchs : the Jews that were bom heirs of the kingdom, who 
had a right to it by birth, by virtue of promises and oovenant. 
Thus also the son or chUd of death is used in Scripture to agnify 
a person appointed unto death: see John xvii. 12: see also 
Ps. Ixxxviii. 22 : so the scm of Grehenda or Hell, Matt, xxiii. 15 : 
o vt09 T^$ eipifpifif Luke x. 6 : oi viol r^y axptis the keepers of 
the ark, 1 Mace. iv. 2. 

The Jews were wont to say ** All Israel shall have a portion 
in the world to come, but the heathens are to be fuel for hell fire.^ 

''^ eKfiXtfi^aoirrat] Shall be cast out, ejected, as it woe, 
firom the possession of that inheritance which belonged to them 
in consequence of the promise given to Abraham. See xxi. 13. 

-*— Vicoroi ij^torepov'] For the superlative. It has justly been 
observed by many commentators that this phrase which is often 
used after the kingdom of heaven has been compared to a ban- 
quet, contains a beautiful allusion to the lustre of those illumi- 
nated rooms, in which such feasts were generally celebrated, as 
opposed to that darkness which suiounded those who by night 
were tiuned out. But it also sometimes goes yet farther when 
the persons excluded are supposed to be thrown into a darii 
dungeon. See xxv. 30 : xxii. 13. 

Quintil. D. viii. In carceribus et in ill& profunda nocte tene- 
brariim. Cic. Catilin. iv. 6. Non dubitat P. Lentulum attends 
tenebris vinculisque mandare. Silius ii. 841, Vidi ego cum 
geminas arctis post terga catenis Sucdnctus pahnas vulgo tr»- 
hapetur ovante Carceris in tenebras. Soph. Electr. 381, /uLcXkowfi 
yap (re-^-^PToSOa irefiyj/ew ip6a fitfvoff ^Xiov <f>iyyos w/ooero^^ci, 
^wra ^ iu Kartipefpel ariyfi yOopof T179 ^ iicm vfiyti^et^ Kcuca* 

"-^mcel ioTOi 6 tcXavOfAo^ icat 6 ^pvy/A09^ The expresaion 
occurs in the New Testament seven times, and always in the sane 
form : and the reason why the articles are inserted is plain : Mid- 
dleton, Gr. Art. p. 195. The weeping and gnashing of the teeth 
here spoken of, he says, is that of the persons last mentioned, and 
the sense is. There shall they weep and gnash their teeth. With- 
out the articles the proposition would have asserted only that 

CHAPTER Till. 203 

iome permms should there weep ; which falls short of the real 
meamng. Our English translations however in general say nothing 
more. The Complut. omits the first article, probably because 
it had been observed that in propositions which merely affirm 
or deny existence, the noun is commonly anarthrous. Here liow- 
ever the case is different ; the affirmation terminates not in ecrroi^ 
but in 6jc«i. 

— kKouBiw] signifies also the cries and bowlings that some- 
times accompany weeping. And the gnashing of teeth that is 
added here, completes the description of rage and despair. See 
xiii. 42 — 50 : Acts vii. 54. 

— jipvyfjLog] The addition of oiorrwp pleonastic. Galen. 
Gloss. Hippoc. fipvy/jiOif o airo rcuif oiovrwv avyKpcvofievof 
^iifkK, Kai (ipuj(€iy to oStw yffofpeip. Suid. fipvyiuLo^' rpurnos 
oooifTwy* Hesych. fipvyfjL09 airo tov ^pvyeiv o itrrl roif o^oScri 
mti^ovra yl^oipov aVoreXeii/, ws iv piyet avfifiaivei, tf oKovijfns 
fivXwv ^ rpuriJM Hotrrwp, Juv. v. 168, Ergo omnia fiunt. Si 
nesds ut per lachrymas effiindere bilem Cogaris, pressoque diu 
stridere molari. See Ps. iii. 16 : xxxvi. 12. 

13. €KaTO»Tdpj((fi] In a great many MSS. eKaroprap^y which 
Griesbach admits. 

This would seem to prove that the centurion was at length 
come out of his house, probably on hearing that Jesus was nearer 
to it than he apprehended when he sent the second message by 
his friends. See ver. 5. 

— iii €iricrrei/(ra9, yevvfitfTw <roi] Scil. ovt<09. So also Matt, 
vi. 10 : Luke xi. 2 : xv. 28. 

— 61/ Tri wpa iKelvfi] At that very point of time ; at that 
instant; i. q. €v0eiiti(. Matt. viii. 3: vapa')(pf}fia9 Acts iii. 7^ 
i^avTfffy Acts X. 33. ""Qpa does not always mean hour. This 
is its meaning when joined with a number either ordinal or cardi- 
nal ; as he went out about the third fumr : are there not twelve 
hours in the day P On other occasions it more commonly denotes 
the precise time, as Mine hour is not yet come. 

The reading of some MSS. irro n-rj^ tipa^ e/ceii^ has arisen 
from the similar passages ix. 22 : xv. 28 : xvii. 18. But the 
readings xal vwoo'Tpe'^a^ 6 eKarovrapyp^ ei? tov oIkov ovtov ev 
avrfj rij tip^, wpe top irtuia (s. ai/roK, s. tov dtrOevovpra ooi/Xoy) 
or as in some copies Kal vvofrrpi^aprev o\ irefKpOevres eii top 
oIkop, evpop TOP daOepovvTa Sovkop vytaipovTa, must hove arisen 
from the grammarians having written them on the margin from 
Luke vii. 10, and the transcribers thence inserted them in the 


14. oiKtau Uerpou] Peter was a native of Bethsaida, - aad 
when first admitted to the honour of Christ^s acquaintance seems 
to have had his residence there. Henee St. John calls Bethsaida 
the City of Andrew and Peter. But happening to marrj a 
woman of Capernaum as is generally supposed, he removed 
thither with his brother Andrew ; and there they prosecuted their 
common business of fishing in company with James and John 
the sons of Zebedefe, who lived with them in one house. 

•— ^fiXtiM'ipfip] See ver. 6. 

15. ^^aro] Specially used of physicians touching those who 
are sick. Lucilius Anthol. 6r. ii. 22, 214^ rav XidiWv Am 
iyBii o KkivtKos ijyf/aTo Ma/Mror, Kal \i6oi w¥ irai Z€V9 aijfA€pow 
itap^perau Nicarchus ib. vii. 215, ovt ikkvaev ^ei^v m\ ovr 
^yj/aro, aXXa wupe^a^ ' EiuLvii<r9fiv airov roi/yo^, K^e0avo¥% 
Hence Martial^s Epigram, v. 9, Languebam ; sed tu comitatus 
protinus ad me Venisti centum, Symmache, discipulis. Centum 
me teiigere manus, aquilone gelatae ; Non habui febrem, Sym- 
mache, nunc habeo. 

^ a<f>tiK€v avTfiv o iri/peros] ' Hippocr. Aphor. Sect. iv. § 30^ 
il¥^¥ wpf/v a0f| o iriz/oerof, § lxi. wvpitraovri, ^v /iiy iy irepuT" 
a^atv tjiiepriaiv d<f>^ o irvpero^, virorpairial^eip eiw0€v. 

Peters are common distempers, and very often cured by 
ordinary means, so that the nature of this miracle did not con-* 
sist in the cure of an incurable disease, but in the manner of 
the cure, which was with a touch; the suddenness of it, and 
tfae'perfectness of it. 

SitjKoyei] Waited upon them at table. Matt. iv. 11 ; thereby 
shewing she was restored to perfect health. 

— avToh] Many MSS. versions, and Fathers read airf: 
and in the preceding and succeeding verses the reference is to 
Jesus only; oiiroc^ therefore has been supposed tp have been 
inserted in the text from some marginal notes of the parallel 
passages in St. Mark and St. Luke. But that some of the 
disciples accompanied Jesus is evident not only from Mark i. 39 ; 
but from Matt, viii, 18, 23 ; and therefore St. Matthew might 
probably write ai/roc^* 

16. oyf/ias] Scil. wpag, which St. Mark xi. 11, adds, oyj/ias 
]y&7 ovavfi riji wpat* Thucyd. viii. 26, Ttepi Setktiv Ij&fi oyj/iav' 
Hesych. oyl/las' iaicipm* St. Mark in the parallel place i. 33, 
adds, ore ilv 6 ^Xio9- See Middleton, 6r. Art. p. 195, who 
says the article could not here be used. 

The Jews kept their Sabbath from evening to evening accord- 
ing to Levit. xxiii. 32 : and therefore when it began to be dark^ 

CHAPTER Yfll. 805 

before the Sabbath, Nehemiah comiBands the gates of Jeru- 
salem to be shut, Neh. xiii. 19: and the author of Cosri) 
Part II. p. 88, says the Sabbath doth not enter but when the 
sun is set : as St. Mark and St. Luke speak. 

— i^efiaXe \6yip] Cic. Cat. ii. 6, Ego vehemens iUe Consul, 
qui verbo cives in exilium ejido. 

This verse phdnly shews that the curing of diseases and the 
casting out of devils were (wo distinct things, and consequently 
the error of those, who where they are mentioned separately, 
endeavour to persuade us that the devils cast out were only 

17' oirav TrXtjpnoOii] The passage- in Isaiah liii. 4. is not in 
the same words. The Heb. as translated by the English, He 
hath borne our sins and carried our sorrows. And Symmachus 
much the same. The Seventy, he bare our sins and was in pain 
for us. The Vulg. for sins has languores. And Abp. Magee 
says the word infirmities by which Lowth and Vitringa in agree- 
ment with the old English Versions, have rendered it in this 
place cannot possibly be ngeeted. He therefore refers oade- 
veias and the corresponding Hebrew word to bodily pains and 
distempers, and voaoui and its correspondent Hebrew to diseases' 
and torments of the mind : the former clause signifying Chrisf s 
removing the sicknesses of men by miraculous cures ; the latter 
his bearing their sins upon the cross. See Vol. i. p. 415, 417) 
424, &c. or rather the whole of No. xlii. from p. 395 to 482. 

However the latter Jews would elude the prophecy, of that 
chapter out of which this quotation is taken, and would take 
it off from bdng applied to Christ, yet the antient learned of 
the nation in old time did so apply it, as may be perceived 
by the gloss of the Chaldee Paraphrast upon the place, and 
by a remarkable passage in the Talmud. See Lightfoot i. 
p. 643. 

^ — e\a(ie] ' This has been taken for auiXafie, or understand 
i<f> eauT^. Xctfijidym is the expression commonly applied by 
the Seventy throughout Leviticus to express the bearing of 
sin, in those cases in which the offender was to suffer the 
actual punishment of his transgressions* In the sense of sub- 
dpio in me, fero, porto. Abp. Magee says this is generic, and 
extends to all modes of taking, or bearing, on or away : ifiaa- 
raaep specific imd confined' to the single, mode of bearing as a 
burden, i. p. 431. 

— elidaraaew] This verb, signifies to carry a heavy load, 
RoiQ^ xv. 1 : Qal. vL.2: as the correspoqding Hebrew .word, is 


applied strictly and exduuvdy to bearing burdens cm the shoulder. 
Epictet. xxxTi. aiSpunr^, irpiroy iirUrKe^cUy orrotov ecm ri 
"trpayiMa* elTa t^v aeauroS (puaiv KoraikaOtf ei &vpa/ffat flairrcuratn 
Polyb. XXXII. 25, 14, to tov Ao-irX^prioi; 070X^0 fieunwas, 
awiipeyKtif m avriv. 

The expressions used by Isaiah, and the application made 
of them by St Matthew^ are not in any degree inconsistent 
with the acceptation of the phrase bemng sins here employed 
by the prophet, in the sense of sustaining or undergoing the 
burden of them by sufPering for tbem. Magee i. p. 463. 

18. aireXdeiv] aTrefy)(e<r9ai as also ipj(€<T0ai is used of persons 
passing by vessels, Jon. i. 3 : where the Seventy use irXeSortti : 
Mark iv. 35 : John vi. 1, 22 : x. 40. 

— €ic 7t} Tripav] To the country of the Gergesenes, which 
was on the eastern side of the Lake of Tiberias. Christ seems 
to have avoided keeiMng the multitudes long together, in order 
to avoid tumults and ' sedition, eqwdally as they accounted him 
to be the Messiah. 

19. eh ypafmareii] i. q. rls, John xx. 7 ' Luke v. 12 : Plu- 
tarch de Audit, p. 46, ef^ eyiXcurev. Id. de Superstit p. 169, 
mtntsp iv (rayifpfi m<$- Id. in Apothegm, p. 181, Ta^fXi;^ e& 
t£v 'IwSwv. liacikev^ mv. Ludan. Dial. Mar. Alph. et Nept 
Vol. I. p. 296, TcSv Ni^ifiOfuy avrHv /jlw. Id. in Demonacte, 
Vol. II. p. 891, €va yovv iimu icvwiKow* Dion. Hal. Ant. i. 
p. 58, airo nm tww IXia&or. Ter. Andr. i. 1, 91, Forte unam 
aapicio adolescentulam. Donat. Ex consuetudine dicit unam; 
ut didmus unus est adc^soens. Tolle unam et fiet ut sensui 
nihil desit : unam ergo r^ iimrurfxio dixit, vel unam pro quan- 
dam. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 36, Aberat ipse .... sed tabulam anus 
una custodiebat. 

— wcoXovOiitrw, &c.] This seems to be said at Capernaum, 
after that our Saviour had given the order for a ship 
got ready, but was not yet gone aboard. St. Luke ix. 57^ has 
related it as happening at a different time and place, when the 
inhabitants of a certain town in Samaria would not receive him. 
But it seems probable that in this case St. Matthew has kept 
the order of time: or perhaps there were two several offers by- 
several men. 

-— oirov iav] Joined with relatives eoir has the signification 
of the Latin cunque^ as or ecuf^ ov iiy, oirov ew, iaoi iav^ 8ec« 
See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. c. xvi. Sect. 9. § 7* 

— ofTov iav cnripxff] Plato Euthyphro. avayxni « yip rpv 
spuyrrnvra r^ ipwrwuUv^ aicoKovQsiu 6wi^ on ittsivov vmiryp. 


20. Xiyei wir^ i 'If^o'ot^] From this aniwer it appears that 
the Scribe was willing to become Chrisf s disciple with no other 
Yiew but that he might partake of the temporal advantages 
which he expected to find in following the Messiah. 

— ifmXtovf] Ammon. (pwkeos ewi Twy ifyirmip Totfaerm* 
Hetydb. fpmkgoi' inriXatov w to, O^pia Koifmroi. Plut. de 
Tib. Gracch. p. 8S8, o yap Tifieptot .... Xoytp xal iffavhoTepa 

icotF$t^€u ivpofuifp Trpayiwfra oeivos i|f mi a/uLayog, oware 

Xeyoi mpi riw ireyiyTttw» m ra imp Qnpia rd rtpt 'IroXioir i^/uo- 
Moa KOI 0ttiXffey iyei kui Koiraiw iarip avTW ciraoT^ xai Kara" 
&iawt9' TM( S Cirip t^s 'ItoXmiv fiaya^ivoi^ ical d«x>din/<rjcooeriv 
mipoi Koi ipmroi, aXKov ^ aioevo^ fueTefmvj oXX' cumcoc koI 
awiSpvroi fiera TeKvtov vXavAvroi ical ymfcuKWv. 

— KOToirinimaei?] Sheltering places. We should not here 
understand neaUj with the Vulgate and many of the translators i 
but places where the birds settle, perch, or roost, secure from 
the inclemency of the weather. The Greek name for nest or 
place of hatching is voo-o-ca, which occurs often in this sense 
in the Septuagint, as eyvotrovva^ does to build a nest But irarcH 
<rKnimat9 is never so employed. The verb KaraaiapKwv is used 
of birds settling and resting on the branches of trees, xiii. 32 ; 
Mark iv. 32 : Luke xiii. 19- Theoph. says, KaToaiaiwwa^is' ko^ 
TouciafT CKipf^ yap Xiyerai wSffa 4rif«n|cri^- Juvencus has, Vul* 
pibus in saltu rupes excisa latebras Prsebet, et aereis avibus 
dat silva quietem : Ast hominis nato nulUs succedere tectis Est 
licitum: gentis sic sunt molimiiia vestrss. 

*— o iiof Toi wSpmroy] This is the first time that we find 
Jesufi giving himself this title, which is borrowed from the pro* 
phets, Dan. vii. 13 : Ps. viii. 4 : and is that which Jesus Chriat 
commonly gives himself: in which way it occurs seventeen times 
in St. Matthew^'s Gro^l, twelve times in St. Mark's, twenty** 
one in St. Luke's, and eleven in St. John's. As he was called 
ao by none but himself before his ascension, it is plain that he 
chose. this title out of humility, as having some relation to his 
mean and humble appearance in this world. Swi of Man in 
the prophets Eaekiel, Daniel, and Zechanah, does not so much 
denote the human nature, as the firailty and weakness of man, 
and in this sense undoubtedly is this expression used Pa. viii. 
4 1 xlviii. 2. Jesus Christ takes care indeed to lay a stress 
i^Km it, when he would make his power and authority known. 
Matt. ix. 6: Mark xiii. 26, Sees but he certainly made use 
cf it Ibr this end, that he might rectify the. mistaken notions 
they had framed of the nature of his kingdom, and to gtye 


tliem to undentamd that the way he was to enter into glory 
was through sulFmngs and the cross. See John v« 27* 

— ovK «x** ^*^ '"■*/*' «f€0o^i' «f^««f?] ice0aXj;V used for the 
whole body. Knows not one day where he shall find food 
and lodging for the next. A proverbial expression implying 
penury. Thus Cicero ad Brut. Is ubi considtat uspiam, non 
habet: and Phil, xiii, . Vestigium ubi imprimam non habeo. 
There is a similar sentiment in Aristoph. eickkficr* 623, Tcwp* 
yelvTOtf fiiiv iroXXi;^ (yfitf) t^ ^e elvcu fitfCe rttupiiveu* 

Tbeophylact, in loc. has observed that ia this phrase Christ'^s 
poverty, is declared, Ouras i&tf i' rd voXkd atiiieiaj wpotre^om^ep 
€K TOVTwy ypriiiaTa cvvaycitr tov- XfMKrrov^ oco xai (nroi/oaysi- 
OKoXouOeiv auT^, ii/a Kal ai/ro? avXKiyfi, *0 C€ ^ptaro^ irpo? 
Tiiu ^tdvoiuv avT4W airavrivj fJLOVovov^t tovto (f^fforl' trpoaooicas 
OKoXovOtop ifkoi ')(pvifJLaTa auXXiyeiv; oi^ op^^ on oofxo9 ^t^; 
TiHOVTOi Kal o aKoXovOwu ifjiol o06fXei clvcu. And on Luke ix. 
he observes, ewci e?^ riv Kipiop iro\v¥ o'xkov iirayofuvop, eyo^ 
fuaev irri dvo TouTtov j^piifxara cvXkeyei o Kvpuni, kcu tpvro kui 
avTOi, 91 cLKoXouOiiirei r^ 'lijaw, avvaydyetv ^fpiifiara* &a ruira 
ovy airoKpov€T€u airroy 6 Kvptosy ^ovovovyl Xeytav hvt^ rotoSra.' 
Si) fji€¥ voMi^c<9 jdptifiAaTa avm^eip airo rou cucoXovdciy c/koi. diet 
yap org o i^iii ftios Touwros evriv^ ciXX' ov^ ovr^ni tfV^i* ro- 
awTov yap itrwyeiav eurt/you/uMi xai iiSaaKW^ oxrre roXXa |iwr 

21. irepos] i. q. aXXor. One. of the twelve, or of his disciples 
in general. See v. 1. Clemens Alexandrinus Strom, iii. 4, m&^ 
tions a tradition that it was Philip. It may be inferred that his 
father was not yet dead, as it was usual for the Jews to bury 
tibem on the day on which they died. Acts v. 7—- <10 : Matt. ix. 23. 

..^ Kvpte eiriTpe>l/ov] This answer supposes Christ had 
ordered him to follow him, oKoXouOei /uuhj Luke ix. S9. 

It was the. especial duty of children among the Jews to take, 
care of the funerals of their parents. See Tob. vi. 14, where 
Tobit dreads death on this very account, because vm irepa^ 
OVK vwdp\€i ai/To<(9 <K dci^ec avroi/v* And Joseph. Ant. xix^, 
tells us that Phasael was first careful ra<l>ov Kofffieiv r^ mrplj 
before he avenged his death. A similar regard to the funenls 
of. parents seems to have been^ paid by the Greeks : Xen. Mem. 
II. 2, 13, idv TI9 r£v yopiwv TeXevnjadvTtop tou9 ra^KKv /Uf 
Koa/uL^, Kal TOVTO e^ero^tfi ij voXiv iv Ta7^ Tm-dprj^orrmv ioKi-^ 
fiociai'S' Demosth. c. Aristog. Vol. i. p. 7879 traTepa amSd-' 
voirra 6 dtrefiffi oirrois Kal /mapo^.oVK iOa^ev^ ovSe rot? Aa^ccKT* 
T^y Tog^ffv awi^K€v. Philostr. Vit. ApoUon. p^ 14, em-el Jt 

CHAPTER Vlll. 80^ 

'nOveira row Traripa ^covovir^ iipofiw eis to Ttiava, KqKtipcm 
fief rai^ iavrov yepalw eOayffev wpis t^ r^ /ULtjTpo^ <riifiaru 

23. vexpoifi] This is a form of speech oominon in all sorts- 
of authors, when in the same place they use the same words 
twice, though very frequently in difiPerent senses. See Ps. xvii. 
96: Levit. xxvi. 23, 24. It must not be dissembled however 
that o( veKpoi in Scripture doth often signify not those who ixk 
a natural sense are dead by dissolution of the soul and body, 
but those who in a spiritual sense are so, by being alienated 
from the life of God, and dead in trespasses and sins, vex/aot 
ToT; irapairroi/ttaac. Clem. Alex. Strom, v. ep r^ fiapfiap<p 0cX<h 
<KKf>i<^ p€tcpov9 KoXoSifg Tov^ €«ir€0'ovTa9 T£y ccyfjMTwy col KaOv 
Tcra^orrat top vwv toI^ ira0e<ri yjnrjfiKoii* Philo Leg. All. i« 
p. 45, stiles this the death of the soul ivTVfi^vofUvfis TraOeag xai 
KOiuaii OTratraas. Cyrill. Alexand. xvi. de Adoratione, p. 580^ 
a0ey vetcpov^ OdirTeip Twk iavrHv veKpou^, v€Kpov9 otfuu Xiywvg 
rovi rd er Koafntp ^poveiv eXo^evoi;^, jcoi rwy r^ v&cpoTffro^ 
€pyw¥ ovK aveayflfnivcun. Here then Christ teacheth, that when 
we are called by him to the promotion of the Gospel and the 
salvation of men'^s souls, we should not suffer earthly business 
which may be done as well by others who are unfit to be em- 
ployed in spiritual, to give us the least hindnmce from setting 
instantly upcm that work. 

The circumstances under which this order was given, were 
pbdnly extraordinary, and might turn on reasons unknown to 
us. Christ might, for instance, foresee some particular obstruc- 
tion that would have arisen from the interview of his friends 
at his father^s funeral, which might have prevented his devoting 
himself to the ministry, to which he npght refer. 

Palairet thinks a0e¥ rov^ v&cpoik put elliptically for a0€( 
701)9 iiky\fvyov^ veicpov^j as Scqph* Antig« 1181, rd^ yap ijSovar 
&T€» TTpoiwrip apSpe^, oi rSfifk iym Z^tf tqvtovs aXX' 6/ui^i;^ov 
vrfuSlkai vexpou, Aristoph. Ban. 419, vuvl oe ififAorYtoyei ey 
roi( aum vetcpoitriy* Seneca Ep. lx. Hos itaque, ut ait Sallua* 
tins, ventri obedientes, animalium loco numeremus, non homi^ 
num; quosdam vero ne animalium qnidem, sed mortuorum. 
£p. cxxii. Isti vero mihi defunctorum loco sunt. Juvencua 
Hist. Evang. 11. 83, trandates this passage Et sine defunctis 
defunctos condere terr&. 

23. ifiliwrt avr^J Phavor. ififiaiveC eiaipxftTai, irm cwi 
Mfov Kal iiri diKov. 

It is a common construction in St* Matthew, to repeat the 
participle vitb the pronoun in the dat. immediately after the 




pionouii in the dat. See viii. 1^ 98: ix. 97, 28. So Josephs 
Ant. VIII. 13, 4, fiovtsOivn ^ au anro Tov fiojcrtKito^ wfleiiffi 

«*-* o\ /Kcedirrvti] It would seem from ter. 27, that more than 
the twelve followed. 

•-^ 619 TO vKoiop] In some MSS. to is wanting. In this 
place it may be the vessel ifnplied above, ver. 16, in the order 
given to cross the lake : and it is remarkable that one good 
MS. places this very verse immediately after ver. 18. Were 
this admissible, the reference of the article would here be suffi- 
ciently plain. Middleton, Gt. Art. p. 196. 

94. a€iarpLo^ fiiyat] A mighty agitation: properly applied 
to earthquakes. Here i. q. XaiKayf/ (i. e. according to Aristotle 
de Mund. c. iv. irvevina filcuov ical eiKovfA€vov kotw&bv a¥w) 
which word St. Mark and St. Luke use. It answers to a Heb. 
word, which in the Septuagint is translated, Jon. i. 4, KXvSmv : 
Jer. xxiii. 19, trciapo^i Job xxxviii. 1, Xai\a>f^. 

— - w r^ OcLKatrtrri] i. e. in the Lake of Gennesareth. 

— i iKkXv^rrtfcrdat] Luke trvfiirKfipovaOcu, Mark to Kvfiara 
ni^XKev ecv to trXoiov. 

— * KvpLaTwv] After this in the Syr. of Jerusalem, is inserted 
^v yap o avefiLOS ivavrios avrol?, from xiv 94» • 

95. oi fiaOfjTal ai/rot;] Many MSS. omit avTcS, and the 
Cod. Vat. and several versions /jLaSfrral The former may have 
easily been omitted by the transcriber from airov following; and 
joLaBf/ral from the circumstance of its not being in Mark iv. 38, 
and Luke viii. 94. 

^^■^ ifyetpau aurotr] Or as St. Mark and St. Luke express it, 
iteyelpovaiv avrivf scil. ej^ irnvouy which is found in full in 
Horn. II. 6. 413, e^ vtcvov oiKtias iyeipri, 

•^•^ <r£erov ti/uia^, diroWvfAt^a] Sub. tin. Ter. Adelph. iii. 2, 
S6, Perimus, actum est. So Arrian. Diss. it. 19, some per- 
sons in peril of shipwreck cry out, arnKKiiieOaj Kal av 0eXwv 
irai^ets- Anthol. Gr. i. 7« 200, cc tov^ ev ireXa*yei ottf^eiy, 
iF^/ue Tov iv 71) Naiw;yo9 ^iXifj^ atiaov atroXKufievav. In the 
same sense dfroOtniaicw is frequently used, as 1 Cor. xv. 31: 
B Oor. vi. 9. 

96. tI SetXol, &c.] Potest hie intelligi ori . Hoogeveen, Doctr. 
Part. c. LIS. Sect. 5. § 4. 

•*— oXi7oiriavoiJ The disciples having seen their master pw- 
fonn many miracles, had abundant reason to rely on his power 
and goodness, even in a greater danger than this. For though 
their vessel had sunk, he who gave sight to the blind could 


liate saved them fdl by making them walk firmly on Ae water 
as he enabled one of them to do afterwards. Their timidity 
therefore was altogether culpable, and the reproof he gave them 
just. Ye undertook this voyage at my command, and are you 
afiraid that you perish in it? 

— eVeriMiitre] Mark iv. 89, elwe rp OtiKaaaff^ cimra. See 
Luke iv. 35, 39 : Nah.i.4: Fs.lxviL30: ctii. 7: cv. 9. 

— «TOf9 aviiuHi icat r^ 0aKd<rap] Natural objects. See Mid« 
dleton, 6r. Art. Part x. c. iii. Sect. 1. § 5. 

Theocr. Idyll* xxii. 15, warayei ^ €vp€7a Qakoffca, Koir* 
TOfAewfi rrpouth re xal af^pnKToun ^oXa^oir* ^X\' iiimf^ vfM% 
T€ «raj ec (ivdov ^Xicrrt ma^ Avroitrw vavnwnv oso/niuoi^ Oaifi^ 
9aBat, Ah^a S wiroK/f^oih^ iveiuu, Xiirapcl ie ydKava 'AftmiXayoi^ 
Virg. Mn. I. 355, Coelum tempestatemque serenat. 

—-70X1^] EtymoL M. «yaXiyvi|* n vpaeia xal e0earoM>Mf 

27* irorairoff] Very often taken in both the significations of 
qualis and quantus, as in this case. It being so often made 
the property of God ^* to still the raging of the sea,^ Ps« Ixiv. 7 ' 
cvi. 25, 29 : it is not to be wondered that Christ^s discijdes 
should concave there must be a divine power in him who could 
perform such things. 

28. Vepywffpwv] Not only here, but in Mark v. I : Luke viii^ 
26, 27, some MSS. read Tepy^ai^vStf, some FepcunpfSv^ and some 
ra&epifi^cSv, whidi last is the reading which most critics seem 
to prefer. As Tepcuxa was Ttjt 'Apafiia^ ttoXis ovts OaXaaraav 
wre XifAWfiv ixovira wKfiaiov, and transcribers have made frequent 
mistakes in the names of places, Origen changes TepcunjvAy into 
r0pye<nfv£p^ and tells us oXXa Tipytaa axf) tjs 01 Tepyeaipmif 
W0K19 afy)(cua irepi r^y vvv KCLKovfiivffP Ti^pidSoQ ydfivffv, irepl 
f/9 Kpfffivof irapaK€ipt€V09 t^ Xi^ff, agj) oi SeucvuTai tov9 yoipou^ 
iiro Tmy iaiftovwv /rara/SejSX^crdai. Origen also rejects the 
leading Fn^privwwj becfuse Vuiapa iroKis imp arri r^ 'laiAzias, 
mr/MK ^i' rd iiafiotfra Oepfid rvyyav^, \ifi¥fi ie Kpttfipoi^ wapo' 
Keifjuivfi eiiaikm ianv ev avriij tf 0aKa<racu This conjecture 
ot Origeii''s seems to have been readily adopted, and to have 
superseded the old reading. But admitting what Origen says 
of GadMNLj still its distance from the border of the lake was 
not so great as to authorize the change, or create any great 
difficulty : as the distance from Gadara to Tiberias, which waa 
on the opposite side of the lake, was sixty stadia, and the 
width of the lake forty : or even if we suppose the lake here 
to be below its average width, the distance could not be above 



three or at most four English miles: and the country might 
therefore be called ywpa Vaiaptjwwy, especially too as Gradara 
was a place of some importance, and the capital of Persea. 
But if we retain the reading Tepy^anvwy here, and TcAzptpww 
in St. Mark and St. Luke, we must suppose to be meant that 
which lay between or in the neighbourhood of the two cities; 
both which lay within the district of DecapoUs : and the owners 
of the swine may have been not only Gergesenes but Gadaroies 

• The Gadarenes, at least the ruling part of them, seem to have 
been Gentiles : for the Jews, however they might dislike Herod^ 
would hardly have desired to be separated from a prince of 
their 0¥m religion, and put under a Pagan jurisdiction ; as the 
Gadarenes Requested of Augustus, asking to be made part of 
the province of Syria. One of the charges which on this occa- 
sion they brought against Herod was KaracKaipaf \epwv, where 
t€^o seems to denote Pagan temples and not Jewish synagogues, 
which Herod probably would not have destroyed, Joseph. Ant. 
XV. 10, 3. 

— dJo iaifAwil^ofieyoi] St. Luke and St. Mark speak but of 
one; either because there was one fiercer than the other^ that 
called himself Legion : or because he distinguished himself by 
offering to follow Jesus: or as Lightfoot conjectures, that one 
being a Gergesene and a Jew, and so in casting the devil out 
of him our Saviour did only what he frequently had done in 
Judea ; but the other a Gadarene, i. e. of a heathen dty, is 
noticed as being more remarkable; this and that of the Syn>- 
jAoenician woman being the only instances of cures wrought 
upopi the heathens. Whatever hjrpothesis we admit, there is not 
any contradiction : for the others do not affirm that there was 
bni one : this indeed would have clashed with him who affirms 
there were tfoo. Nor was it needful that each Evangelist should 
relate every particular: it is enough that they are not incon- 
sistent. There were three angels who appeared to Abraham; 
and yet he speaks to them as ane^ Gen. xviii. 3, 4. Two 
appeared to Lot, and yet he speaks to them as ane^ Gren. xix. 
1ft, 19, compare ver.\21. There were two at our Lord^s resur- 
rection, and yet two of the Evangelists only make mention of 
one. St. Matthew speaks of two blind men begging at Jericho, 
XX. 30 ; whereas St. Mark speaks but of one, x. 46 : and so 
likewise St. Matthew speaks of both the thieves mocking Christ, 
xxvii. 44 ; whereas St. Luke speaks but of one of them so doing, 
xxiii. 38. 


— cue *r^ fitnjfAelmv^ Suid. /uLiffifteiow* o TdtfkK, i'jfpiiaain'o £e 
01 pvfTope^ r^ ovofiaTi koI evl Ta<f>au Kal tov epyov xai tov 
irpdytuLaTo^s ov fAvtffiLotfWoiTo ay Tt^m Phavorinus, fiptifieia' ra 
oiKaSe irefiiropLepa vto tw iv r^ irokifup rrreXeimyiroTM^y roTip 
ckeloK. The word is used in as extensive a signification as the 
Latin monumentum, and here denotes sepulchrum. The tcnmbs 
which the fWangelists iiere mention, were in the wildest and 
most unfrequented situations, amid nocks and mountains; cut 
out like so nanj little cells, in the sides of caverns or the 
hollow parts df rocks and mountains. Some idea of their form 
and arrangement ttiay perhaps be gained :&om the reirpoiroXcfy 
as described and represented in Deaon'^s Travels in Sgypt. 

It is one of the marks of demoniacs in Jewish writers, that 
they lodged in tombs. And Grotius supposes that the demons 
chose to drive the men that they possessed among the tombs, 
to confirm some superstitious notions of the Jews relating to 
the power of evil spirits over the dead. The heathens had 
undoubtedly such notions ; but it seems probable that they chose 
these places, which were at some distance from iheir towns, and 
in lonely and desert places, as a kind of shelter. Josephua 
informs us that ihe robbers who 'infested the country, commonly 
lurked in such places. And Philo tells us that the Jews, when 
driven frtfm their abodes, took refuge in them, in Flacc. p. 9789 
Of a i^vpx^^^^ ^'^ '^ TXSfioi €(9 €urfia\ov^ jcai KOTrpiof kcu 
fL¥fifkaTa, icaiirrwy (rrepoufjLevoi twv i^ioir. 

— yaKeirai\ Signifies not only difficult: but whatever brings 
danger, trouble, or detriment-; and applied to things animate 
and inanimate: here terrible from their fiero^iess. Hesych. 
XoA€wo9, (rjrXi?/9oy. Horn. Od. t. 201, ^^oXeir^v ii t«s wpope 
iaifitcv* Aristot. Rhet. xi. 'I^piea XMivra ec twv iarfim elvai 

— *yaXfiroi Xiav] Pallas in Anthol. Ghr. i. 19) 4, iovXeveiv ere 
Xeyo) fUL€TpuiT€po¥y €ty€ wevpcurcu <rw<f>potfi Setnroii/i;, fufoi Xufif 

— ccr^i/tfii'] Which' the Seventy use for ouvttadcuf Gen.* xxxi. 

29. Ti ^uTiv Kal <rot] Sub. koivop or j^vvop, expressed in Achill. 
Tat. VI. 367, tI ifiol cai Qepaavipw koipov; koXov €(rrw MeXirTiy, 
Leonidas in Anthcd. 6r. iv. 12, 31, eiffi rl aoi l^vvov icai FlaXXaSc; 
rp yap okovtc^ koI iroXe/uLOt, trapa (toI 6 evaooi/ ciXawivoc. But 
the elliptical is not a mode of expression peculiar to Jews and 
Hellenists, but is used by Greek authors who had no converse 
with them. Arrian. Epict. i. 1, ri ^/uiv mt air^i and 11. 19» 

814 ST. MATTHEW. . 

Tf lifup teal cot avOpmre; airoXKvfxcBa koI av BeXwv trai^cis*. 
AnthoL I. SO5 I9 ovciw iiaoi ^' vfuv. AnacreoQ xxiv. /ue0€c ovv 
fiB <f>povTl Seiviif wSiv icTTi <rof re Kqfiol* Q- Curtius, Quid 
nobis tecum est P nunquam terrain tuam atdgimus. See 2 Sam, 
xvi. 10: 3 Chron. xxxv. 21. 

'— «'I^ai;] Wanting in many MSB. 

*^-«irpo Kttipoi] B^ore the day of judgment, against which 
evil spirits are reserved (2 Pet. ii. 4 : Jude 6.) that they may 
be pnblidy doomed to condign punishment in presence of the 
whole creation s when they expect no other than to be eternally 
punished, or as the Scripture expresaes it, to be cast into the 
lake of fire and brimstone for ever^ 

'-^fiatrayiaai] Thus Philost. Vit Apoll. iv. p. 166, SaKpiam-t 
MtfMi TO ^(Tfuz, Kal iSeiTQ /U17 ^aarapii^eiv airro, /uiifre avayKol^etw 
ofUjiKoyelv S, n titi. 

30. iiv he fuojcpaii] 1. ^ Kara fia^pav Hoy. At some distance 
from them. The Vulgate has nan longe, against the authority 
of all MSS. It is evident that in such general ways of apeaking 
there is always a tadt comparison; and the same thing may be 
denominated far or not far, according to the extent of ground 
with which in our thoughts we compare it Thus Luke xviii 
13, fiatcpoOev is used, where both the Pharisee and the publican 
were in the outer court of the temple, and in sight of each otiier 
at least, if not within hearing. Bo also the Hebrews use the 
word corresponding to fiaxpav for any distance, even though 
diort: as Exod.xxxiii. 7) where fkoxpav is used in the Septuagint; 
and Hist, of Susannah 61 . In the same way the Latins use 
procul in the sense of juxta or prope. Virg. Ed. vi. 15, Serta 
procul tantum capiti ddapsa jacebant. On which Servius observes, 
Serta procul. Modo prope, id est, juxta. Nam ideo intulit, 
Tantum capiH delapsa: ut ostenderet non longius provolutam 
coronam, ut est procul serea ramis dependet, Mn. x. 835. Horn. 
IL ^. 468, HjMwe c €^4»ri<n0..%.,T^6 S aVo Kparo^ ^ee Sia/iara 
aiyctkoevra AfiirvKa. 

'^^'Xoipmv voKKwf] St. Mark v, 18^ says there were about 
two thousand : which will not seem strange, if it be considered 
that the generality of the inhabitants of that country were 
heathens. See ver. 28^ And Josephua ranks Gadara among the 
dties that lived according to the Greek customs and manners. 

It is wdl known that swine^s flesh was prohibited by the law 
of Moses: and so far from being aUowed for sacrifice^ that it 
was not allowed for food. How much soever the Romans valued 
that flesh, there waa nothing that the Jews, who adhered to dieir 

C«A?TKR YIII. 815 

lawy more detested. A nourisher of ^wine was one of an ill 
name: in their Talmud it is reckoned an infamy, and ranked 
ammig the crimes of drunkenness and usury. Maimonides reports 
as a saying of their wise men, Cursed is he that brings up doga 
or swine, because they are mischievous. The author of tho 
Misna also says. They do not bring up small beasts in the land 
of Israel,— i4hey do not bring up cocks in JerusaIem-«*4ior may 
an Israelite bring up swine in any place. Hence, if the swine 
belonged to Jews, it cannot be denied but they were justly 
punished for breaking their own laws and constitutions which 
forbad them to keep any. If they were heathens, our Saviour 
might be induced to permit the devils to enter into them, not 
only to teach them the sacredness of the Jewish laws, but to 
cure them likewise of their idolatrous worship of demons, and 
to engage them to embrace the Christian faith. 

31. Of ie iaiiAop^] Some are of opinion that the persona 
represented in the New Testament as demoniacs, were only 
persons afflicted with some strange diseases, convulsions, falling 
sickness, &c.; but this cavil may be evidently confuted, (1) From 
the Scriptures and eoolesiastical writers, which make a omstant 
and plain distinction between these two things, the quring disease^ 
and the easting out d^vtfs. See Matt iv. 84 ; x. 1 : Mark i. 34 : 
Luke iv. 40, 41. See also Irenaeus ii. c 56, 5% : Origen. c« 
Cels. I. p. 34: TertuUian ad Scap. iv. (2) From many cir« 
Gumstancee relating to the devils to be cast out, or actually 
ejected. As ver. 9* Christ sufPered not the devils to speak, 
because they knew him to be the Christ, Mark i. 34: that they 
said thou art the Christ the Son of Crod* Luke iv. 41 : that 
they expostulate with Christ, saying what have we to do with 
thee, fce.? and ask his leave to enter into the swine, and being 
entered hurry them down into the sea, Mark v. 1— r.14 : Luke 
viii. SIT"""^* Now to make all these payings the effects of 4 
disease, or to conceive that Christ spake thus to a disease, i^ 
too great w evidence of one that is himself diseased. (3) Christ 
sonvptiroes puts questions to these demons, asking their names^ 
sometimes commands them to be silent, and sometimes to come 
out of a man, and enter no more into him, Mark i. 25 : Luke iv. 
41 : Mark ix* 95. (4) From the ^mptoms of these demoniacs, 
their being of such strength that no chain or fetters could bind 
them, Mark v. 3: their fear of being destroyed, tormented, sent 
oat of the country or into the abyss by Christ. 

Nor can it he objected that persons thus possessed with the 
iml vere not kMwn before our Saviour's coming; for that 

216 St. M ATYSEW. 

they were known among the Jews in former ages, may be proveAi 
from the testimony of Josephus (Ant. yiii. 9, 6), Justin M. 
(Diifl. p. 311), and Irenaeus (ii. 5), and amongst the heathens 
from Plutarch (Sjrmpos. i. 5), Lucian (Philops.), Justin Martyr 
(as before), and Origen (B. iv.) So that the history of Christ 
and his Apostles casting out devils in Judea, and of Christians 
casting them out throughout all the world, was therefore nev^ 
questioned by Jew or Gentile, because they had among them- 
sdves, in every place, pretenders to it. 

— 6fl-<rp6^oy n/iia^] In some few copies and versions the 
reading is awiareiKov ^fias^ which Griesbach prefers. 

'This action evidently appears both wise and gracious; inas- 
much as it unanswerably demonstrated at once the motive of 
Satan, and the extent of Christ's power over him. No miracles 
are more suspicious than pretended dispossessions, as there is 
so much room for collusion in them; but it was self-evident 
that a herd of swine could not be confederates in any fraud: 
their death therefore, 4n this instructive and convincing circum- 
stance, was ten thousand times a greater blessing to mankind, 
than if they had been slain for food, as was intended. See 
Warburton's Worics, Vol. vi. p. 334. 

32. vwttyere] Which imperative must be taken in the sense 
of permitting them. For the imper. St. Luke uses Kai imrpe^er 
avTol^f viii. 32. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 287* 

— — eis T^p ayekjjv tSv "xpip^v^ In some MSS. and versions 
the reading is eiv roi)? \oipo^* and afterwards at i) ayeKfi^ rwr 
yoipwv is omitted. Possibly on account of ayikfi tAv X^'^P*^ 
being thrice repeated, the grammarians might insert ccc rwk 
Xolpou^ in one place, and exclude it from the other. But it 
is not unusual with the Hebrews to repeat a« noun which has 
gone before, and use it in the place of a pronoun. See v. 24 : 
and so here air^Bow m rtiv ceykXtiv rwv x^'^P^^ ^^ P^^ ^^^ 
€19 oi/njv. 

«— jKOTci Tov KpfiiuLVov] i. q. aTTo. ApoUodor. Biblioth. iii. 14, 
6, it opy^p 'AOfipai ifAfiaveh yevofiewm Kara r^ OKpoTroXewi 
airrdv ippi^Wf* Pausan. Attic, xviii. Kai kotcL rtf^ cucpoTroXenK, 
iwOa f/v §ia^Mrra cnrvro/ioif, avra^ piyf/cu. 

-— €c( n$y BaXaaanp] Scfl. Ttj^ FoXiXiiia^ or TifiepuiSas, 

83. o\ Si fiaaKovT^i] Substantively for oi x^P<>fioaKol. 

•^^ €lirffX0orre(] Pleonastic:' as i^eXBovre^f ver. 32. 
. — - w«yra] Sdl. ra ovfifiefitiicaTa, whidi is read 1 Mace. iv. 
16, «hr^776cXav warra n <Fv/u/3e/3i|iroTia. They told all, xai to. 
Jsima^i^Wmm^* Abresch has tanarked that it is not unusual 


even with the best writers, to mention particulArly the chief thing, 
though it is included in the general declaraticHi. 

84. e^ffkOtp ela avuaimi(riv] i. q* trwavrav. See Gen. xiv. 17* 
• ^-^ Traca ij iroXir] Thucyd. vii. 77> i^p^ y^p woXi^ kqI ov 
Tf/^. Lucian. Pseudom. xiii. awSeipofuiKei yap ajfeSov aircura 
^ iroXis ofMi ywcu^l koI irac&'oi;. Apuleius iii, Statim civitas 
onmis effusa mira densitate nos insequitur. 

— fiLffrafiff] i. e. ceTroj^arpiTO'iy, or in the sense of aireXOcly^ 
Mark v. 17: Luke viii. 97- See 2 Mace. vi. 1, 9. They were 
probaUy a licentious sort of people, and might naturally, from 
what they saw, fear some farther chastisement from so holy a 

To an impartial enquirer this story is an unanswerable demon- 
stration of the error of the hypothesis that these swine were 
frightened by the two madmen, and so driven down the precipice. 
Onef might venture to appeal to any person who has observed 
what awkward creatures swine are to drive, whether it would be 
possible without a miracle for two men to drive twenty, and much 
less two thousand of them into the water. So that there seems 
Mttle doubt this extraordinary ux;currence was permitted chiefly 
to prove the reality of these possessions. 

Chap. IX. 

1. eli TO "irkoiov] Some MSS. and Origen omit' to. The 
vessel, however, Middleton observes, Gr. Art. p 198, may be the 
tame with that already mentioned, waiting to carry Christ back 
again. See xiii. 3. After this soma add o 'Ifiaov^. 

— €<9 T^v i^iav irdXtv] for avroSj i. e. into Capernaum, Mark 
ii. 1. Christ having left Nazareth to go to dwell at Capernaum : 
see Matt. iv. 13. IIoXiv iSia signified not only the place of a 
person^s birth, but also his habitation. Polyb. x. 18, 4, ypa^w 
ek Ta9 i^ias TroXei^ irpos roi/f a¥ayKaiav$» Also xxiii. 9, 14, 
iieXvacof e'n rai iSia^ Skootoi troXei^. In the, same way the 
Seventy use eis Tf}i/ ttoXiv avrov, 1 Sam. viii. 22. See also 
-Gen. xxiii. 10. Thus Ovid. Trist ii. 414. Pulsus Aristides nee 
tamen urbe sud. See also Seneca Consol. ad Helv. c. vi. Ac- 
cording to the Jewish canons he was entitled to citizenship by 
dwelling there twelve months, or by purchasing a dwelling-house. 

2. i^v Si Tfip 7ri<mv avTtiy] i. e. the faith of those who let 
down the sick of the paky. This remark is made by the Evan- 
gelist, upon occasion oi what the persons did who carried the 
paralytic, when not being able by reason of the crowd, to bring 
him into the room where Jesus was, they let him down through 

318 ST. MATT0BW. 

the roof; s pifin d^Donstratkm of the fuUrelMinoe tbej had oa 
our Saviour'^8 power and goodness. 

Hence it is manifest that the faith of others may prevail for 
the obtaining temporal and corporal blessings. Thus viii. 13, 
the faith of the centurion prevails to heal his servant : ix. 33, the 
devil is cast out of a deaf and dumb man who had no tongue 
to ask it, through the faith of them who brought him* The 
daughta:* of Jairus is raised, and the unclean spirit is cast out 
of the son by the father's faith, Mark ix. 22, 28. It may he 
observed that Theophylact here adds kcu avrd toS wapcOivriKoi, 
for had he not believed he should be healed, he would not have 
consented to their action. 

'"^ Odpaei] Thomas M< 0app£ 'Attuuu, oi Oa^w* Msoris 
Oappot 'ArTunk, Qapaoi *EXXirvaKi??« 

--** reKvov] A title of condescension and tenderness by which 
superiors addressed inferiors ; as father was a corresponding title 
of respect. Callimachus Hymn to Ceres, 47, rejcroF^ any ra 
0€oi<riv wfeifUMa ^vSpea ffoirrefy, reicvoy fXivuerov, tJkvo¥ iroXv* 
decrre Tonver* JJaveo, xal O^paw^prw awrpeir^. Dion. Hal. A. B* 
XI* p. 695, ayaywp€i hii irakw ect rifv o'cai/rov ^v^iv^ Amm 


— aipewinrai] The praet. pass, indie, and aifiiw^uu Attic^ for 
a(f>elfAcu, aipiwvrai for difHiivrm, as Luke vii. 47 * 1 John ii. 12, 
and aipewca far a^ecjro. Etymol. oi yap Arriicei, iifUa wXeova- 
^owrt Ti €. Kara tov wapOK^'m^woVy Tim to eirayof$MifO¥ (JH^fnief 
TpeiTiAkrw ei9 a>. o wadfiriicov aipiwMOif teal ro rpirov Tm¥ irXir* 
QvvriKwv d(f>imurm* The words are an affirmative, not a prayer 
or wish* 

*~ atpiwvTcu ^oi ai aixaprcloi aw\ Shewing, says Theophy- 
lact, that diseases and diiefly palsies proceed from sins, he fint 
•peaks of forgiving them. But then it must be noted that our 
Lord here speaks of remissicHi not of the eternal punishments, but 
c^ die temporal punishmwts inflicted for sin. See Archbishop 
Magee on the Alonement, Vol. i. p. 432, 435. 

It is usual in Scripture, and was so among the Jews, to t&pc^ 
sent bodily afflictions, miseries and diseases as the effects of sin, 
according to the common proverb, msi essent peccata, non essent 
flagella. Henee the enquiry of the disciples touching the man 
bom blind^ John ix. 2 : and to the paralytic, Christ having healed 
him, speaks thus. Behold thou art made whole, sin no more lest 
a worse thing come tinto thee, John v. 14. For the law of Moses 
threatened yarious kinds of diseases to the transgressors of it, 
Deut. xxviii. 21, 22, &c.: see also Jsai. xxxiii. 24, and when 

CHAPTB& IX. 219 

they were remitted, these difleaaes were remoTed and not till thea. 
And it is also usual in the Old and New Testament to intimate 
deliverance from corporal diseases by remission of sins, as when 
the Prophet says to David, 2 Sam. xii. 13, The Lord hath taken 
away thy sin, thou shalt not die for it: and 2 Chron. viL 14, 
I will be merciful to their iniquities and will heal their land. So 
what is worded thus. Matt ix. 22, Thy faith hath saved theet 
is Mark v. 34, Thou art made whole. See Bp. Taylor^s Works, 
Vol. IV. p. 534, and v. p. 118. 

3. Airov €P €cafTo7f\ Mark ii. 6, SuLkoyii[o/u,€voi iv roiv fcap^ 
iSfoi? avTwv. Luke v. 21, tioPavTO SiciKcytCsadai* 

-. iSXao^MeZ] In profii^ writings defies Blander, cdumny 
or any kind of opprobrious language. But in Scripture it denotes 
opprobrious speeches against God^s being, attributes or operations^ 
such as when we ascribe to God the infirmities of men, or to men 
the perfections and operations of God : as also irreverent speeches 
addressed immediately to God, such as when we curse God, as 
JoVs wife desired him to do. The Pharisees and teachers of the 
law therefore bdng ignorant of our Lord^s Divinity, thought he 
was guilty of blasphemy in pret«iding to forgive the man his sins, 
because it was an assuming of what Grod bad declared to be his 
incommunicable prerogative, Isai. xliii* 25. 

4. litov] for «iJw whidi is the reading of several MSS. «nd 
some versions, iS^iv properiy signifying to perceive with the eyes, 
and etSeMic by the mindi Henee Si. Luke accurately expresses 
vi. 8, airof ii l^i^i tov$ itaknyto'iatausj and xi. IJ, ei&tfC avrSw 
JcavoffAtara. But the disdnction is not obsarved by other writers, 
Joseph. Ant. x. 11, 6, o fiamKtv^ au avvi^wv niv Ktusoufr/ttut 
avTwv. Philo de Abrah. p. 376, or* Se r^ oyri iwcuverij Kal 
a^i€pa<rT09 i} wpaj^it €k woXX5i> Wfuipes i&iF. De Praem. et P. 
p. 916, yifiiariov ^ IfjLefMv i^w o wari^p ^kiri&e jcai xparo^ Hov^ 
Tti Tfjf o>^ec09 wpoafiokjp t^c iavraS Gias oiic e0A»v^€« Quod 
Mund. incorr. p. 943, ori ie fivOov irXdcfia rovr itm avmSely 
etc itoWmv pqjotov. 

— \wa ri\ Aristoph. Nub. 1198, \va ri TrpwriOf^ev. Pac. 408, 
bwri TcvTo ipeuro¥* Martial ill. 60, ut quid enim Bsetiee, araw 
po^a'yccr ; Jos^h. B. J. vi. 24, Ivari amaffre Totovrop; Hooge-i 
veen, Dootr. Pait. xxiii. Sect. 2. § 14, thinks tbare is an ellipsis 
of the subjunctive of some verb after Ua rty when an indie* 
follows : and here understands i^mkrfi^n» 

^^^ hf vtctv MitipSlais vfJLwp\ wX^omI^ci* Implied in hfdvfieiaOem 

5. Tc yap itmv, &c.] tI icfr troTtpop. Jesus Christ here 
implies that since he had the power of curing diseases, he must 

9liO St. MATTHEW* 

consequently have at the same time and for the veiy same reason 
the power of remitting sins that were the causes of ttiem. 

»— etveiv] to command : for so it signifies. Matt. iv. 3 : Luke 
xix. 15. 

— * col a\ aiiapTiat] For coi many MSS. have (tov which 
Wetstein would admit into the text. To Bishop Middleton trov 
appears to have been originally the correction of some one who 
knew not that a\ afiapricu might signify your sins; and this 
conjecture is strengthened by the addition of acS after afAaprim 
in a few MSS. and some versions. 

— o vw rod avOpwvov'l He called himself on this occasion, 
not the Son of God, • but the Son of Man, that they might know 
he was speaking of himself, and be sensible that even in his state 
of humiliation, and while he was on earth, he acted as Grod. 
Perhaps also he meant to tell them he was Messiah, that being 
ime of the names of Messiah in Daniel'^s prophecies. 

— eirl ytii a(f>i€vai ras ofAapria^'] i. e. of absolving and releas- 
ing men from the temporal punishments of sin, whilst he is in 
his state of humiliation ; for that Christ speaks here only of the 
temporal punishments of sin is evident, not only from what has 
been already said, but also from the effect: Christ only giving 
him power to rise up and walk. Moreover that Christ here speaks 
of a power inherent in him, and not only of the power of God 
assisting him, as it did the Apostles when they healed diseases, 
is evident ; because if Christ had only pronounced, that the sins 
of this paralytic were remitted by Grod, and the cure performed 
hy his power, the Pharisees would have had no cause to be 
flAended with him, and much less to have accused him of bias- 

— Tore Xe^i t^ TlapaXvriK^] In a parenthesis. 

7- Kal iyepOeW] Lucian. Philopseud. xi. Vol. iii. p. 30, Mc&ir 
oi/rov apdfievo^ tov CKifivoia i(f> ov kKeKOfiurro^ Ayero eip tow 
ay pop airmv. 

8. o\ o^Xoi] Which were there. What was to the Scribes an 
occasion of blaspheming, proved to the people an incitement to 
bless God. Or, when the Scribes beheld this miracle, they wer6 
confounded: for no doubt they scrupulously examined it, imd 
eould find no fault with it. They pronounced it therefore a very 
struige thing, and by that judgment glorified God, i. e. did 
honour to the miracle, perhaps without intending it. 

— * i6aiiJicurav\ Several MSS. and versions read i(fH>fiffitfaa»i 
the sense being pretty much the same ; probably from St. Luke. 
The Grothic version retains both. The common reading not only 

CH AFTER IX « 921 

has the adyantage in paint of evidence, ^ut is more clearly con- 
nected with the context. 

— TOI9 arSptin'oi's^ Plur. for sing. 1. e. to Jesus. In Gren. 
xxvii. 29j we have plur. which in ver. 37, is explained by sing. 
In Hos. ii. 1, the Heb. has plur. which the Greek and Latin 
express by sing. So Gen. xxi. 7* the Hebrew plur. is rendered 
by Greek sing. 

9« arapaywv eKeidev] mpayeiv signifies not only prasterire, 
but also abire, discedere, i. q. airipx^aBcu^ in which latter signi- 
fication it is here taken,, as may be concluded from the addition 
of iKsiQep, 

— rekivtov] Written also reKtavfiw. I^e booth near the 
lake, where the collectors of the tax waited to levy it ; possibly 
frpm the vessels that entered Capernaum. There were toll booths 
also on the great roads, as well as on the lakes and rivers. 

By calling St. Matthew from the receipt of custom our Lord 
mij^t intend perhaps to reprove the self-righteousness and arro- 
gance of the Pharisees, and to shew them that the most despised 
among men were preferred befcnre them in the sight of God. 
The Jews were in the habit of expressing the utmost contempt 
and hatred of all those of their countrym^i who accepted this 
office : and in their opinion, vows made to thieves, murderers and 
publicans might be broken. 

•— Mardaiov Xerfo/Awov] See p. 4. Writing of himself he 
' hete uses the third person, in the same way as other historians, 
e. g, Julius Caraar, Herodotus, &c. See also Daniel i. 6 : John 
xiii. 23. Five disciples of Christ are mentioned by the Talmu-> 
dists, among whom Matthew seems to be named. These thiy 
relate were led out and killed. Perhaps five only are mentioned 
by them, because five of the disciples were chiefly employed 
among the Jews in Judea, viz. Matthew who wrote his Gospel 
there, Peter, James, John, and Judas. 

10. airov avaK€i^ivov\ In Mfttthew^s house; Mark ii. 15: 
Luke V. 29* It is not necessary to suppose that Matthew made 
this entertainment on the same day that Christ called him to 
attend upon him. See Jones, Vindication of Matthew, p. 129-*^ 

Suidas, waKntcdai irrl avSpiavTwv, KarcuceiaOai Si — etrl r^ 
T/oa^ff^i^, icai avoKeiadm iroWaKis avri toS Kcn-cuceicrOcu, Alex. 
Aphrodis. e^ap^^ iu Tip- iaOieiv iirl aol OwpoKa avatcel/uieOa* 
Athen* IV. p. 137, Marpaiva tcSfo e'yo) ovdcw>9 ^aOov airXm% 

— ey TTf oliclif] Scif. roS Marffaiov. 


dS2 ST. MATTHfiW. 

*^ ofiafirtoKol] This is the name the Jews were wont to give 
the publicans and those that conversed with them. The former 
they looked upon as infidels and heathens, wl^ch are in Scripture 
styled sinners, xxvi. 45 : Mark xiv. 41 : Luke xxiV. 7» &c. They 
thought they would have defiled themselves, had they eaten with 

A similar sentiment prevailed amongst the heathens, that they 
were polluted by eating with the impious. Thus Orestes com- 
plains, Iph. Taur. 949» l^ivia /uoyor/wiTrc^a /uoi ^irapitrxov oiKmv^ 
and 951, oiro)9 iaiT09 yeuoinfiP nrtofiaros t avriv ^<X^) ^i^ ^ 
ayyo£ ioiov 'itrov arraai /So/c^ioi; /uLerptffia TrXtipdaavre^, elyaw 
ifiov^tf* Lucian. 7oxar. xxviii. Vol. ii. p. 538, icai Me^fxa 
airmv liycvpTo etvait ei <rvviiri6v irort koI trvveifrruicrOfia'av 
air^. Seneca i. 2, Hispo Bomanu8...tractavit, impuram esse.*, 
quae cibum cum impuris ceperit. Theognis 30, Kaxoiai ^ /u^ 
trpoaofiikei apSpdaiP, dXX aiei Twy ayadww €^€0, koI fA€Ta Tolat 
trcW Koi €(r0i€ Kal fierJi Toitriv i^e, 

*— reXftJwtt Kal afJiapTwKoi] See v. 46. 

11- iu0Ui] i' q« ^iiTPeif cruvecrOUi. Some copies add teal wipei, 
which most probably has arisen from both words being used, 
Mark ii. 16 : Luke v. 30. 

12. ov y^p^iav i'xpwTh Skc] This is a proverbial expression 
known to some heathen philosophers who have made use of it in 
return to such reproaches. Ovid de Ponto iii. 4, 7* Firma 
valent per se, nullumque Machaona quserunt. Ad medicam dubius 
confugit seger opem. Pausanias apud Plut. Prov. Lac p. 280, 
ovj* larfHn^ i<f>i1» ira/oa roc9 vytalvovaiVf iircS ce oi wocrcivrti 
iwrrpifieiv eiwOaau Stobseus xi. de Diogene, oioe yap iarpii, 
elT€p, vyi€ia!9 wv trotrrruco^ iv roir iyutlvowri iiaTptfivjv irocecTOi. 
Quintil. de Clar. Orat. 41. Supervacuus inter sanos medicus. 

Theodoret. Orat. iii. de pitivid. oi ev fiaka t^ trUfLa &euc«i- 
fievoif Ttji^ viro t£v larpiv Oepaireia^ ov Jeorrac. Theophylact 
ad 1 Tim. i. 9$ vtnrep ical o larpo? ra Tpai{UKTa ^yovrt kclI t^ 
woffWvTi fgralfAa^rraiy oi ry v^yiairopri, Kal o yaKtva^ *r^ aroK' 
twim imm^f oij(l r^ eifivi^» Csesarius Arelat. Serm. xxxvii. 
Non requirit medicum, qui se mm sentit segrotum. See Stanhope, 
Epist. and Grosp. Vol. iv. p. 472. 

13. fropevdivre^] Redundant. Thus Virg. ^n. ix. 634, 1 ver- 
bis virtutem illude superbis. So Dion. Hal. A. R. iii. p. 154, 
w»p€w6err«y ofroKpivacBe t^ Ti/XXw riji; eiaefiti xal KaXifp am- 
Kpurtv^ MUan. V. H. ix. 26, iropcvdel^ €M€ow. Joseph. Ant. 
VIII. 14, 1, Tois 7rpe(x(i€<rip €K€\€v<r€P iroptvOufri \iytip airi^ r^ 


— «X«or Be\M, Ire] 1 Sam. xv. SIS : Hofl. vi. 7* These 
irords are not to be iindergtood abBoliitdy ; because Gtod had 
commanded sacrifice and therefoiie could not absolutely say he 
would not haye them ; and accordingly the prophet alters the turn 
of expr^srion and addi, *^ and the knowledge of God more than 
burnt-offerings.^ The meaning of Jesus Christ here is, A cere, 
monial mstitution of DiTine Authority, and much more a mere 
human tradition is less pleasing to Ood, and therefore to give 
way to the great duties of humanity and charity, even where 
men^s bodies and much more where their souls are concerned* 
Acts of mercy are not to be left undone, diough attended with 
the violation of the most sabred ceremonial institution. See Stan- 
hope, Vol. IV. as above. 

According to the genius of the Het^^w language, one thing 
seems conomanded and another forlndden, when the meaning only 
is that the fcMiner is greatly to be preferred to the latter* In* 
stances of this are Joel ii. 13: Matt. vi. 19, 90: Luke xii. 4, 5 1 
John vi. 37 : Col. iii. 3. And it is evident that G«n« xlv. 8 : 
Exod. xvi. 8 : John v. 30 : vii» 19 : and many more passages are 
to be expounded in the same comparative sense. So Alian. V. H. 
XII. 66, Tcvr OpepL/uLarmif irounivTai m-popotap ol Mtf^a/oeff, rwp 
xtuim ^ ovjfji. Isocr. ad NicoeL p. 42^ Akfiinw aipwy Kal fnf 

The opinion expressed in this verse may also be found in some 
heathen writers. Porphyry de Abstin. 11. p. 233, wcierdef? Si 
org T UU 1 w y ^(peiav ov«c ij(OV(nv ot Asoi , efy ^ <ro tfic^ a7ro/3X««romrf 
TtSy irpofftovTwPf f ie yli m iu Svcriap XaM/Savorrc^, rrfv cpO^v it^l 
ovtbSv Tt KtA Tw vpay/uLOrmv itaXtf^iv, w«Sf ov trw<j>pmp, Kal ^lof 
icttl ihcatof eoTOi ; Oeoi^ Si apimi /ul€v Korapy^vi^ rovff icaSafm Kal 
^vXi} diraft}9. Hienocks in Aur. Carm. Pythi^. p. S5« plovo9 
olid Ttfuaw o Tt)y aj^ap /aiy orvyj(4wp r£v niutufptipwPf ical o irpoff* 
Tov/umvc ttfpeiop eotftw irpoaaywp Koi ayoKpai B^iov TvicTaivtaP 
Tfjr iavTcS ^tfjpjr icai poop ri? viroScyjip rot? detoi; tp»T09 TjJr 
rai/Tov wpatTKwai^wp povp» Plato in Eutyph. to ii ^d airX«S» 
K4ym, on iap ptip K€j(wpurpL€PtL rk s u t e i iy /rm rm^ Am>?9 Xe^eti^ 
Ts Kal nrparr^p ^iyofiepos rs Kal dmy^ tout itrrt ra ana. 

"^ OiXai] in the sense ci tiSoKw, as Heb. x. B : Ps. v. 4. 

*— Kul /uif)] for ftSKXap 1}, see Ex. above z at nal foi plopop. 
The Hebrew form of comparison* 

«-^ Bvaktv'] may perhaps here indude those rdigious observ* 
ttices which the ceremonial law required. 

•— « otf 'yap fX0op Kc^iacu StKaious^ i* e. says Suicer, frytiP^a 
vel wpoowwfiov rm SiKawp vel SiKwofpiv^ Tepuce^piipop^. So 


Chrysostom explaiQB it> Hcno. xxxi. on Matt, radra & ^ipmpevo- 
fuL€vo^ irpo^ airovs \iyei* w oTav \iyfif iooi Aoa/i yeyov^y aw 
els e^ lifAwv. And Theophylact on this passage ovic j^Xdov icaXe- 
acu Stxaiovi elptopeuofiepof Xe'yei* TovreoTiif, Vfia^, Tovi cimw 
aSyra^ ecufvow^ eTrel ovoels tUv avOpwwwp ecrri cuccuos* And 
Kidder, Pern, of Mess. ii. 174. They who find sin a burden, 
who have a sense of its ugly nature, that feel the load of guilt, 
that are sorrowful for their wickedness, these are disposed for 
Christ and his Grospel, He came to seek and save such as these ; 
such he invites : he is ready to bind up these broken hearts, and 
to comfort these mourners, and fill the souls which hunger and 
thirst alter, righteousness. They who are prpud and justify 
themselves, that buoy themselves up with a vain conceit and 
confidence, are far frcnn being prepared and disposed for this 
kingdom of Grod, or grace of the Gospel. 

The scope and connection of the passage however, would lead 
us to understand by iucuiov^ not thos^ who are only righteous 
in their own conceits, such as the Pbaripees were '' who justified 
themselves before men,^ Luke xvi, 15, and trusted to themselves 
that they were righteous and despised others in comparison of 
tl^emselves, Luke xviii. 9^ for such are i\ot whole, but have great 
need of the spiritual physician, and such especially the Goqiel 
calleth to repentance. Moreover the word dfiafyrwKoi^ import^ 
such persons as live in a customary practice of sin, and who are 
therefore to be called to that repentance which consists in tho 
change of their lives from the service of sin to holiness; and 
therefore by the righteous who need no repentance we are not 
to understand those who are. entirely free from sin ; for so there 14 
not a just man upon earth ; but those who are truly and sincerely 
righteous, have truly reformed their Uves, ^ho cacdfully mh 
deavour to abstain from all known sins, and set themselves sin-* 
cerely to the performance of their whole duty both to Grod and 
man, and so are righteous and accepted in the sight of God ; as 
Job, Zacharias and Elizabeth, Simeon, and Cornelius; and so 
they needed not that repentance which consists in the change of 
the life from a course of sinning, to living unto God. 

— • M fterdvotap] Omitted in many MSS. versions and Fathers. 
But as they are universally found in Luke v. 32, and omitted 
by many here, some have supposed that they might have been 
inserted in the text from marginal annotations. Mill, though 
considering them a Gloss from St. Luke, allows it to be of the 
earliest date. Griesbach excludes, and Wetstein properly de- 
fends them, Whitby also contei)ds for their genuineness.. 


14. Tore] When he had answered the objection of ihe Pha« 

--« irpo(refy)(pvTai aurf'] The qu<98tion het« propooed by 
John^s disciples, is in Luke v. 33, attributed to the lawyers who 
were of the sect of the Pharisees : and St. Mark ii. 18, says 
that the Pharisees and JcUxxCb disciples who were then fasting, 
jointly asked the question. 

— woXXa] Sub. Kardj i. q. iroXXairi;, or irvmi, as Rom. 
XT. 29. So Herod, ii. 174, iroXXa fup ji; xai aXicriceTo viro t£v 
fuvrrfj^ur, woXXo ie xai airo^f>wy€aKe* So. also apud Caedn. 
'£p. yi. 7^ 4, Multa venerari Deos. 

Their private fastings are here referred to. Besides those 
which they kept twice a week, they had a multitude of others 
on divers occasions, particularly for rain. On this account they 
sometimes appointed thirteen fast days : they observed them on 
other accounts, as because of pestilence, famine, war, sieges, 
or inundations; sometimes f<»* trifling things, a^ for dreams. 

16. fui ivvarroi] ivwaerdanj as well as the Latin posse, is often 
joined to other verbs, so as to be redundant and form a circum- 
locution : or to imply only that it was fit. Gen. xliii. 82, ov yap 
Mvatrro Kiyiicnot avtmoBUiv /uLeru t£v '£/3pa<a»r aprrov%. See 
Ckn. xix. 29 : xxxvii. 4 : Luke xvL 2 : John vii. 7 '• xii. SO : 
Acts iv. 90 : Bev. ii. 2. So Xen. CBcon. xi. 11. 

— Of vioc] Here used to signify those who were destined for 
any purpose, as 2 Sam. xii. 5, vm Oamrou : John xvii. 12, o vm 
nHs awwXeias* 

-— o( viol rcXf w/ui0cSyo?] Those who are admitted into it ; 
called by the Greeks irapawtiifHoi and irpoyopoij by the Latins 
pronuU : and their business was to enter into the bride-chamber, 
and to rejoice and exhilarate themselves with the bridegroom 
during the marriage festival, which was seven days; and these 
were usually ^iKoi rod viya^ioi/. Whence John the Baptist re- 
presents himsdf as rejoicfaig to hear the voice of the bridegroom 
as being one of his friends, John iii. 29- The ju'gument there- 
fore will run thus, I am the bridegroom, and the church is my 
bride: as long as I am here, lasts the marriage feast, and my 
disciples are the children and frieiids of the brid^room, and 
so are not to mourn but rejoice with me whilst this time lasts ; 
at my death and departure from them, this bridegroom will 
be tdcen from them, and then will be the time for them to. fast 
and mourn. 

. ... ir^vdeiv] St. Mark and St. Luke use iny^rreveiy, which is 
also read here in a few MSS.; fastfa^ being among the signs of grief. 



*«- €0' o<r0v] Sdl. jfpovou, Mark ii. 19. See Bofi. £11. Vrr. 
318. Several MSS. here add xpopov. * 

-^ o w/m^coff] This was a title given by the antient Hebrews 
to Christ. See Ps. xliv : Hos. ii. which the Jews interpreted of 
the Messiah. Some have supposed there is in this similitude 
a reference to the book of Canticles, and possibly there may. 
No doubt there is a reference to what John had lately said to 
his disciples so expressly on that head, John iii. 29. 

Nvfi^iov filof is a Greek proverb for feasting. Though great 
mirth and cheerfulness accompanied the celebration of nuptials 
among the Jews ; a singular ceremony, according to the Rabbins 
was introduced, to set some bounds to their exultation : a glass 
vessel was brought in amongst the company, and broken to 
pieces, that they might by this action restrain their joy, and 
not run to excess. The Oemara produces some instances of 
this sort. 

— €\€v<ro¥Tai fffiepai] Three MSS. have a\ tffiepat' Mid- 
dleton, Gr. Art. p. 199) says this is an instance in which as 
in propositions asserting existence, the predicate is contained 
in the verb. It is probable therefore that the common reading 
is the true one: at the same time it must be admitted, that 
there may be a reference antidpative of orai; following. In 
the parallel places the MSS. are without the article. 

— Tore vffcrrei/o'ova'iv] Christ did not mean that the Phari- 
saical fasts should be introduced into his church, when he was 
gone, but that his disciples should fast and mourn on account 
of the various calamities befalling them after his departiure,'and 
that they should repeat those fasts as often as the circumstanced 
of distress and danger in which they were jdaced, required it. 
And it is worth meditation, how the disciples, when dnrist 
was with th^n, suffered no persecution at dl : but when he 
was absent, all manner of persecution overtook them. See Acts 
X. 30: xiii. 2, 3: xiv. 23: 1 Cor. iv. 11 : 2 Cor. vi. 6 : xi. 27, 
The Christian in Lucian, Philopat. 26, Vol. iii. p. 614, ^X'um 
osica amroi oiafuvovfiep, Kal eirl irapvvj^ov^ vfivifSia^ iiroypinr' 

16. iiTipkfifKi] Suid. TO ry wporeptp €wifiaXX6/ji€vov» And 
as cwi)3dXXffir is in the sense of iinppairreiVy Mark ii. 21 ; sd 
ewf)3Xi;/ua is the same as iirlppvifia. Here the patch sewed td 
a torn garment, to mend it. Hor. A. P. 16, Assuitur pannus; 

— pOKou^ ayvdipou] Cloth that has not passed the fuller's 
hands, and therefore icatpw (Luke). It is therefore much hardier 
than what has been often washed and worn ; and therefore yicH- 

€HAFTS1^ I** SS7 

log leBA than that^ will tear away the edges to whi<^.it is lewed* 
This is a just representation of persons that have not yet been 
trained up and instructed; 
"^ vXiipwMa] The eiri^Kma which is put in to fill up the rest 

— ai/Toi;] Scil. ifAUTiov iroXaiov* Some would understand 
It of Tov poKovi ayvoKpoif* 

— €upei aTTo Tod i^ariov] iXXetwrucAt for ri dito t0v j^metioS^ 
or Mepas top imotiov* Thus Levit* x. 18, ov ydp ei^yOti dwo 
Toy oiiiarofp sdl. ri. Philo giving an account of the law whidi 
forbids ipta Kid Xu/d ^ypv^oirecrAu has a passage not very disi- 
similar, Kcd ydp irrl roirwv av fiov^p if ^aipepornf dtoHmmrroy^ 
nkXd Kai f} «irurporcia Oaripwj p!/i^v dirtpyaaopmvwf /uoXAor 

It is> the opinion of many Fathers and loterpretersi that Christ 
by these two similitudes intended to shew, he thought it not fit 
at their first aitrance, and b^re the Holy l^urit was come 
down upon his disciples, to impose the burdoi of fasting upon 
them, because they were not fitted to bear it by reason of their 
infinnity, and that they might be tempted by such austeritiest 
as were frequent fastings, imposed tm them, to fall off from 
him. And hence they add» that Christ, by his example, reoom^ 
mends this condescension to weak a]\d Infirm consciences, to his 
disciples and to the ministers of the Oospel, vi«. not to impose 
upon them that (idpoi imrayiMTmVf weight of cnrdinances whick 
they cannot bear. Theophyl. in loc. ovwca* (f^^^ ^** f^tBtrral 
yeyovatru^ uryypolf ciKXa avyKarafidawa^ Ssorroi' xai w j(jp4 
fidpo9 avToi^ €wtTi6e»at iirvrayfiaTmv. The same explanation 
he gives on Mark ii. ; though different on Luke v. 

17- /SoXXowrir] Sub. o\ Mpanroi. See Bos. Ell. 6r. p. 22. 
For /iaXKerai* BoXXsiy used for infundere xxvi. 12; John 
xiii. 5. So Arrian. Diss. iv. 13, oiyov i»a fiaXii €i$ rdif ifAOv 

-—< duncoit iroXaiov(] Vessels made with goat-skins, wherein 
they formerly put wine : Josh. ix. 13. Hom. II. y. 247» olmoir 
Hif^pm^a KopTTow dpoipfii dmo$ cv axytiqu Od, c* 196, aiy^o^ 
iaKDv fiiXMos oipoio. Apuleius, Adveniunt iHi vinarios utres 
fisNotes. These when old being weakened, or not so easily dis* 
tended, were more ready to burst by the fermentation of the new 

— ei ^6 Mrye] ScU. oiT(vi exsi. See Ghw-'Phil. Sac. p. 519- 
And Hoogeveen, Boct. Part c. xvi. Sect. 4. § 14. 

— diA^pirtpa] In very many MSS.^ dfiipoTepMy which may 
perhaps have bem transferred hither from Luke v. 38. In Isocr. 


288 St. MATTHEW. 

Nioocl. p. 7^9 after o\ n^v pijaov oIkovvt^^ And fia^rtkeik we find 

18. ravra auroS XakoSvTos] In Matthew^s house : or if we 
suppose him come out [from the question ver. 11.] he had gone 
to his usual residence in Capernaum. Some MSS. read Xeyoprog. 

-— a/9Y(0v3 Scil. Tffi crwaytay^f which St. Luke adds viii« 
41 ; and St. Mark v. 32, calls him apjfurvvaytayoi. 

There were in every famous synagogue several Doctors that 
were named the rulers or princes of it: see Acts xiii. 15; and 
above them all a president, by whose command the affairs of 
the synagogue were appointed, viz. who shall read the pro- 
phet, who shall recite the phylacteries, who shall pass before 
the ark ; as Philo says, ra lui yvwptfia iv rolf filpKot^ ctva^i- 
&itrK€iPj and also to iia\iye<r9m teal tov vilvop ^ieip. Of this 
order and function was Jairus in the synagogue of Capernaum; 
so that the word apymv being understood in this sense, admits 
of little obscurity though eh or rk (which are read in some 
MSS.) be not diere; he speaking these words, Behold the 
ruler of that synagogue, &c. If the reading eh be admitted, 
it is for rk, as viii. 19, which see: xvi. 14: xviii. 28, &c And 
hence perhaps the reading eiaeXOwj wpoereXOtip, nrpoa^XOev, 

— • nrpoffeKivei\ See ii. 2. 

— oTi\ After Xe7aii; redundant. In a few it is wanting. 
Epictet. Enchir. xv. injoeTrare e^rc fiijoevoi eiwfii art airttiXctra 
airo, aXX' ori awe^wxa.- Xen. Kvp, ircui. iii. 1, 4, elin ^ 
Sti eh Kcupoy ^irei?. Herod, ii. 115, reXog &e di| <r^ \6yov 
Tovie CKipaivei 6 Tlpwrev^, Xc'/oiv ortf 6«y<i^ ^i fifi trepl ttoXXoS 

' -— apTt] Pollux^ cifyri^ o e<m, irpo /mucpod^ Philostrat. 
apTtj irepl roy Koipov twv pfifxarmv, Suidas, apr^ to /uepo? 
TOW irapeXfiXvBoToS' trvwiimov ry iw. ewavriw^ ij(Ov to ovrura, 
TovTo yap Kara to /leXXov tfuvairrei r^ vvv. 

St. Mark'^s expression is ifrxaTWi ixet, is in the last extremity ; 
and St. Luke^s oiredviprKev lay a dying ; and the message which 
both he and St. Luke afterwards mention, relating to her death, 
shews that she was not dead when the father came out. She 
had been given over when her father left her, and actually was 
dead befoi^ he could return ; and he might therefore, when he 
applied to Christ for his miraculous assistance be ready to fear 
she was by thie time dead 

— eiriOe^ t^p X^'/^ J ^ antient ceremony practised by the 
prophets, which they joined with the prayers they made for any 
person. See Numb, xxvii. 18: 2 Kings v. 11 : Matt. xix. 13, &c. 

CHAPTER tX. 829 

SO. yu¥^ aifiappaoSiTa] Euseb. Ecd. Hist. vii. 18, says she 
was of Paneas : but the story of the statues of this woman and 
Christ set up at' Paneas or Csesavea Philippi seems unworthy 
of any. credit. Her disease was of such a nature as rendered 
those whom she touched imdean, Levit.' xv. 25. She se^ns 
therefore to have come behind Jesus, as if fearing she migjit 
not have been permitted to touch him, had her distemper been 

'^^ Kpoffireocv] Hesych. /cpdcireia' tA iv Ttp Sucptp'Toi i/ua* 
t/ov K^Kkwrfiiva pd^fiora. See Numb. xv. 38. 

21. ateOijaofuii] Sdl. iic rtj^ uoaau^ I shall be cured, re- 
covered. There are many other passages in which the word is 
used in the same sense ; and with great propriety may be applied 
to a rescue from any imminent danger or pressmg calamity, 
especially in an extraordinary way. See Mark v. 23 : vi« 56 1 
Luke vi. 9: viii. 36: xvii. 19: xviii. 42: John xi. 12: Acts 
iv. 9. 

23. T€W9 avXtirdis] From several passages of Scripture, par* 
ticukrly Jer. ix, 17 : xvi. 6, 7 • xxxi! 36, it appears that the 
people of the East used to bewail the dead, by tearing their 
hair, cutting their flesh, and crying most bitterly. The rela^ 
tions also hired persons whose employment it was to mourn over 
the dead in like frantic manner, and besides sang doleful, ditties. 
In process of time they accompanied these lamentations with 
music, particularly of flutes, (see Pareau. Antiq. Heb. p. 476) 
a custom which prevailed also in the West, and which is fre- 
quently mentioned among the Romans under the style of sicd- 
nium, and in Apuleius, monumentarii choraulse; and among 
the Greeks under that of rvfifiaukoi. Ovid. Fast. vi. 660, 
Cantabat moestis tibia funeribus. Trist. v. 1, 48, Tibia fune- 
ribus convenit ista meis. Hom. II. ai. 7^19 top m€v (Hector) 
eireiTa TptfToi9 iv Xc^eecrcrc OecraVf napd o etaav aoioovi &pi{vw¥ 
i^dpj(ov9y oire (rrwoeaaay aoiitiv 01 yiw ap iOpiiveov, iiri ^e 
arreva'xovTo' ywaiK€S» 

But the Jews were forbidden to tear their hair and cut their 
flesh in mourning for the dead, Levit. xix. 28 : Deut xiv. 1,. 
because such expressions of grief are inconsistent with resignation 
to the Divine will, or the hope of a future resurrection. Besides 
these rites' were practised by, the heathens as a kind of sacrifice 
to the manes of the dead. > - 

Maimonides says the husband is bound to bury, his dead 
wife, and make lamentations and mournings for- her according 
to the custom of all countries. And also the very poorest among 


the Ittftelkeft will afford her two pipes and one lamentittg woman : 
but if he be rich, let all things be done according to his quality. 
The custom in the time of our Lord, seems to have been for 
the musicians to begin the dirge, and for those who were present 
to follow, beating their breasts according to what was played by 
the instruments./ 

-^ ^Xoy 0opvfioiiaL9roif] By their cries and lamentations ; 
Mark v. 38, Oewpel Qopvfiov icXaioirrav icai akotKaJ^vra^ iroXXa, 
making such lamentations for the damsd as they usually made 
for the dead, 

24, oiiic airidave\ He did not mean that her soul was not 
separated from her body, but that it was not to continue so ; 
which was the idea the mourners afSxed to the word death. 
Her state he expressed by saying that she slept, intimating 
that this death should be but like a transient sleep. See John 
t\. 11, 18. 

Antiphanes, ov yap TeOpaaip dXkd ti)^ air^u ocov tiv irairv^ 
iXBM etrr avayKcdmt ij(ov trpaeXriKvOaaivi 

25. ej^epK^Ofi] Was dismissed or reqiiired to depart. Mark 
I 4S : Acts xvi. 37* Mnch. Dial. it. 22, Am xal iicfitKtfiiivat 
iic Tou yv/Avattlov. 

-'^ eixreXQiiv] viz. the chamber in which the damsel lay. St. 
Mark v. 87) 40, tells us that her parents, and Peter, James and 
John entered with him, 

' 26. 17 ^fifxti a.trfi\ As Jesus^s miracles were generally done 
in public, they could not fail to be much spoken of. Where- 
fore when the fame of any of them in particular is mentioned, 
it implies that the reports concerning it spread far abroad, 
that the truth of it was enquired into by many, and that upon 
enquiry the reality of the i^iiracle was universally acknowledged. 
This being the proper meaning of the observation, the Evan- 
gelists by thus openly and frequently appealing to the notoriety 
of the facts, have given us all the assurance possible of the 
reality of the miracles which they have recorded. 

— - e^X0tfir 1} ^if/usy] Thus Herod, ix. I7, ^le^fpSe Sat rov 
^rparoTri^v tvv ^EKKriviKov <f>iififif ^ KaraKovrtei (r(f>ea^. 

27. irapdyoPTt ixeiOev] viz. from Jainis^s House. See Note 
ver. 9. 

— - Ho Tv<fiKoi] As these men were blind, they could have 
no evidence of sense for Christ's miracles. They believed them 
therefore on the testimony of others who had seen them. In 
this light their persuasion of Christ'^s power 16 cure them was 
gp exercise of fidth highly commendable in them, and reflected 


great faoDour upda Jesus, as on the one hand it'dmwed the 
probity of thdr disposition, and on the other, the truth and 
notoriety of his miracles. It was therefore for the glory of God 
and for the edification of others, that the strength of their faith 
should be discovered. This being sufficiently shewn by their 
persevering to importune him, notwithstanding he seemed at 
first to refuse them, and by the answer which they retiumed to 
his question concerning their faith, . he at length graciously 
granted their request. 

-^ vie AajSi J] Many MSS. read vio^. This is one of the 
names that were then by the Jews ascribed to the Messiah, xiL 
23^ Sec; probably therefore they meant to acknowledge him 
for the Messiah. See p. 13. 

28. €k n}K offfiov] Into that house, in which he usually took 
up his abode, when at Capernaum. 

30. evefipt/uiiitraTo] Hesych. ifAfipifjuifAevos* /uiercl> aweiX^^ er- 
TsXXo/ueiNor. Suid. ivefipifi^aaro* fiera uwrrffpirtfTo^ itrerl^ 
fiviaeVf evidently taken from this passage. It imports not a 
passionate, but a rational earnestness, Mark i. 43. 

— o/oare /uifSsir yivwaKin^ Sub. ii;a. See Bos. £11. 6r. 
478. When Christ does his miracles among the Heathens or 
upon those diat dwelt among them, e. g. the Syro-phoeni^an 
woman and the woman of Paneas, he never imposes silence oa 
the person healed, but aometimes on the contrary bids them 
declare what God had done for them ; Mark v. 19* And though 
he charged his disciples to tdl no man among the Jews that 
he was the Christ till his resurrection, Matt. xvi. 20 ; he himself 
declares to the Samaritan woman that he was the Messiah, John 
iv. 25, 26 ; because these things would prepare these Heathena 
and Samaritans, when Christ was preached to them by his Apo« 
sties, to receive their testimony. 

The reason why he was thus concerned to have his miradea 
concealed, must be somewhat peculiar to the Jewish nati<m. And 
it is generally supposed that he did this to avoid the malice of 
the Scribes and Pharisees and Herodians against him, who were 
so far from being convinced by his mirades, that they not only, 
did blaspheme them, but oft consulted how they might entrap 
him in his words, and get something out of his mouth, by whiclr 
Aey might accuse hifn as an enemy to God'^and Csesar. Ltike xi. 
53, 54 : MaU. xxii. 15, 18: Mark iii. 6: John vii. 30, 81, 32 r 
xi. 47, 40, 50, 57* That therefore they mi^t not take him 
eS before his time, and that they might have less occasion to 
do it for his popularity or the resort of multitudes unto 


he commands his miracles should be concealed ; and when they 
could not be so, he departs from the multitudes into desert 
phices; and when his fame was spread forth in one country 
round about, he departs thence into some other place. But his 
chief design in thus concealing that he was the Christ, and 
giving charge not to divulge his miracles was this, that he might 
not indulge that pernicious conceit which had obtained among 
them that their Messiah w^s to be a temporal King. Had he 
therefore openly declared himself the Messiah before his resur* 
rection and ascension, they would have inferred that he must 
be their king, their deliverer, and the subduer of their enemies, 
and would have attempted by tumults and seditions to set up 
his kingdom. See John vi. 15. But his kingdom not being 
of this world, and it being his great concern that no sedition 
or disturbance of the civil government should be laid either to 
his person or doctrine, he charges those he healed not to make 
his miracles known, and his disciples not to declare that he was 
the Christ. ^ 

31. iie^fUKrav] When speaking of a person, jia^inui^ciy 
signifies notum fado, celebro, f^awpov wotijaai ripof Mark iii. 12* 
Phavorin. itatf^tmil^Wf SiamKiril^w. 

-— iv 6\fi Tt| 7n isnlvfi] The whole of that tract of country 
in which Caper^um was ktuated. 

32. e^efyxo/Jiivwp] Sdl. ec t^s oiKias* 

^^ Kwfpov] He^ch. icc0^9, wtc \d\mv oi/re cucovoir* Find. 
SchoL Pyth. Od. ix. airo koivov to jcco^s iimy o /a^ okowtos 
ov^ etTf^Ti; Hvarai. Theophylact on Luke xi. 14, p. 392, 
iCtti0os Xiyerai /miv ws eiri to iroXv o /ui) XaXwi;. XiyogTo ^ a9 
ical o fifj wcoiwv* Kvpiwrepov ^, o /juire aKovtw fitiTe TsjaXUv. iccu 
o<7e €K yever^ /ui} oxot/orrc^, ovU XaXovaiv* i^ avayKff^ yap 
TovTO avfificuvei avroh' ixelva yap XoXoS/uey, ofra Sid tov 
oKOveiv iiiav9avoiK9v ifjkaSt}. 

-*— Tw oai/Aovioi;] In reference to oaiftopiop iipplied in ^aiiom" 
}[oiuL€vov in the verse preceding. See Middleton, Gr. Art. p. 199, 
and Part i. c»iii. Sect. 1. §1. ^atiioviov in Scripture always 
signifies the same as ialfuop, the evil spirit — either the devil, 
or one of his satellites. This meaning is not frequent in profane 

33. \iyovT€if &c.] These words seem to refer, not to that 
peculiar miracle only, that was then done, but. to all his miracles. 

— oirrws] For toioSto^ or sub. t« yeva/uievov. A similar 
phrase occurs in Judg. xix. 30. Seneca de Mort. Claud., Stupe- 
bant omnes novitate rei attoniti: negabant, hoc unquam factum. 


No one of the PropheU that we read of in the Old Testament, 
appears to have wrought so many beneficial miracles in his whole* 
life, as our Lord did in this one afternoon. He raised the 
daughter of Jairus from the dead, healed the woman that had 
a Uoody issue, restored two blind men to their sight, and cured 
a dumb man possessed with a devil; and all this in Capernaum. 

34. cv] By the aid of . ' 

-— T^ aff)(ovTi t£v ccufiovlwv] Eurip. Alcest. 1159, iamovmv 
(or wefyripww) r^ Kogpavfp. Jambl. de Myster. iBgypt. Sect. iii. 
c. XXX. o /uieyas tiyefuov t£u icufAopwv* Porphyr. de Abstin. 
Anim. ii. 41, Tourovi (scil. Kcucoiaifiopas) yLohufra Koi tov 
irpoeaTwra avrww cjcri/icSo'fi', oi rd kokcl cia tUv yotfreiMV 


36. grepi^er] See iv. 23, p. 101. 

"^■^rd's jr<0/tta9] viz. of Galilee. 

—TO eiwYyiXiov r^f /Sao-iXeias] i*e. de regno Dei, Glass. 
Phil. Sac. p. 77. 

— iyr^ Xaf] Omitted in many MSS. and versions, Theo^ 
phylact and Chrysostom. It may have been here inserted from 
the similar passage, iv. 23. 

36. iairKarfyyitrOfi] This verb (nrkayyvS^ofiai does not appear 
to be met with in any profane authors : and though the participle 
<nr\arYXPi(fifiMvoi occurs in the Alexandrian, and the compound 
il^l<Tl^^^a'YxwS(py^v<K in the Vatican copy of the Septuagint 
(Prov. xvii. 5), yet the sentence in which those participl^ stand, 
having nothing in the Hebrew to answer, it seems a spurious 
addition to the text. It seems to have been formed by the 
writers of the New Testament to express the Hebrew verb 
derived in like manner from the noun signifying a bowel. In 
2 Mace. vi. 8, OTrKarfxvil^eiv is used to signify sacrificare, or. 
viscera animalium sacrificatorum comedere, more Gentilium: 
but avXarfxyi^etrQai is used in the New Testament in the sense 
of eXcccv. This application, both of the Hebrew and Greek 
verb, is taken from that commotion or yearning of the bowels 
which is felt in tender affection, whether of love or pity. 

— rr^pl airiiv] The construction of the verb is sometimes 
with Trepif sometimes with iicl^ and an ace.; Matt. xiv. 14: 
Mark viii. 2: with the gen. without ve/oc. Matt, xviii. 27: and. 
sometimes alone without any case. Matt. xx. 34 : Luke x. 33. 

These multitudes came not only from several parts of Galilee, 
but also from Judea and Idumaea, from beyond Jordan and the. 
borders of Tyre and Sidon. See Mark iii. 7^ 8. 

x — eKK^Xvfkivoi] If this be admitted as the correct reading. 


— wv&ffiarmv oKoBapTwv] See Middleton, 6r. Art. p. 199^ 
As the Jews were persuaded that Grod suffered evil spirits to 
inflict several diseases on mankind, they distinguished these 
diseases into such as rendered . men unclean, and those that 
did not. Thus the woman mentioned liuke xiii. 11, whidi had 
a sfMt of infirmity that kept her bowed together, had not 
an unclean spiriij because her distemper was not defiling; 
whereas those that were afflicted with polluting distempers, were 
in their opinion possessed with unclean spirits. Those lying spirits 
also which inspired the false prophets are named in Scripture 
unclean spirits, Zech. xiii. 2: Rev. xvi. 13, 14: compare Xiuke iv. 
33; because in all probability those prophets went into sepulchres 
to endeavour to get there some inspiration: they were a kind 
of necromancers. For ever since the captivity the Jews were 
very much addicted to magic. 

' — axrre ejcjSaXXciv] ware hejre declaring what kind of power 
was given against the unclean spirits. Thus Polyb. v. 35, 12, 
TavTtiv ovv Tj/F €iri)3oXi}y, Arr eKwifjiiretv avrop fierd X^Pfy^* 

It may be observed, that Christ here delegates power to the 
Apostles, and afterwards to the seventy disciples, Luke x. 9^ 17^ 
and after his resurrection to believers in general, to do this in 
his name, Mark xvi. 17, 18. And though the Apostles were 
not empowered at present to impart these gifts. to others, yet 
after our Lord^s resurrection they were enabled to do it, by 
baptizing and laying their hands on them : which is so eminoit 
a demonstration of the truth of the Christian faith, as has no 
parallel in any history, except in the .case of Moses and Elijah : 
though this was done, not by any power they had to com* 
municate to others the virtue which resided in them; but in 
one case by the particular command, and in the other by the 
will of God : and was a signal confirmation that they weare both 
prophets sent by God. But among all the accounts the heathens 
have given us of their famous magicians and workers of wonders, 
there is not one to be found, who ever pretended to a power 
to delegate their virtue to others, or to .impart their power to 
them, upon the invocation or using of their names, or belief of 
their doctrine. In this, as in many other respects, Christ stands 
unrivalled and alone.. See Porteus, Lfsct. ix. p. 223 — ^226. 

2. awoaToXtav] Of this name, which signifies sent^ St. Mark 
iii. 14, assigns the reason, because Jesus Christ sent them to. 
preach. These he set apart, that they being fully satisfied and 
convinced of the truth of his doctrine and miracles^ of bi$ 


tefturrectibn and ascension into heaven, might bear witness to 
the certainty of them: by which his mission from God was to 
be clearly demonstrated. But their name was more peculiarly 
applicable to them, and their office was raised to its perfection 
after Chrisf s ascension, when he sent them out into all the world 
with the doctrine of the Grospel, which he enabled them to preach 
by inspiration, giving them power at the wne time to confirm 
it by the most astonishing miracles. That this was the nature 
of the dignity conferred on the twelve, is evident from John xx. 
21, where wq find him confirming them ii) the apostolical office. 
As my Father hath sent me, so send I you. The appeUation 
was granted after his death to Matthias ; also to Paul, Barnabas, 
and perhaps to others the most distinguished founders of the 
Christian faith. 

Procop. in Esai. xviii. 2, fieypi ik vvv 'Airo<rToXov9 KCLkovtri 

— irpAroi S/^aoiv] The word irpwros, says Middleton, Qt. 
Art. p. 200, though found in all the MSS., has been supposed 
to be interpolated by some zealot who wished to establish the 
Fope^^s supremacy. The Papists, however, must be allowed the 
advantages, if there be any, arising from the undoubted authen- 
ticity of the reading: but probably more stress would have been 
laid on it, had it been preceded by the article. Being an ordinal 
however, it is not the less definite by being anarthrous. Still 
there is nothing in the text to support the pretensions of the 
Prelates of Rome. It is a sufficient explanation of vpSro^, 
that Peter was the Apostle first called to the ministry. TlpoTiOijtri 
Si, says Theophylact, Herpay Kal 'Avipeav, iiori xal irpayro^ 
Kkjfroi. etra tov^ tow ZefieSalovj irpordrrei hi top 'loicaijSov, 
Tov 'iwawov. oi yap Kara Trjv aj^iav, aXX airXw Kara to 
iraparreaov xaToKiyei toiitovs. Chrysostom Hom. lxxxii. calls 
him o trpHros iy Ttj eiricXf/o'if , o irpSros t£v ficStgrSv, and in 
the same sense, Hom. clxviii. t^^ toS koKov irotfAevo^ ayeXti^ 
vrparriroKov Trpofiarov. (Ecumenius in Act. i. p. 6, says 
avuTTOTai o UeTpos koi m OepfioTCpoi ical w5 Tt/y irpwrrafnav 
t£p fiaBtrrwv eyKe^eipuTfJiivos. But as if to guard against being 
misunderstood, he adds 6pa H irdvra fierd Koivij^ avrop yvtififi9 
vTouwura, koi ouk apj^ucm^ ovii fier ij^ovaia^. In the same 
manner, on the same passage, Chrysostom. Hom. iii. in Act. 
^Opa ^ avTOp fiera Kotini^ irairrwv iroiovvra yvdiitii' oviip 

The word is omitted both by St. Mark iii. 16,-and St. Luke vi. 
14, which surely they would not have done, had they imagined 



it ta be so remarkable for establishing St. Peter's monarcbjb 
Nor do we ever find this authority of St. Peter over his brethren^ 
declared by Christ, or claimed by Peter, or owned by any of 
, the rest of the Apostles ; but find many Soriptures which appear 
to look a contrary way. See Matt, xxiii. 8—12 : Acts xv. 13, 
&c. 2Cor. xii. 11: Gal. ii. 11. 

The following is the order in which the Apostles are arranged in 

St. Matthew. 

8imoo who !b cbU- 

ed Peter 
Andxew his Bio- 

J$mn Son of Ze« 

John hia Brother 

Matthew the Pub- 


James Son of AU 
»beus samamed 


Simon the Canaaa- 

Judas Iscariot 


Simon Sunuused 

James Son of Ze- 

John his Brother 






James Son of Al- 


Simon the Canaan- 
Judas Iscariot 

St Luke vi. IS. 

Simoa named Pe. 

Andrew his Bro- 







James Son of Al- 

Simon callsd Ze- 

Judas Brother of 

Judas Iscsziot 

Acts i. 13. 








James Son of 

Simon SdoiBs 


Sfancm cdled 

Judss Brother 
of James 

-— UirpQi] See iv. 18. Christ changed the. names of three 
disciples with whom he held more intimate familiarity, Simmy 
James, and John. See Stanhope, Ep. and Gt>sp. Vol. iv. p. 859* 
— - 'Avipeaji 6 a^€X(pw avrov^ See iv. 18, p. 99* 
•^— 'Ia/cc0/3p9 Q Tov ZejSc^aioi;] Soil. i;<ov» James and John 
were also fishermen: they dwelt at Capernaum, and seem to 
have been rather in better circumstances than Peter and Andrew ; 
for the Grospels speak of their having hired servants to assist 
them in their business. John is thought to have been the 
youngest of all the Apostles, yet he was old enough to have 
been a follower of the Baptist, before he came to Christ. The 
two brothers obtained the surname of Boanerges, i.e. Sons of 
Thunder, perhaps because of the vehemence and impetuosity of 
their tempers. Accordingly their spirit shewed itself in the 
desire which they expressed to have the Samaritans destroyed 
by fire from heaven, because they refused to lodge Jesus on his 
way to Jerusalem. It appeared also in their ambition to become 
the great officers of state in their Master^s kingdom, which they 
supposed would be a secular one* John^s writings sliew that 
he was of a warm and affectionate turn of mind. This warmth 


of temper gave him a singular fitness for friendship, in which 
he was not cmly amiable above the rest of the disciples, but 
happy as it rendered him the object of Christ^s peculiar love; 
Jameses being put to death by Herod is a proof that his zeal 
was uneommon, and that it moved him to be more active and 
bold in the work of the Grospel. First of all the twelve he 
died a martyr for the Christian cause. These two were called 
at the same time with the two former, as they were fishing at 
the sea of Galilee. James is said to have preached to the Jew6 
of the dispersion; but that his labours carried him at all out 
of Judea, or even from Jerusalem itself, no authentic history 
informs us. 

8. ^fXiTTiro^] Philip is sidd to have been a native of Beth- 
saida and is generally reckoned among the married disciples. He 
was originally a disciple of the Baptist ; but he left him to follow 
Jesus, as soon as he became acquamted with him at Jordan; 
John i. 44. He was called the day after Andrew and Peter. 
He is said to have preached in the Upper Asia, and to have 
wrought many miracles in HierapoUs a city of Phrygia ; in which 
place he is reported to have suffered martyrdom, by being fast^ 
ened to a cross and stoned to death. We know not of any 
writings he left behind him, though the Gnostics »re said to have 
alledged some such, in defence of their heresy. See Stanhope, 
Ep. and Gosp. iv. p. S65. 

— « BapOoXojiiaw] If we compare the order wherein the dis- 
ciples are called, John i. with the order wherein they are for the 
most part reckoned, we shall find Bartholomew falling in at th^ 
same place with Nathanael : so that he is supposed to have been 
the same person. And the supposition is probable, were it for no 
other reason but this, that all the persons who became acquainted 
with Jesus at Jordan when he was baptized and who believed 
upon him there, were chosen of the number of Aposties. If so, 
why should Nathanael have been excluded ? He was one of those 
who believed on Jesus then ; and was a person of such probity 
that he obtained from Jesus the high character of an Israelite 
indeed, in whom there was no guile. And when Jesus shewed 
himsdf to the Aposties, at the sea of Tiberias after his resur- 
rection, Nathanael is expressly mentioned by John (xxi. 1, 2,) 
among them. In this catalogue too, where the Apostles are 
thought to be coupled in pairs, as they were sent out to preach, 
Philip is joined with Bartholomew, which agrees very well with 
the supposition that Bartholomew was the same person with 
Nathanael: for Philip was his intimate acquaintance and first 


introduced him to Jesus. The difference of names is no objection 
to the supposition; Bartholomew signifying the son of Tohnai, 
may have been a patron3rmic; or he may have had two names 
as well as Matthew. Also, after the death of Judas Iscariot, 
Nathanael though still alive and associating with the disciples 
is not proposed as a candidate for the Apostleship ; from which 
it is inferred that he enjoyed that office already. The antients 
also seem to have thought Bartholomew the same with Nathanael: 
for from what St. John tells us of the latter that he was of Cana, 
xxi. 2, they assign the honour of Bartholomew's nativity to 
the same town, and add that he was a person skilled in the law. 
He is said to have preached in India, Lycaonia and the greater 
Armenia; but in what order he travelled these countries is not 
agreed. St. Jerome says he died and was buried at Albanopolis 
a city of the latter country. See Stanhope, Epist. and Gosp. 
Vol. IV. p. 415, and the account of his death from the Roman 

— QffDfAos] There is no mention made of Thomas before his 
conversion: and three of the Evangelists take no other notice 
of him than what regards his call to the Apostleship. Though 
St. John mentions some particulars concerning him, yet we learn 
nothing concerning his descent and country, his education iknd 
business ; but it is conjectured that like the rest he was of mean 
extraction ; and because he is named among those who went a 
fishing, John xxi. 2, 3, it is supposed he was a fisherman by 
occupation, and perhaps concerned with Peter in carrying on that 
trade. He obtained the surname of Didymus, John xi. 16, 
probably because he was a twin. He made himself remarkable 
by continuing longer than his brethren to doubt of Christ's resur- 
rection. The province assigned to this Apostle's labours, was 
Parthia; Chrysostom adds Ethiopia: Gregory Nazianzen, India: 
and though some have doubted of this last, the generally received 
opinion has been that he not only preached but suffered martyr- 
dom in India. The account of him m << Jerome's Catalogue" is, 
Thomas the Apostle, as the common tradition goes, preached 
our Lord's Gospel to the Parthians, Medes, Persians, Germans, 
H3rrcanians, Bactrians and Magi : and died at the city Calamino 
in India. See Stanhope, Ep. and Grosp. iv. p. 41. 
. — MoT^aiof 6 TeXwvfii'l See p. 3. Michaelis imderstands 
irore. Bos. Ell. Gr. 489 : He who was formerly a publican. See 
also Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 7* St. Matthew alone makes this addition 
to his name intending no doubt thereby, to magnify the grace of 
God, and the condescension of our blessed Saviour, who did not 


iudmm to take into the highest dignity of the Christian Church 
those whom the world rejected and acoounted vile. 

—— 'iaKmfia9 o too ^\^<oi;] Scil. vcoy. Sumamed the Less 
or Younger, Mark xv. 40^ to distinguish him from James the son 
of Zebedee, who was elder than he« He is also known by the 
title of James the Just, from his ei^traordinary sanctity, which 
was such that he is said to have had the privilege of entering at 
pleasure into the holy place. James the Less, Judas Thaddeus 
or Lebbeus, and Simon Zelotes were brothers, and sons of one 
Alpheus or Cleophas \ (John xix. 36, oomp< with Matt, xxvii. 
56, and Matt. xiii. 55, and Mark iii. 18,) who was likewise a 
ifisdple, being one of the two to whom our Lord appeared on the 
road to Ennnaus after his resunection. They are called Chrisfs 
brethren, xiii. 55 ; i. e. his cousins, in which sense the word ia 
used, Levit. x. 4. It seems flietr mother Mary, xxvii. 56, 
oomp. witli John xix. S5, was sister to Mary our Lord^s mothers 
finr it was no unusual thing among the Jews to have more ehild« 
rea tban one of a family called by the same name. 

This James was a person of great authority among the Apostles : 
atid was by tbetti BHide Bishop of Jerusalem the year after ouif 
liOrd^s passion. Henoe in the oouodl which met at Jerusalem 
to decide the dispute about the necessity of circumcision, we find 
hdm as president of the meeting, summing up the debate and 
wotding the decree. He was the author of the general Epistle 
^diich is extant among the books of the New Testament. ' 

The occasion and manner of his death is related with the fd- 
lowing circumstances. The goven^ng part of the Jews, enraged 
at the disappointment of their malice against St. Paul by his 
appeal to Cesar, revei^ed it upon St. James. The death of 
Pestus gave them an opportunity of acting in this matter more 
aHiitrarily than otherwise they durst have done. In the interval 
therefore between that and the arrival of his successor Albinus, 
Anaaus the high priest sammoned St. James, and required him 
to renounce the Christian fidth. For the compelling him to do 
this in the most pubUc manner, he was carried up to the battle^ 
meats of the temple, and threatened to be cast down, in case of 

' Lightlfaot ssys the Hebrew nsme may admita doable pronunciation ; 
via^ eitbtf to sound Alphai or CleophL Henoe that Alpheus who wpB 
the &ther of these Apo^es is also called C^eophasj Luke xxiv. 18, which 
sufficiently appears from hence, that she who is called Mary the mother 
ef James the Li»s and Joses, Mark xv. 40; by John is called Mary th^ 
wife of Ckephaa^ John xix. 2fi. 



did ST. M ATTH£W. 

refusal. He on the contrary with greater vehemence confessed 
and exhorted to the faith of Christ, in the pres^ice of those who 
met to hear his renundntion of Him. Provoked by such in- 
flexible constancy, they threw him headlong down. The fall 
broke his legs, yet he prayed: the rabble below received him 
with showers of stones : and at last one with a dub, such as is 
used by Fullers in dressing their cloths, gave him a blow on the 
head, after which he presently expired. A fact condemned even 
by their own historian Josephus, (Ant. xx. 8,) and said by him 
to be so by all persons who bore any regard to juBtice or the laws. 
Insomuch that for this offence against both, the High Priest, by 
whose authority it was committed, was in a few months, degraded, 
and another put in his stead. See Stanhope, Ep. and Gk)8p. iv. 
p. 266. 

— Aefifiaios o iwucXfjOek Oa^aios] In some copies and 
versions 6 eTriKXfjdek QaSicuo^ are wanting, and in others Ac/S- 
(iaios o iwiKXnOeU. Mill thinks Ae/S/Saios 6 iwiicktfieK had 
been subjoined in the margin at the name MarOaio^ (AejS/Scuov 
being for Aevl) and afterwards inserted in the text by some tran- 
scriber who did not know to what name it belonged. But Aevl 
and Aefifiaioi are quite, different names, as is evident from their 
form. < 

The person here meant is the 'laiiia^ of St. Luke vi. 16 ; of 
which 6a£^i«s i» a different inflexion, to distinguish this Apostle 
from Judas Iscariot: Judas in Syriac being Thaddai. Con- 
cerning the other name of Lebbeus, conjectures have been 
various. Some deriving it from a Hebrew word, which signifies 
the heart, will have it to intimate the extraordinary wisdom, and 
courage of this Apostle. Others draw it from a root which 
imports a lion, and think it an allusion to that prophecy of 
Jacob which compares his son Judah to an old lion and a lion^s 
whelp. Lightfoot thinks it may be a surname from Lfebba a 
town of Galilee near mount Carmel, mentioned by Pliny, Hist. 
Nat. V. 19 ; and where he supposes this Apostle to have been bom. 

After his call, we find nothing particular concerning him, 
except in one passage of St. John's Gospel xiv. 22, &c. He 
wrote the Epistle which goes under the name of Jude. He 
preached for some time about Judea and Galilee, then in Samaria, 
Idumsea, Syria and Mesopotamia : and is supposed at last to 
have travelled into Persia ; and at the instigation of the Magi 
there, whom he had provoked with open rebukes for their idola- 
trous worship of the Sun, and for several other idle superstitions,, 
to have been assaidted by the common people, and after other 

cHAPTim X. 343* 

previoud cnieltieBi crUoified.''^ See Stanhope, Up. and Crosp. rr. 
p. 636. 

— 6 iTTucXtfiek] Ludan in Macrob. xv. Vol. iii. p. 2I89 
o mnm^v eirucXq^eif. De Cal. xvi. Vol.* iii.' p. 146, UroK^iiaigp 
T^ /liorwrtp eiTiJcXifdeWi. Plut. JBrnflius, p. 262, o HcunKa^ 
ffirMraXovM€F09 SiciirW. See Actsi. 23 : x. 32 : xii. 12. 

4. Si/A^pr o Kavapirtfi] - The pkce of his birth is uncertain t 
and no particulars are mentioned of him in the New Testament. 
Had the. epithet? here used been meant to express his being from 
Cana, it would have been Kaviri^ or Kdycuos* (A very few 
MSS. read KayoKuos). And St. Matthew xv. 22, writes yw^ 
Xfluwofa and elsewhere Xoi/ociv where the discourse is about the 
place. Besides St. Luke vi. 15, expressly calls him ^fiwpa tov 
KoKoifAWov Z^Xamiy, which seems to be the Greek translationr 
of the Hebrew appellation. For from the Hebrew word signifying 
*^ he was jealous,^ comes the Chaldaic word signifjring a Zealot. 
Put the Greek termination to this Chaldaic word and it' be- 
comes Kavavlnjt. This appellation therefore and the Ztikurr^ 
of St.- Luke are as perfectly the same as Cephas and Fetrosy 
Tabitha and Dorcas. Or possibly 2</u»y o Kav&pirffi may ber 
similar to MarOalas 6 TeKmvffiy as exjNressive of his former oon«^ 
duct and party. 

The Z^Xc^ai were a particular sect or faction among the Jews, 
who in later times under- colour of zeal' for Grod committed all 
the disorders imaginable. They pretended to imitate the zeal 
of Phindhas, Elijah, and- the Maccabees^ expressed in their 
manner of punishing offenders. But they acted from blind fury 
or tnxai worse principles, without regard either to the laws of 
G^ or to the dictates of reason. ' See Joseph. B^ J. iv. 3, 9 ^ 
IV. 6, 3 :. VII. 8, 1. Some are of opinion that Simon was formerly 
one of this facticm. But as there' is no mention made of it till 
a little .before the destruction of Jerusalem, others have supposed 
the surname to' have been given Unison account of his uncommon 
zeidrin nuUters'of-true piety and religion. 

Upon the dispersion of the Apostles he is said to have predched 
in Egypt, Cyrene,- Africa,- Mauritania, and the barbarous ports 
of Libya: to which some add Mesopotamia; and say thai 
meeting there with St. Jude, they went together 'into 'Persiai 
and there both received the crown of:martyrdom«' This tmdition 
may possibly be the cause why the Church commemorates both 
together in one festival. See Stanhope, £p. and Gk>8p. Vol. iv. 
p. 535. 

--^ 'W^$ o *lqfKapmrffs\ Many MSS. omit 6 and it i^ 


344 ST. MAl<tllfi\r. 

obtervftble that fiknost whereT«r the word occurs in the New 
Testament there is either a variation in the MSS. or the article 
is wholly (fitted. • 

The meaning attd oiri^ of the stinUme 'lo-irci/Mttinj^ is un- 
known; and itoinitientAtJdrs are divided in their opinions about 
it. Some l»u{)po8e it to* have been given after his death, and 
derived froni UefM'a l^hich signifies strangling. The majority 
however «up|)ose it d^Hved from Carioth a town of the tribe of 
Jud^i Josh. XV. 9S. In the five passages in St. John, the 
Camb. MS. \inifemdy renders it awo KapUinm* ftp. Middleton 
tk^wever) Or« Art', p. 96l, thinks thlit the frequent ab^nce of 
Ihe article autboriees a Mkspidon that the word is a surname and 
not an epithet rfgnSficant of the place of birth or residence; 
liectese ih thut cti^ the atticle should be prefixed, as in Mapia 
4 Ma7&e\in^. St. Mark hl» indeed xv. 81, riMi lifiwpa Kvptf- 
wtHov : but* this is o<dy on the first mention, besides that nva 
would m^e tAv K^pflMov absurd. He seetais inclined lo think 
liie same inference strehgthetied by the compound iviic&KoAiiercp 
vsed of the natne tsc^Ot, Luke xxii. 3, and which as far as he 
fete observed is confined, as hi strictness it ought to be, to sur- 
Biunes : thus fai the present verse ewifcXf;de<9 Oa^alo^ : Acts i. SIS, 
o( iireKX^Ofi 'loScrroi : x. 5, 09 eTrucaKeiTai Tlerpos : itii. IS, ro9 
ewimiXou/tia^v Mofhtov, If this ihotion be well fondded, the 
artide in tlris rtne aiid' in every other in which 'fovdav prcx^es 
'itritafiuirfiiy ought to be omitted. 

^-^ 6 Kcu nrapasi6¥sr\ Dion. bai. vii. €9) ^Xoi/ i*k% Ttta^pkf 
Oh¥artm wajMt&N)^. iBlian. xf 11. 37) ot ii ttm iirifiavXliiaintii 
itiipeio&av afir^ icbXcuhtt. The Vulgate here reads tradidit, 
l^roperly; ineist- Otiiitt^ prodidit. But irttpa^Mu is tradere, 
irpo^inu prodere. The fbrmer expresses simfdy the fa<;t, with* 
out any note of praise or blame : the other marks ttie liict as 
^rittdhtf , und is prdperly a term of reprbadi. Now there is this 
pecufiarif y in the spilit of the Evangelists, that when speaking in 
their own character as historians, they Satisfy themselves with 
relating the bare facts, without i^her using «ttch terms, or af- 
fixing such epithets as tnight serve to impress their readers with 
iheiSr Sentiments confceming them, either of censure or temmdnda- 
tion. They tell the naked truth without hinting an opinion, and 
leaved truth to speak fiMr itself. A few MSS. here read wopa- 

^. itapfiyytiKin, Xe^ayir] Itt these words, i. q. Wde. 
— 615 oSov eOvwy] See Middleton, Gr. Art. p. 201. ^or ek 
iSop 17 ayei w ra i&ptf. So Jer* ii.' 18, ^ ,0^ AiY^irTov. 

The reason why Christ gave his disciple this prc^ibition was, 
that he might not give any offence to the. Jews. For as they 
were persuaded that the Messiah was to come only for them, thej 
would have imagined that Jesus was not thi^ Hesdahy had he 
preached the Gros]^ to the Gentiles. It was be^des expedieof 
that he, should maintain the privileges of that mtion. They were 
the (^dren of the kingdom, viii. 12, cqmp^ Actp liU- ^' Wh^i^ 
about finally to leave them, this |»OQhibiticm wa^ ceinQved? xi^viil. 
19: Mark xvi. 15 : and the Appstle^ directed to teaph q^ nations. 

— Ci9 TTohv] Sub« Tiv4f The Jews entertained no better 
opinion of the Sanarilans tb«n th^ did of th.^ heathens* KojT 
those two nations liad such on extreii^e. aversion the pqe {as ihf^ 
other, that the Samaritans laere much more odious to the Jewf 
than the heathens themselves, John iv. 9 ^ viii« 48. To presort 
therefore the privileges oi the Jews siife, and th^t they migh^ 
not otherwise prove an offence to that nation, the Samaritans 
are made parallel to the heathent and 48 distant as tjliey froipi 
partaking of the Gospels 

Theophylact in loc. says <rytvairT^< tqu^ J^opsirf^s 'ro'i^ 
eArurpIi, ivet Ba^c/Xcpvioc orrfs KaTtpKtifrav T^y *lQvi(4io^^ ^^^j 
seem to have been a mixture of mch Jews as remain^ in tbf 
land, when the ten tribes were carried i^^ay captive^ jot such as 
afterwards retui^ied thither on several Qcea^oifs; and likewise 
of those idolatrous people, which we^ transpUmted thither by 
Sahnaneser, and are known* by the general name qf Clul^haeana. 
So that there was among the Sammtaps a mixttire of religion^ 
as well as of nations. How fur the i|ntient inhabitants of Samaria 
were concerned in this way of worship, cannot be determined : 
but it seems probable th^t they eml^aced the religion of their 
conquerors; or at least tliat tbe^r wo|:ship had soma tincture 
of paganism in it This however ha^ 1i>een supposed to have 
been refiormed before the time of oiir Saviour. 

The inutual antipathy of the twp nations began with the schismi 
of Jeroboam ; and w(ui increased by the opposition the Samari- 
tans made against the Jews on their return m>m th^ Babylonish 
captivity, both in rebuilding the temple and repairing the walls 
of Jerusalem. On all occasions they were industrious i|i she:i|di|g 
their anger: and one particular insUmce Josephus mentions^ 
Ant. XVIII. 2, 2 ; when a few years before the birth of Christy 
they strewed the temple of Jerusalem with dead men^s bone^ 
to defile and pollute it. Np wppder therefore that feyds and 
animosities eidsted between them. 

T^ euri^J^ifr^} Theodor. Mopsue&t. Ox Sa/uvpelrm n6X£t^ 



KaTfpKOVP £V fiiatf t^ 'lov&zias, Si wv avar/Kcuov riv tau^ 'AntNTTX)* 
Xoi/v TTopeieaOdif Sto ical eKwXvev avTov^t iitj eicriXOifTe, 'Eirl 
a t(Sf idvUv ovK etwep* jul^ etceXOtfre, aXKa yu^ careXOfire* This 
situation of Samaria gave the inhabitants frequent opportunities 
of exercising acts of hostility against the Galileans, and of 
offering them affronts and injuries when they were going up 
to the solemn feasts at Jerusalem, See Luke ix. 51 — 53 : Jo- 
seph. Ant. XX. 5 : B. J. ii. 12, 3. 

— iwXXov] See Glass, PhU, Sac. p. 415. 

6. irpofiara aTroXwXora] He calls all Israel af^eepy though 
they lyere not obedient to the voice of the shepherd, as being 
all Gro4*s chosen people ; he calls them lost sheep, because they 
were in so great peril of Wng los? and ruined by the ignorance 
and wickedness of their guides. See ix. 36 : so Ps. cxviii. I76 : 
Isai. liii. 6 : Jer. xxvii. 6. See also 1 Pet. ii. 25, who has irpo- 
fiara irXavwfk^va in which sense airoXwXoi is used Luke xv. 4. 
To them the Apostles are first sent, because they were the 
children of the kingdom, viii. 12, to whom the promise of the 
Mes^ah was made, Gen. xvii. 1, and the adoption and promises 
especially belonged, Rom. ix. 4. Whence the Apostle saith, the 
Gospel ought first to be preached to them. Acts xiii. 46. 

— OiKov *I(rpai}X] i. q. viSiv *\<rpariX. 

7* Kvipvaaerel Proclaim, from taipv^. See p. 63. 

'— fiyyiK€v 1; fiaaiXeia] Properly speaking, the Kingdom of 
Heaven or Gk>spel Dispensation did not begin till the Jewish 
(Econprny was abolished : and therefore the Apostles in ' our 
I^ord^s time, and even our Lord himself preached the approach 
only and not the actual existence of that kingdom. But though 
the Apostles were directed to preach the approach of the king- 
dom of Heaven, they did not yet fully understand its nature, 
that it was not to be a tempgral but a spiritual kingdom, cour 
sistin^ in the dominion of righteousness and truth within men. 

8. aaOevovvTosy Xeirpov^y &c.] Without the article : for not 
aO the sick were healed, nor all lepers cleansed. Middleton,' 
Qr. Art. p. 201. 

— ikxpod^ iyeipere] These words are wanting in many 
MSS. and some Fathers and versions : and because the Apostles 
Tused none from the dead before Chrises resurrection, they 
have been supposed to have been added to the text: and for 
tl^is opinion there are great authorities. But they are found 
in the Vulgate, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions; and it 
is easier to drop than to insert a clause by accident. Chiysos- 
tom, who is one of the Fathers mentioned as omitting them in 


his Commentary on ' this passage, quotes them six times in other 
parts of his works : and Euthymius and Theophylact have not 
denied their existence, though they omit them in the text pre- 
fixed to their Commentaries, and which was adapted to the 
copies at hand, and therefore of more recent date. Besides the 
argument used for excluding these, would exclude also Xcw/mi!* 
KoBofiii^eTe, for we read of none cleansed by them. 

It is very evident that some passages in this discoiirse refer 
to events which did not immediately take place : see vers. I7, 
18, 19, 30, &c. They have therefore a reference to the period 
compreliended under that more extensive commission which they 
received after our Lord's resurrection, John xx. 21. To this 
second mission relates the commission to cleanse the lepers and 
to raise the dead ; for most of the things mentioned in this 
ch^ter are the very things spoken of in our Lord's prediction 
of the destruction of Jerusalem, and are there mentioned as 
things to be done then ; Matt. xxiv. 9- And these words ver; 
32, He that endures to the end shall be saved, are the very 
words .which Christ uses when he speaks of the destruction of 
the Jewish polity. Matt. xxiv. 13 : Mark xiii. 13 : and there^ 
fore it is observable that St. Mark vi 7> atid St. Luke ix. 1, 2, 
who only relate what happened to their Jirst missioa, speak 
nothing in these chapters of their commission to cleanse the 
lepers or raise the dead. 

— Sutpedti iXdfiere, &c.] This was not an unusual saying 
among the Hebrews, The direction here given relates to the 
dispensing . of miraculous gifts, and not to the stated oflices of 
the Apostolical functions, as is evident from Luke x. 7> where 
our Lco^'in giving a similar commission to the seventy, bids 
them eat and drink what was set before them, because the 
labourer was worthy of his hire. And in this very charge, after 
these words, he forbids them to provide gold, 8tc. ; for the work- 
man is worthy of his meat : plainly intimating that while they 
were preaching the Gospel, they had a right to maintenance 
from those who enjoyed the benefit of their labours, and should 
in the course ' of Divine Providence be supplied with all things 
necessary. Accordingly we find the Apostles receiving main- 
tenance, and insisting upon it as their due, 1 Cor. ix. i, 5, 14: 
Gal. vi. 6. 

9- KTijaijaGf^ Here mgnifies to get, to furnish one's self with 
a thing : as quierere in Ovid, A. A. ii.' 13, Nee e ' 

quam qusrere, parta tueri. Plato Thentet. p. 143, 
^M TauTov tpaiverat t6 KetfTijaBat t^ ^X^'"' ®^'' '' 



94y3 ST. uMmxm. 

T'piaiimfOf T$9 Ktu iyKparr^t mw /Mf ^popm, ex^w M€V mnr or arr^ir 
m»TOf K^KTrjuQai Si y€ i^aiiamwm And tau ti^uuit otiy i^o^ 7 C1W 
aci^ofor jcti^mcmv* Isocr. ad PhiL nfv ^yc cvfoiar xrifo^ r^ 
'grapa rcSv *EXXiyiwr. Demosth. OL i. 'wakXaas iom to 0vXa^ai 
T a^Q^ 'voi^ KT^craaBat yaXawwrreptm mbmu And ii. iroXir yap 
paov i\0¥Ta!i ipdKarrretw if mfaootfac irovra vetfMce^ £uripb 
in Stobsi Florileg. Tit x. p. 7I9 /3<^ rvr IXicrr' «S kokoi n/tiof 
^pQTol Kal MToaBe irXovroy irawrcOevm 

— * 'jfpwrov^ apyvpowp ^oXicoy] i- e. money* Mark ti. 89 has 
xmly ^^icor* Luke ix. 3, apyvpu>v> Species ^pro genere. 

— «f^ Ta9 ^(ttfMif ] In your girdles. Clothed as the Eastern 
people were with long robes^ girdles were indispensibly neces* 
sary to bind together their flowing vestments* They were worn 
about the waist, and properly confined their loose garments* 
Thesie girdles were so contrived as to be used for purses; and 
they are still so worn in the East. Dr. Shaw, speaking of the 
dress of the Arabs in Barbary, says, << The girdles of these people 
are usually of worsted, very artfully woven into a variety of 
figures, and made to wrap several times about their bodies* One 
end of them being doubled and sewed along the edges, serves them 
for a purse, agreeably to the acceptation of the word l^dptf in the 
Holy Scnptures.'^^iElian. V. H. Fragm. p. 970, ^(pvaiov ^oiri/y 
cvaTo^cyoi' icevXifpiofMytfv. Thus C. Gracchus in Aul. Grell. xv. 
12, Quum Romam profectus sum, Zonas quas plenas argenti 
extuli, eas ex provindfi inanes retuli, Livy xxxlii. 29, Nego- 
tiandi ferme caus& argentum in Zonis habraites. Hor. £p. ii, 
9, 40, Ibit eo, quo vis, qui Zonam perdidit, inquit. 

Money in the girdle, and provision in the scrip were forbidden 
the disciples by Christ, 1. That they might not be careful ibr 
temporal things^ but resign themselves wholly to the care of 
Christ. 2. They ou^t to live of the Gospd, which he hints 
in the last clause of this verse. 

10. /All mipav 619 i&ov\ Suidas, iripa' ii Oifxtf tww aprior* 
Ammonius^ inipa* cepiMa ti dprroff>6pov, o ewl Twy wfiaw ^po^ 
ai¥ oi inHfiiiifes* A sort of large bag in which shepherds and 
those that journeyed carried their provisions. Thus the bag 
into which David put the smooth stones, wherewith he smote 
Goliath, is called both a scrip and a shepherd'^s bag. Horn. Od. 
p* 197> ^Upa jcoi d/u0* wfjioitriy deUea fidWero inipffv* £ustath« 
oJ yap <f>op€iTm aXXwi 1} mipcu Apuleius i. Manticam meam 
humero exuo, caseum cum pane propere ei ponrigo. 

— — &#o ](iT«uKiv] The Greeks and Rmnans, as weO as the 
Ji'ws of that time, used to wear two, one next the skin, called 


by the Ladns illtenila» fdao indugium and 6ubu€ida» . a|id by 
the Attics x*'>"^>^<^'^^» ^^ ^^ other Gbreeks inro^Jr^s' the other 
called ^iTcJy and emyjyrJTf. Over this was the i/uarcor. Joseph. 
Ant. XVII. 5f 7* t<Sp ^SXmv tc^ tioti tov *H^joi/ Oew^vm vve^ 
p€Lfkm>¥ Toi; oot/Xov roi' errik ^Tiaiyo, cM^Mcn «yap ^i/o* (Akqo^v 
irros r^ eircim;^^ Kf^irreadat Ta ypamtara' xal 9fw ^ ovrair. 
Lightlbot says, a single coat bespake a meaner oondition^ 
a doable a more plentifiiL Hence is that counsel of the Bstp^- 
tist, Luke iii. 11, He that hath two coats, let him impart to 
him that hath none Two coats and shoes therefore are for- 
bidden, that they might not at all affect pride or worldly pomp, 
but rather that their habit and guise might beq)eak the gr^test 

— vTToifl/uiaTa] St. Mark vi., 9, tells us the Apostles were 
to be yiro^iefxevoi crar&iXia, whence some have made a dtstinc*- 
tion between i/iro^^^ara and aapiaXta, which is not perhaps 
sufficiently supported. But the passages are easily reconciled 
by supposing our Lord to have permitted them to have what 
they were wearing, but to take no other shoes with than; jcnf- 
a^aOe bdng here understood ; and not to be anxious in getting 
together what may be necessary for their journey : Chrisf s de- 
sign in giving his Disciples these directions, being to teach them 
even in their first journey that they ought to trust to Providence, 
and that provided they did their duty, they should want nothing. 
But it must be observed, that this injimction rdates only to 
their first mission, being afterwards repealed, Luke xxii. 35. 

— pafi^Qv] St. Mark vi. 8, says, ci /ii; pdfiiov /ttopov. The 
staff, shoes, and purse were the usual appendages of a Jewish 
traveller ; scHnetimes adding the book of the law. Here there- 
fore understand icn^cnro^c again : do not furnish yourselves with 
a staff: not forbidding them to use what they had. 

Many< MSS« some veirsiona, and Theophylact read pafHovi^ 
which Wetstein, \7riesbach and Whitby think the right reading. 
In this ca8e» one is permitted, more forbidden. 

-— aj^ios yap o ipydrrig] A proverbial expression. Levit. 
xix. 13 : Deut. xxiv. 14, 1& You may cheerfully trust the 
providence of Grod to take care of you while engaged in such 
a cause: and you may reasonably expect to find sustenance 
among those for whose benefit you labour. 

— Tpaif>^s] Whatever is necessary for sub^st^ioe. A lew 
MSS. read nw pAtrOov* 

11. e^cTocrare] Isocr. ad Demonic, p. 13, finf^va ipSXov ir^9o£f 
irplv av 6^€racrj}9 irik K€\pfjr€u roh wporepoi^ <piKoi/i. 


— ri% €¥ avTTf 0^109] ''A^ios being here put without the case 
of the noun si^iifying what he was worthy of, as xxii. 8, ovk 
^av a^uH ; some have understood v/jlUp, as in ver. 37? o^co; /uov, 
i. e. worthy of having this divine doctrine delivered to them. 
Others again, from the words /cficec /ucivare following, under- 
stand perhaps more properly wap ^ fielmfxe^ Those who are 
expecting the Messiah'*s Kingdon, who will receive the news 
of it with pleasure, and who in all. probability will assist you 
in publishing it. 

"A^to^ is used alone in the same way, Aristoph. Equ. 511, 
€1 /mev Tir ayi^p twv ap^alwv KVD/iAoSiSaaKaLKoi rifia^ 'HvctyKal^ev 
€7nj Xe^ovras y 69 to BiaTpov wapafifjyai Ovk av <f>ai\w^ ervyep 
TovTOV* vvv S 0^109 i(rff o woiirrijy "'Or* roiJs airrovs rifJ^v iJuaety 
ToKfia Te Xeyetv Ta oucaia. Demosth. £p. iii. p. lid, atpelcBat 
oe KaXw9 woiovvTi* o^^os yap aviip* Soph. CEd. Col. 984, o-i) ^ 
a^tav OVK ov(rav al<rj(yv€i^ woXiv. SchoL ovk ovaav a^iav ai(r)(yv€(r* 
6m Tjjy Qtjfitfv iijXovoTi, ai<r)(yv€i9* See also Sallust, Cat. 36. 

*— K^ei fULeivare] * In that person^s house. So Luke x. % 
in the instructions to the Seventy, *< In the same house remain, 
eating and drinking such things as they have ; go not from house 
to house.^ Meveip used in the sense of ^epil^eaOat^ Acts xxi. 

^-'Sofs av efeX^Jfre] Scil. €k t^s iroXeof^ fj €k t^ Kw/mtji. 
Acts xii. 17 : xvi. 40 : xviii. 23. Thus Demosth. adv. Aristocr. 
p. 434, eav riy rivd t£v avhpo(p6va}v twv e^eXriKvdorwv^^^pa 
opwv eXavvfi* 

Antiently they had not houses of entertainment fot the accom- 
modation of travellers, such as we have, but only houses for 
lodging them, called in modem language Caravanserais, into 
which travellers brought their own provisions and accommodated 
themselves the best way they could. But it was common for 
persons of humane dispositions to entertain strangers according 
to their ability. Some think these are meant by a^ioi. 

12. dawaaaaOe ai/ri/i;] Sub. oiKiav^ put for the family. The 
form of salutation was eiprivfi r^ oixtp rovr^, which is given in 
St. Luke X. 6, Xiyere' eiptivtif &c. whence some MSS. and 
versions have here added, Xeyovre^* eipiivtiy &c. but this 
is not found in so many as to give any countenance for relin- 
quishing the common reading, which agrees with the Syriac and 
the greater number of antient versions. Thus also when Moses 
and his father-in-law Jethro met, the text says they asked each 
other peace, Exod. xviii. 7^ i- ^- asked for peace, prayed for it, 
wished it to eac|i otl^er. . Sec John xiv. 27* 

CHAPTER X.' 251 

13. a^ta'\ Scil. roi/rot;, i. e. of the good wished for in your 

— i\0ir<a iir avnjy] This is one ^ those passages in which 
the imperative is put for the future ; shall rest upon it. So 
1 Cor. xvi. 23. St. Liike x. 6| uses the future. 

— - fj eipiivfi v/xwv^ i. e. that which ye have widied for in your 

— etntrrpaipiiTw] This is a Hebraism. A prayer or bless- 
ing is said to return, when it is frustrated of the hoped-for success, 
i. e. they shall not obtain the peace you wish them, or receive any 
benefit from your wishes. So Ps. xxxiv. 13, my prayer returned 
into my bosom. Isai. Iv. 11 : Ps. vii. 16. 

14. Kal oi idv] i« q* eeiv ie t<9. Mark vi. 11, jcai oaoi av^ i. q- 
ear oi Tine?. Herod, i. 136, 'AvSpayaOiti ^ avrij atrdieSeKrai, 
fiera to fia^fetrOcu etvat ayaOop, o^ av iroXKov^ avoii^tp iracda^. 
Arrian. Hist. Ind. 00*01 ie itfrpol ''EXXijve^f Tovroitriv oiSip ok&s 
€^€vpfjTo, otTTi^ vwo 006(09 ^ijjfieifi 'IvoiKWy toT edv Tt^. 

— * Si^fp^ai] Here signifies to entertain hospitably. ^ It is 
applied twice to RahaVs entertaining tiie spies, Heb. xi. 31 ; 
James ii. 25. 

— eKTivd^are rov jcoviopror] The Jews fSancied the very 
dust of Heathen countries polluted tiiem : hence they would not 
suffer herbs to be brought out of a Heathen country, lest dust 
should be brought along with them. And when they returned 
to their own land, tiiey used to stop at the borders of it, and 
wipe their feet, that the holy inheritance might not be defiled. 
If our Lord had this custom in his eye, his meaning is, Look 
upon such as Heathens, and shake off the dust of your feet as 
a testimony that you so esteem them: Declare that you witt 
not have the least intercourse with them. TertuUian explains 
it, Pulverem jubet excuti in iUos in testificationem et abhorreff- 
tiam terras eorum, nedum communicationis reliquae. See Luke 
ix. 5 : Acts xiii. 51 : xviii. 6. 

15. aveKTorepov €<TTai\ Sub. Kpifia* Bos. Ell. 6r. 137* The 
verb here shews that Christ had respect not to the past, but to 
the future sufferings of Sodom and Gromorrha : and he adds iv 
^fiept^ Kpiaewi' Now the times of the destruction of the Jewish 
nation are sometimes stiled the days of vengeance, and never 
the day of judgment: but that phrase still relates unto the 
final judgment, and perdition of ungodly men, 2 Pet. iii. 7* 
that day to which the wicked are reserved to be punished, 2 Pet. 
ii. 9. See Matt. xii. 36. So does ev Tti Kplaeij used by St. Luke 
%. 14, concerning the same persons, always signify. No other 


judgment could at that time await Sodom and Gomorrha: for 
these cities with their inhabitants had long since been exteri- 
minated, and were therefore no longer subject to temporal ¥iait»- 
tions. See Middleton, Gr. Art. p. 203. 

Theophylact ways iicei fieTpuirepap KoKMrBtftrovrm^ The sin 
of those who reject the Gospel^ rendering thepi obnoxioua to 
greater punishment than Sodom and Gromorrha were to suffer 
at the day of judgment, because committed against greater light 
xi. 33y and. greater conflrmatioa of the truth, must be a wilful 
sin, which it was in their power to avoid. 

-*-« 7^ ^Kiio^mv] for eity, i. e. its inhabitants. Thus Virg. 
^n. XI. 245, Concidit Ilia tellus, where Servius observes e/«^- 
Tucik pro Urbs Ilia ; nam terra non concidit, sed civitas Ilium. 
See p. 4i9. IPor Tonoppmy several MSS. read Tofiopfia^, 

16. oW irpofiara] Here Middleton, Gr, Art. p. 203, observes, 
we have m irpo^ra^ but w 'Ol o^i$. It is not without reason, 
that even this apparently minute distinction is observed. AU 
sheep are not supposed to be in the midst of wolves: but all 
ii^rpents are assumed to be prudent. 

— sr iAi<r9p\ i. e. eU XuKovi'^-^fiiaov like . the Latin medius 
often redundant : or 419 fieffov, see Glass, Phil. Sac. 454, I send 
you forth weak and defenceless amc»ig a cruel and wicked pecqple. 

Hom« II. j(. 363, eiSi Xvkoi re tcai apve^ 6iii<l>paHi B^iUv 
iypv^i. Hor. Epod. iv. 1, Lupis et agnis quanta sortito obtigit. 
Tecum mihi discordia est. 

— ^ ^pavifioi m 01 o0cff ] The seipent is generally xeckcHied 
a prudent and wary creature in preserving itself from danger. 
Gen. xlix. 17 : Gen. iii. 1, o jiS 0^19 ifir if>poH§mraTas- Whence 
among the Helwews it was looked upon as a symbol of drcwn- 
epection and prudence* Plidy Hist. NaL baa given us some 
very remarkable stories of the sagocity of serpents, some of 
which have the air of fables. But it is certain there is a pecu- 
liar vivacity in their eyes; so that to be as sharp-sighted as 
a serpent was a proverb both among the Greeks and Romans. 

-^ wcipauH m ml wcpurrepai] The reading awXavararoi evi- 
dently came £rom the margin* Several derivations of oMMptuM 
have been given, but that of Eustath. II. /3. 855, seems most 
aaquiesoed in, o^ev oKipaun Xiyerui, m iifj^ya ic^paS^wff o 
mart /SXawrwy, or as the Schol. Eurip. Orest 920, oKipaw, 
a^ewikffwTow ^tnaiKmt fiiovy interprets o awXoi^. Plato de Be- 
pub. I. joins ourepaiov coi ajikafin^. It answers to the Latin 
tniiocefiff. Hence KsAipo^t oicacof as Hesychius explains it 
Auguslin. de Civ. D. xvi. 24, Sive a negotiosis oonversationibiu^ 


hominum se tetnoveant^ sicut turtur^ dve inter illos degant ^ut 
columba, utraque tamen avis est simplex et innoxia. See Bp. 
Taylor's Works, Vol. xn. p. 878. 

Cicero Off. ii. 10, tells us multos esse qui versutos homines et 
callidoB admirantes, malitiam sapientiam judicant. Our Saviour 
therefore requires them to join prudence and innocence together^ 
rendering themselves remarkable for integrity amidst the greatest 
temptations, and fcv meekness under the greatest provocations. 

17* irpo^riyere Se diro twv dv6pwira>v^ i. e. Avoid as much 
as in you lies the persecutions you may suffer from them : for 
as Theophylact here observes, This is to be wise as serpents, 
viz. to be circumspect in declining their snares, and giving them 
no just occasion to afflict us: and to be harmless as doves, is 
to offend no man by word or example, and so to give them no 
occasion to do evil to us. 

— ' t£v iwOpdirwv^ Palairet says tor tovtodv avOptivwV' Here 
evidently from the context must be understood the Jews of whom 
he is speaking. But this is not determined from the article as 
Markland thought, but as Middleton observes, merely from the 
context. In ver. 32, efiirpixrOev twv ivOpwirwv, the meaning 
18 adequately conveyed by our phrase, the worlds as opposed 
to God, who is mentioned in the same verse. And generally, 
he thinks, the word caSptorroi takes the article, even where no 
particular men are meant, but only men indiscriminately, unless 
some of die alledged causes interfere. See Gr. Art. p. 204. 

— trweSpia] Not only the Sanhedrim, but the other inferior 
tribunals. See v. 22. 

— - <n/pa<yoKyac(] Here most probably to be understood of 
religious assemblies, synagogues properly so called. Acts xxii* 
19 : xxvi. 11. And indeed it 'is very probable that the Jews 
had some particular place in their synagogues where they caused 
those whom they thought guilty of heresy to be punished. Some 
commentators have pretended, that there was in each synagogue 
a coimdl consisting of three judges, which was to order and 
appoint when any one was to be scourged. Epiphan. Hder. 
Ebion. 1. 10, top Si avSpa aptral^ovcriv avpovre^ ya/xal Kal /SocSp- 
Tf^f Kai aiKiO.^ iirtfpepovre^ ov rd^ ri/^ot/craf , awayaucn fieif €19 
*rfip nuvaytaytivj koI /uLCurri}^ov{Ti toutov. 

-— ficurriywcrovai] This punishment was very common among 
the Jews, with whom there were two ways of infficting it; one 
wifli thongs or whips made of ropes-ends or straps of leather ; 
the other with rods, twigs, or branches of some tree.- The 
Rabbins think that ordinn-y faults'* committed against the taw 

254 ST. MATTHfiW, 

were punished by the former mode. They reckon up 168 faults 
liable to this penalty; and they hold that all punishable faults, 
to which the law has not annexed the penalty of death, must 
be punished by the scourge. Some maintain ^at they never 
gave more or less than thirty-nine strokes, but that in greater 
faults they struck with proportionable violence. This was done 
in open court before the judges. All the time the executioner 
was scourging the offender, the principal judge proclaimed these 
words with a loud voice. If thou observe not all the words of 
this law, &c. Deut. xxviii. 58 ; adding, Ee4> therefore the words 
of this covenant, Deut. xxix. 9: and concluding at last with those 
of the Psalmist, But he beiiig full of compassion forgave, their 
iniquities, Ps. Ixxvii. 38. 

18. e'ffl ^yefMjivai xal (iaaiKeh] Thus Polyb. v. 28, 6, 
flr/docrrafay £7611/ avroy evt rd^ dpx^9 ir/ws ti;v eyyutiv* 
. The words rgyefuiv, liye/iovia, and i^efioves ore applied to all 
who were in great power and dignity. Thus kings. Soph. (Ed. 
Tyr. 103; ^e Cseisars, Joseph. Ant. xviii. *J, 9, are called 
liyefAOve^f and Antiq. xix. 1, 15, o\ kv tti tiy^iioviq. yeyovoTe^^ 
But riyeiJLoves is also applied to the governors of provinces as 
here, including Proconsuls, Propraetors, and Procurators : whence 
Pontius Pilate, Matt, xxvii. 2, 11, 14 : xxviii. 14: Luke xx. 20: 
and Felix and Portius Festus, Acts xxiii. 24, 33 : xxiv. 1, 10 : 
xxvi. 1, 30; who were properly eTrlrpoTroi, may be called 
nyefioves. See 1 Pet. ii. 14, where the words are put in oppo- 
sition. ' 

These things did not happen while the Apostles were out 
in their first mission. They came to .pass after Christ^s ascen- 
sion, when Peter and John were called before the Sanhedrim, 
Acts iv. 6, 7* <^d beaten. Acts v. 40. And when James and 
Peter were brought before Herod, Acts xii. 3: Paul before King 
Agrippa and his wife, and the Roman governors Gallio, Felix, 
Festus ; and last of all before the Emperor Nero and his prefect 
Haelius Csesariensis. 

— 6i9 iMLTvpiov avToii\ A testimony of yoiu; innocence, and 
of the truth of the Gospel, and consequently an undeniable 
proof of the guilt both of the Jews and Gentiles who rejected it. 

19. irapa&ihw(riv\ Some MSS. have 9rapaSQ)(roiAr<». which has 
crept in from ver. VJ. 

— WW n 'ri XaXiTO-ijre] Val; Flacc. vii. 433, Nec.quibus 
incipiat demens videt, ordine nee quo, Quove tenus, &c. - Horn. 
Od. y, 26, 'Mieyrop, irm ^ ap Iw, irek t ap\ irpocnrrv^ofiat 
avr^l Oyre t« ttw fiidotai frewelptifAm Tri/icimorii^— ^T^Xquojf 


aXKa fieu airos eui <J}peai <ni<Tt votjaei^, ''AXXa je Kai hiifuov 

This direction was repeated on several occasions afterwards, 
particularly Luke xii. 11: Mark'xiii. 11. The Apostles being 
illiterate men, and wholly unacquainted with the lawis of the 
different countries whither they were to go, .and with the forms 
of their courts, their Master foresaw they would be in great 
perplexity when they appeared as criminals before persons of 
the first distinction. He foresaw likewise that this circumstance 
would occur to thenufelves, and render them anxious to meditate 
beforehand, by what apology they might best defend so noble 
a cause. More than once therefore he expressly forbade them 
to be in the least solidtous about the defences tliey were to make; 
or 80 much as to premeditate any part of them ; promising to 
afford them on all occasions the aid of their Father^s Spirit, which 
would inspire them to speak in a manner becoming the cause 
they were to defend. 

20. ov yap v/nel^] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 420. The negation 
here is not to be taken absolutely, but comparatively : i. e. it 
shall not be so much you that shall speak, as the Spirit of Grod 
through your mouth. The expression is similar to ix. 13. So 
2 Sam. xxiii. 2, irvev/ua Kvplov eXoXiycrey ev ifwu And Lucian. 
Fhilopat. XVIII. Vol. iii. p. 605, dXKa Xiye^ irapd tou UveiimaTos 
nj¥ hivofiiv Tov X070V XajSeiy. Sec Bp. Taylor -s Works, Vol. x. 
p. 14. 

21. irapaiwrei eU 9avarov\ Shall deliver him up to be put 
to death. Thus Acts viii. 3, irapaSiSovai riva 619 fjyvXaKfju. 
Isai. xxxiv. 2, irapaicdvcu aVTou^ eli <r<f)ay^v. 

— i'lravaaTiia'ovTai] In the New Testament this verb only 
occurs in the middle voice, and signifies to rise up against any 
one in hostility; and is used particularly of those who having 
been provoked by no injury persecute others with hostility. 
Thus Schol. on Thucyd. iii. SdiiTraudarao't^ oTav Tipes Tifiw^ievoi 
Koi fir/iev dSiicoimevot (rrao'iaa'wcn ical ejfipevaxri roif jutioev 
aSuaia'cuTi* Polyb. v. 38, 5, on fieXXtt KXeofievfjs^^'iiraifurTcurOai 
To7s TOU lia<ri\iw£ irpdyiuKTiv, Thucyd. i. 116, Ka\ icpwrov uiv 
rq} S^fup €iravi(rrff(y€L» /cai ixpolTriaav tSv *rr\ei<rra>v» Joseph. 
B. J. II. Vjj 9* ivavioTavrai Je 01 wc/dc tov 'EKedl^apov ai/r^. 
Philo de Spec. Legg. p. 77^9 Tore ii tov9 eTravitrrafievovi djuLih 
vofievoi, iroXXoi ie *7rdK\a')(o9ep iiravitrTavrai* 
' -— 0afraraS(roiKri] In the' sense of wapaSwfrovcriv eis OdvaTov. 
Xen. Anab. 11. 6, 4, ck toutov kom iOavaTwdti vtto tw ev t^ 
STTopryi T€XiSi/. 

356 ST« MMmmw. 

PetroD. Arbit. Si quis vidorum omiiium iniiniciu rectum iter 
Tite ooepit iBflftcKiy ptnmiiD piopfter nonno. diffetcoCMiii ^^j^mt^ 
habet Quis cnim potest probcc dirersa? 

— vva Wm#r] L e bj the geneiality of men. .The Apnrtfen 
mA first Christians set themdves in oppositioti both to the 
Jewish ami Paput religions, dedaring die.nviUtty of the fanner, 
ami urging the renunciation of the latta" in all its forms, as a 
matter of indiq^ensible necessitj. On the most tremendoiis 
penalties they requiied every man without* exception, to believe 
in Christ, and submit implicitly to. his authority. No wonder 
therefore that in every country such a furiiran storm of pcne* 
ctttion arose against them, and the religion they taugl^ and 
that they were treated as the filth and oflbcourings of the earth. 
See Plin. £p. x. 97, 98. 

-*-«o a vwm^iffoif ek TvXor] i. ei He diat shall bear coostandy, 
and with an invincible patience the persecutions of the world. 

This encouragement Jesus likewise gave to his discipks, when 
he spake to them of the sufferings they were to meet with, 
about the time of the destruction of Jerumlem : Matt. xxiv. 1& 
We may therefore believe he had tibose sufferings now in his 
mind. St Luke mentions flying to the mountains, whidi. shews 
that the kind of escape was temporal, o-wftjo-erai does not 
always import eternal salvation; nor auyr^pta, Actsvai. 2& 

*— t/TroAieiva^] Virg. ^n. i. 207} Durate et vosmet nebus 
servate secundis. 

33. iv T^ woXei Tmrti] Some read ix r^ woXeoo; twirtif, 
which has proceeded from those who explained Suiic^ivhy c^c^SoX- 
\€tVf to correspond with <f>€vy€T€. Middleton, Crr. Art. p» 904, 
says the article here serves to mark the opposition between oir^ 
and oXXo^y two cities only being supposed, and is th^efore not 
without meaning in the Greek. 

-"— ^iryers €iv t^v oXXi^i'] Origen c. Cels. JL^v ^tv'yiy i 
\pixrrMvoi, w oia ^etXiov i^eiyei^ oXXa nipwy amoX^v rov 
woaaKaXou, Kal iavrou 0tAarraxp K<iSapovy eTepvm 4»^eXi|0ir 
(rojutmuy awnfpiij^. 

— « ei€ Tiiv oXXifi'] For whidi in some is read elr t9iv iTepav* 
K^v €K TavTffi ■oKOKowTiv vjOLcis^ d>€vy€T€ cW Tifi; aXXi^v. Also 
€19 Tiyv oXXifi^* K^y eK rai/n^ eKiui^ouo'iv (al. juur^iO'fv) «i/tiac» 
^vyere ek Ttju eripav. Also civ t^ irepav' k^v iv <r^ ^'^^^^ 
emKwo'iv, wi\iy <f)€uyvre ck riyy cXktjv, And eiv T^y ^XXify' 
«ov Je €v Tp oXXif &«iffou(rcif vfMK, if}€uyer€ ck rifr aXXiyir. 
Gricsbach admits the first of these, and tliinks that the txans- 

9H AFTER X. 857 

cribers might GBsily pass from one fpevy^re. eU riyv to the other, 
and so. omit the mtermediate words. But may not the words 
jc^i^ ex ravTifs, &c.. be the addition of the grammarians, perhaps 
from xtiii. 34? 

— ov fi^ reXecrirre] $cil. obire vel pervadere, et sic prsedicandi 
ministerium simul exsequi quod demandatum a Christo fuerat, 
Ter..6, 7: Glass. Phil. 8|kc. p. 333: and Chrysostom thus explains 
the words ov (pddaere irepteXdorrcv "niv HaXaiaTirrjv* . Or for 
TtfXeorifre oiov ^td Tcii woXeis, as Find. Ol. ii. 4, ireiXctv Am 
ooop^ where the Schol. says iTeXeiwaavj tiwtravi iiropevOtjaav* • 
Thucyd. II. 97) o^ ^ rd ^uvToiuirara i^ 'Afi^pwv i^ *l<rTpoi^ 
dv^p ei/^wvo9 6F£eiroTaio9 T«Xec: iv. 73, if ^dpaaXoif eriXecre* 
Lucian. Toxar. lii. VoL ii. p. 558, Tpirdios iTeXeaeu ix Ma^Xi/<i>i/ 
€9 2iri/da9. Id. in Hermot^n. lxxi. VoL i. p. 813, airo r^ 
''EXXaoo^ elf 'If^oi); tcXc?. — 'Avieiv and iiavu€$Vf which have the 
same signification, are used in the same manner, Joseph. B. J. vii. 
5, 3, . TtT09 Tiiv irpoKeifiivrpf *trouwjuL€Vot nope'mv, xal ri^t^ eptfiJLO¥ 
fl TQ^tara Siawiaof. H^siod. epy, ii« 353^ &f wore aal ttiS 
ilXOe woXv¥ itd iroyrov dvitrm* Philo de Vit^ Mos. p. 690^ . 
Sofipef ojULod Kai yvpoiKes arptfiti Koi fioKpdv eprifjLfiv dvaaav 
aifiHTavref, ivl OdXarrau difHKVovvrai njv ipvBpdv irpoaayopev^ 
o/teyifi/. TibuU^ i. 4, 63, £t tercentenas erreribos explent lurbesv 

-r* ewf av eXOfi 6 vio% tcS dvOpfoTrou] This phrase always • 
signifies either . our Lord^s coming with the Roman army to 
destroy the Jews, or else his coming to. the final judgments 
And as it cannot here be understood in the second sense, it seems 
necessary to understand it of his coming to avenge his quarrel 
on the Jewish nation. And to this sense lead the following 
words : And if you meet with great obloquies and persecutions 
from the Jewish nation, whilst you are thus spreading the Grospel 
through Judea (as they did even to the beginning of the war; 
James the brother of our Lord, and other Christians being slain 
by Ananus the high-priest, but three years before the war broke 
out), it is only what was done to your Lord : and therefore 
what you have equal reason to expect, for the disciple is not 
above his master/ 

34« ouK iffTi /AaOtiTfjsll No disciple ^ Middleton^ 6r. Art. 
p. 205. This is a .proverbial expression which Jesus Christ 
applies on different occasions : here and John xv. 20^ it relate^ 
to the persecutions his disciples were to undergo: it is applied 
to another subject Jphn xiii. 16 : Luke vi^ 40. In the passages 
in St. John, /lei^cDif is in the place of iirep, 

25. dpKiTO¥^ Scil. earl or earw. 



— 6 ioSSjK dif o Kvpiw niTw] Axriati. Epi«t^. it. ftS> 
vvvarai 'to ciwcopciv Kpel<r(r6v etveu ii^iuovj fp mucotfei^ o cinroff 
TcS iirirem^; if 6 kvwp i'cS tewfiy^l V '*'<> ip^^y^ 'rou KtO&pKrnoSl 
fj oi vTTffpeToi Tov (iaaiKeta^ ; Chrysostom. Horn. xxxt'. in M4tt* 
iw^ iv ti iovKo^, ouK eart virep *w Kvpto¥ iwiTtt 'ttjv Ttj^ vijBt^y 

— B^eX^^jSovX] A assail given by the Jews to the prince 
"of devils s in Luke xi. 1ft, is added ap^^oi^n t£v SatfKMufp: mA 
John xii. 'Sly apywv tw KoOyiov ttmroi;. The word d^ifieft 
the lord of flies : and was probably taken from the Philistines, 
where Baalzebub was w^riidpped, 2 Kings i. 8, as <lie Grod i^ 
Ekron, and so stiled by his votaries for much the same reason 
as H^cules was worslripped und^ the aj^ieHatfott of ntroiivm. 
The Ekronites bekig near neighbours to the Jews, the great 
veneration which tb^ had for this idol, made him the object 
both of the lK»ix)c and detestatioti of the deront worsluppera 
ttf the true God r and acoordingly, td express in what detestation 
they held lum, they appropriated his name to the most hateful 
being in the universe, caHing the devil o» the prince of . the 
tevil angds Beelzebub. 

It is remarkable that thet^e is tio irariation m the Gredc MSS.^ 
all of which make the word terminate in \ not fi. All the 
learned 'ines^m to be agreed that Beele^bub was the Oriental name. 
But no Greek word ends kk fiz those tberefol'e w)io wrote kk 
that langu^, in ordet to accoipmodalie themselves to the pvo- 
titinciation of the people w4k> spoke it, wer6 aocttston^ to malce 
some alterations OR fordgn names. Thus Sennachcsib in the 
Septuagkit is ^pvaj(ftpetjuL: and Habakkuk is 'ApififaKovfiL. On 
how many of the Hebrew names of the Old Testament is a 
much greater change made in the New> in regaled to which we 
find no diierent reieding in the MSS.? But probably the reason 
ef the preference given by our trandators was not because the 
«k>und was more conformable to the Oriental word, but because 
through the universiA use of the Vulgate before the Reformation, 
Iti^ were accustomed to the one name and strangers to the other. 

— eiccxXeoray] In several MSS. and some Fathers^ imtttaKe&aV' 
•And this Griesbach adAiks into the te^t; it being no\incommon 
tlnftg with transcribers to change <sompoundft into simples. Tht 
tending aireicdkeaav may have originated in the bther. 

'S8. fxn ouv ^fiffifjrt avrav^f &c.] These wc^s are capaUe 
of two good senses,^ (1) Let m^t the dread of these persecutors 
affright you from preaching the Gospel, as despairing of the 
success of it: for though at present it seems to be hidden from 


the worlds «Bd it k like to be obecuTed awhile by the calumnies 
of the Jews and othefs, I will oeuse it to shine through all 
the world, and disaipate all the clouda they cast over it, and 
braak through all obstacles, and will render it ^^ mi^ty to cast 
down every high thought that exalts itself against the knowledge 
of God, and bring into captivity every thought to the obedience 
of Christ.'' Or (2) Fear not the calumnies with which they 
shall load you, as they did your Master, calling him Bed^ebub^ 
lor I will make the innooency and the exoellency of your doctrine 
as dear as the light, and your integrity in diqpenaiig of it, and 
your patience in suffering for it^ to redound to your praise, 
honour and glory, throughout all ages, Snd espedally at the 
revelation of our Lord from heaven. 

"-^oiSip yofif &c.] A provei4> used also by the heathens, 
as Tertuilian, Apol. vii. tells us, Bene autem quod omnia tempus 
revelat, testibus etiam Vestris proverbiis et sententiia. HoT. i. 
£p. VI. 24, Quicquid sub terra est in apricum profinret aetas. 
Softi. Ajat, €56, inrayff o iMKfot mwmpit^jiitTtK XP^^ ^ei r 
afiyXtti &c» M«umder| ayei Si wpo9 ^m Ti}r ^tKi^deavf ypiw^. 
Soph, Hipp, 6, wpos Tmiru aprf a xe paiievf w o irauSf opwP Koi 

S7. iv T^ tnooTUf] L e« What I have said to you in private, 
and in obscure parablea^ and almost as the Jewish doctoni^ 
whose custom it is to whisper into the ear of one who is to 
apeakj what he thus whispws, aloud to others; that speidc ye 
apeoly and dearly in the audiaice of all, and as it were after 
the manner of the Jews, who having battlements on the tops 
of their houses, ov^ which they could look, did often from them 
preach to the people. 

-^ cv T^ ^korl] See Qlass. FhiL Sac. 1045. Libiw. D. xxxiii. 
p, ^4l5^ ri (itJiSe Ta \iap iv CKorm icparrofiewa XtnSayew ia, 
fnima «t? ^m ayauatu Soph. Phil. £85, ri ^ftf^f^t ^ ''rai; ^i 
fte tcard (ncoror iror^ Aie^woK^ Xotoktc ^rpi^ w' i voi/^ari^; 
N* Ovic otSa mw ta <p9iat' Sei ^ arroF Xiy^iP Eir ^p^j o Atf^^t 
ir/m tf6 Kf^e rat/o'dc re. 

*^c« TO cis] Sdl. XrydpiayoF. Thus in the Septuagint^ 
£xod. xi. 2, XaXfiaov ovp Kpv<f}ii ^'^^ '^^ ^'^^ '^^ Xooi;. wlieni 
Kpwip^ has been sujiposed to be a marginal Snterpretaticm of 
«tf ra mra. jLueiaB. Necyom; xxi. Vol. i. p. 485$ o Si Iff m^ 
uwayar/wWf icai iroku r^iop akK»v ajrooiroaof , lipifJM -7rp«nci/^o^ 
W/909 TO OV9 <f>n<nv. Martial i. 96, Pauca verba Mateme dicas 
in aui«m, sic, ut audiat sdus. Diog. Laert. Zeno. ix. 26^ 

e'nrwvy i^^^^ T<va siwcci' avr^ rpos to w/g. 



— ml t£» Bmfiarwu] This is a proverbial expression. Aai- 
MttTwy here answers to teeta; as Matt. xxiv. 17 : Mark xiu.*15:' 
Luke xvii. 81. The roofs of the houses in Judaea being 4at, 
so that people could walk on them, what was done on diem, 
was done publicly : whence 2 Sam. xvi. 22, e^i to ^fia and 
Kwr 6(pBdK9iovs 7orro9 *IoyKM|X are joined togeAer. Lightfoot 
thinks that perhaps allusion is made to that custom, when the 
minister of the synagogue on the Sabbath eve, sounded with 
a trumpet six times upon the- roof of an exceeding high hoilse, 
that thence all might have notice of the coming in of the sabbath. 
The first sound was that they should cease from their works in 
the fields: the second that they should cease from theirs in the 
dty : the third that they should light the sabbath candle, &c. 

Lucian. Ver. Hist. ii. 46, Vol. ii. p. 140, avris ^ aveXBwv 
inri TO oTeyiK e/SoAiv t€ koI tovv cTaipow avvexaXow* Plutarch. 
C. Gracch. p. 836, roS Si 'jreiiou /aiJ Se^afi€VOv to wX^do^ ctiro 
Tftiir . Teywv Kal KepafiLWP im <l>6ayav awvtyovv^ 

28. fLfi <f>ofirfirire\ Many MSS.and some Fathers read ff^ofiettTOe. 
The other reading may have arisen from the latter part of this 
verse, or from ver. 26. The construction ipofiffitire aico rw ciiroc- 
reiuovTwv is a Hebraism. Several MSS. also read axcNcrevoWanr. ' 

-— >ffi;^y]. That the soul survived and was capable of Uiss 
or misery was a distinguished tenet of the Jews from the time 
of Esdras. Wisd. xvi. 13, 14, <n) yap (tcvpioi) ^wij^ Koi Qayarw 
ij^ovaiav ej(€t9y Kal Korrayei^ eU irika^ ^Sov ical avayeis. ayBptnrtn 
oi diroKT€i¥si fieu Ttj jcoic/f avTov. iJ^eXOoif Si irt^uma ovk apa<r' 
Tjpe^ec, ovve apoKvei yjnrxj^if trapakff^tiaav* * Joseph, de Maccab. 
13, ./if} <f>ofiffiwfA€P Tov SoKcSyTa aTTOKrelvm to cwfia* fiiyas 
yap ^irxjij^ kivSwo^ e» aiwvltp fianravurfi^ Keifievo^ toTv wa/EW- 
fiaivovai ti^v evroX^v tov Oeov. See 2 Mace. vi. 26 : vii. 9, 29* 

— yj/vyflv. Kal aSfui] Many MSS. have t^v yl^vyijv Kal to 
twfiay a reading which .Middleton, p. 205, says originated 
fvom ignorance of tibe usage noticed in his 6r. Art., Part i. 
e. vi. § 2, viz. where several nouns are coupled togetiber by 
conjunctions, though the nouns would, if they stood singly, 
require the article, yet when thus brought together, they fre- 
quently reject it. 

. -^ iv yeevpfi] In hell. See v. 23. This verse contains a 
dedsive proof ^f two very important doctrines, the existence 
of a soul distinct from the body, and the continuation of that 
soul after death. See Porteus, Lect. ix. p. 231. 

29. ovxl Suo] Used for a strong afErmation. See Hoogeveen, 
Doctr. Part. c. xxix. Sect. 1. § 12. 



Mo8chopulu8| irdvra ra fwcpa tw opriOmv, 
Sub. avTi. Flut Cat. Maj. p. 338, oyf/ov. 
'K'€Lpa<rK€va}^€a0cu irpo^ to ^tirvov «f wyopat offtrapmv Tpuucovra, 
And oif Tt9 ov oeiTaii jc^ aaaapiou iriirpdaK^Tai, woXKoS poful^etr^ 
The word b derived from the Latin as^ received by the Greeks 
and Hebrews in the time of our Saviour. It expressed the 
value of a tenth part of the drachma, according to Plutarch: 
but Polyb. II. 16, 6, says. ^(uaxTtTdpu}v i^Ti Teraprop fiepw 
ofioXxw, and therefore it was the twelfth part of an Attic drachma. 
With acradpiw sub. vofinafia. Mich, in Bos. Ell. 6r. 184. 

There is a various reading rov curarapiou, which though feebly 
supported, Middleton, Gr. Art. p. 205, thinks not altogether 
improbable,, as there is a correhtion between the ivo arpo^la 
and the daaapioVf for which they are sold. The use of the 
article in this sense is perfectly classical. 

— €if oiJ] i.e. ouSevy .none. 

. — Trccrctra* ciri rifv yvv] i« e. .Perishes. triTrreiv frequently 
used in the sense of awoXXi/d^cu. See Josh, xxiii. 14: 2 l^gs x* 
10. Anthol. III. 24, 1, vSv ec; yay ay\wr<r<K avauifjTos tm 
ir&Toi<ra Keifioi. See Amos iii. 5. ^ 

— siri niv yijv] Wanting in scnne MSS., and su^)eeted by 
Griesbach of being an interpolation. 

— owi/ Tou Trarpos] Absque Dei voluntate et praeiseitq. Dem. 
de Cor. § 23, Kal ravra trvp^TayOri t^ ¥audpj(fpf aueu tou /Siifiov 
TW AOfjvaiwv, A few MSS. add tov ey ovpavoi^. 

Here we have that most important and comfortable doctrine 
of a particular Providence plainly and deiprly laid down. See 
Porteus, Lect. ix. p. 233. The Jews entertained the opinion 
that a superintending Providence protected the minutest objects.. 
Thus we meet in their writings with. There is not the least 
herb on earth, over which there is not an appointed guardian 
in h^yen : and, A mim cannot hurt his finger upon earth, but 
it is cried aloud in heaven. The regard which Grod has for 
all his creatures, small and great, is strongly represented in the 
book of Jonah, where God makes his compassion to brute beasts 
one of the reasons why he should not destroy Ninev^ It is 
plain Homer thought Divine Providence interested itself in the 
lives of brute animals. And Plutarch proves from Homer that 
the wise men of old entertained the opinion thai; Divine Pro- 
vidence took care of d iiovop fioa^, aXXa Kal Trdvra rd aXXa 
^QMz, ds T9^ ^vVeow l^ttmK^ fA€Te')(ovTa. ^lian. H. A. i. 31, 
iotoy Se apa twv ^wwv kqI iKeivo dyaBov^ Trpdvoiav aurw Kal 

26d ST. MATTHEW^. 

oc 0fo2 9rocovrrai5 Kal oire avrSv Har^povowtv, wci fiif^ 

30. at Tpi^] This is a proverbial saying, and gives a lively 
representation of the care God takes of the righteous. See 
1 Sam. xiv. 45: 9 Sam. xhr. 11: 1 Kings 1. 59: Lukexxi. 18: 
Aets xxvli. 94. Liban. D. xxxvii. p. SOfi o ii^ el /a^ Kal raf 
Tpiyas i^afnO/ukfiaeie tSv w€ac¥rmvf ovk ^imu, oire^ i|v, ifye^ro, 
Chrysostom, rodro ii cXryeir, owjf crt ras Tpij(as o ©coy apSfJtei^ 
aXX* iva Tfi¥ aKpifHj ypSonv xal r^v froKKf^p irpovotav tiiv trepl 
avToif^ eweififTo*. 

31. TraXXcSv errpovdiftw] In some iroXX^. But vroXXiui^ clearly 
refers to the words e^ aifrHv and ivo. It is sometimes put for a 
great number or for idl. Dan. xii. 2. Compare *Rom. v. 12 and 15. 

32. ofAoXoy^ei eu i/ULOi] The Hellenists use ojuioKoyeir iv rirt 
for ofJLoXayeiv riva. See Luke xii. 8 : Rcnn. x. 9> The other 
construction is in Acts xxiii. 8 : xxiv. 14. It here signifies 
publicly to acknowledge Jesus Christ for the promised Messiah, 
and the Son of Grod : this confession extending to the receiving 
of his whole doctrine. See Bp. Taylor's Works, Vol. x, p. 466. 

33. aput}(rfyrai fie] Scil. /ii) yitnicTKeiv. To deny Jesus Christ 
is, not to acknowledge or to disown him, to renounce his doctrine 
and be ashamed of the precession of it. See Mark viii. 38 1 
Luke ix. 26. 

— - ct/oi/^o/tiac avTO¥] This is what is otherwise expressed 
before in these words, $7^ oy^eirare iyiwp ifiat, vi. 33. Polyb, 
rv. 90, 11, KOI tUv fiiy aWwy itaOrffidvwv apvffBtjpai rt /u^ 
yiP(i<rK€iv, ovSip aivypop ^yovurm, Trip ye fif^p wi^v cvt 
apvfi9fivai hvpavratf cid to kot dpayKtjp irapra^ fxaaSaveiPf 
ovff ofiLoXoyoupTef dirorptfieffBaiy oici to tw ai(r)(piiv irap 
avToii pofxll^effBai tovto. 

— efjLirpoaSep tov iraTpos fttov, fee] In Luke xii. 8, ifxirpoo^v 
Twv ayyeXwp tov Qeov. And in a similar passage Luke ix/ 26, 
oTap iXdff {p vw TOV apOpdrrov} €P Ttf Sof ly avroi xai tov irar/9or 
icai t£p dy'uop dyyiXiop. 

— fiaXXeip etp^pffv] i. q. e^awofrriXXeip (Amos viii. 11: Eeek. 
xiv. 13) rroieip, iovvcu (which St. Luke uses in the parallel 
passage xii. 61} eip^ptip eirx r^f 7^. Thus Livy 11. 1, Sarer« 
eertamina: iii. 40, Civiles discordias serant. 

It is not to be imagined from hence, that to sow strife and 
dissensions among men was either the intention of Jesus Christ, 
or the tendency of the Grospel. This would happen through 
the incredulity and perverseness of men, that they shall make 

jCHAn^n X. * 269 

the Gp«p^ itself aa oe^a^on of bitter dliiseBsioii. See Porteutt 
Lect. IX, p. 239. All thut 9m be inferred here, 19 the eortai^ty 
q{ the thing, or that it will a» surely come ta pasft lis if he ha4 
desigoed it. In interpreting such passages as thc^sey we are U) 
ponsider the particular manner of q>eaking in use among these 
antient writers : and we shall by doing flO> find that all that th^ 
word* irapcurt is the certain futurity of the tbiqg; an energetic 
mode of expressing the certainty of the foreseen consequence, by 
representing it aa if it were the purpose for which the measure 
was adopted: (an idiom familiar to the Oriental% and not w^ 
frequent in other authors, espe^ally Poets and Oratorsy^ Simeon 
said of Jesus, This child is set for the fall and rising again of 
many in Israel; and for a sign which shall be spoken against; 
where it is evident that the words denote not the deafgu^ but the 
09e»t' And they denote no more than this when the partide 
tva (whieh elsewhere denotes the design of the agent or the fini4 
cause) is used. For judgmait, says Jesus, John ix. 39> I am 
come into this world ; that they which see net, might see, and 
that they which sete might be made blind* In which words if 
expressed not the design but event of Chnst^s coming. Again 
Rom* ▼• 80, The law ^tered &a irXiouaai^ to ira/oairra^iKu 
This was not the deaign of the law^s entering? but the event or 
consequent only. And if where this particle ip added, the words 
import no more than the event, there is leva reason it should 
import more where it is omitted, as here. See Glass. PhiL Sao. 
p. 241. • 

-^^ c^ffifn] The prophets have spoken glorious things of the 
peace and happinesa of the world) under the reign of Messiah, 
Ipaii xi. ^ whom they have for that reason named the iPrince of 
Peace, Isai. ix. C|. They only foretell what the effect of faia 
coming would be. This glorious state of things was. QQt instantly 
to bcgiU) but Christianity waa for a reason to be the innocent 

qccasiun of much mischi'ef- 

— fiaX^upav] Does not in this place denote wars or fightii^gs ; 
but division and separation from one another upon account of 
religion. This is evident from the following words, For I axn 
cyme ^x^^^ ^ separate son and father : and from the parallel 
passages Iiuke xii. Ifl, Suppose ye that 1 am eome to give peace 
on earth; I teU you nay, but rather ^umip^^f^ov. Christ sent 
a sword whieh dividea asunder, but sheds no blood ; x^'^^^^^ 
limv a-ro t£v iffurranf* Theodor. Heracleot. in Matth- x. 84. 
I^ightfoot however thinks that although theye words m^y be 
understood truly of the differences between believers and un- 

S64 ST. uvnuww. 

betieverB, hj reason of the Gospel) ^hich all interpreters obs^re $ 
yet they do properly and primarily point out as it were with 
the finger those horrid slaughters and civil wars of the Jews 
smang themselves which no age ever saw, nor story heard. 

36. auBpwirov] The son; DeUt. xxii. 30. Comp. Luke xiL 
fiS. The words are an imitation of Micah vii. 6. 

96. i'xOpol Tov cofBpfiirov] If the English version '<a inan^i 
fbes^ be the whole meaning, the force of the article is not ap- 
parent. Schleusner explains tov ay9ptiiroi> by oucoSefnTOTtis, 
This would be sufficiently definite : but with this Bp. Middleton 
is not satisfied. He says (6r. Art. p. 206), th^ passage in Micah 
is transdated by the Seventy, iyOpiA iravrt^ a^pos oi avipe^ oi 
iif T^ diKif avTov. But he thinks Travro^ to be the true reading : 
and supposing this conjecture admitted, he says it was reasonable 
to expect that the quotation in St. Matthew would bear a close 
resemblance to the Hebrew of Micah and the Greek of the Sep- 
tuagint ( and that the latter of these, if it did not exhibit the 
article as we find it in St. Matthew, would at least have something 
equivalent. And thi» equivalent he thinks is vavrosj and i-mi 
avOpdirov will then mean every man or men generally. In con- 
firmation of this see Jo)in ii« 34, 25, where our Saviour is said 
yivwa-Keiy wairra;, which immediately afterwards is expressed by 
iylvoforKM ritiviy r^ aaSptiirtp* 

37- <^£v vTTcp €/u€] A 'Hebraism : Gen. xlviii. 22 : Judg. ii. 

-'— virip ifAe] i. e. so far as they are in opposition to him, or 
pretend to equal share of affection with him. See Pearson on the 
Greed, Vol. i. p. 186 : Porteus, Lect. ix. p. 244. 

— -^ trarepa tj /utp-epa] See Middleton, Gr. Art. Part i. c. vi^ 
§ 2. Hi^rodes, k(Aov fiev r^ Oei ireiOetrOcUf ttaXov 5e icai Toes' 

yov€V(nv ei Si w/009 oXXo fiev 6 Oelos vo/ulos, irpo/i aXXo ^ oi 

yovel^ (bepOiCPf /nayofAcvti^ r^ oipeereo^, Toh dfAeivoaiv eweadcu 
&?, vp09 TavTa fiovoy airecdopirrev 'y^'^^'^ irpof a koI avrol roit 
0ea>is vofwi^ ov ireiOovrau 

-r^'oiK ioTi fxov tt^iof] 1. c. of being my disciple. Luke xiv. 
86, 01/ hvwirai fxov fAaOtirii^ ttvai. 

It was a custom of the Jewish doctors to lay down before dieir 
prosdytes what inconveniences would attend upon their precepts : 
and* in conformity with this our Saviour acquaints his disdples 
with two things which would be a means to deter thiem from 
embracing hi& religion, viz: the difficulty of the duties that would 
be required of them, and the greatness of the sufferings to which 
they would be expoised. 


-38: XoAc/Saiwt rov crravpov] Here is an allusion to the custom 
ef the Bomans who obliged criminals to bear the crosses on which 
they were to suffer, out to the place of execution. Plutarch 
de Ser. Num. Vindict. p. 654, t^ fiiy trwfictTt. twv ludua^ofiiwov 
iKcurro^ KOKoipywv iK<f>ipei tov avrw OTctvpov* Artemid. ii. 61, 
€ouc€ ydft fcai o trravpoi Oavdrtpf koi o fiiXKwv avrf wpoortf' 
Xoiadcu, irporepov avrov fiacrral^eu In this manner our Lord 
himself was treated. As this was not a Jewish but a Roman 
punishment, the mention of it on this occasion may justly be 
looked on as the first hint given by Jesus of the dea^ he was 
to suffer. If it had been usual in the country to execute crimi- 
nals in this manner, the expression might have been thought 
proverbial for denoting to prepare for the worst. 

The figure expresses this sentiment with great energy, That 
no man can be a true Christian unless he is wiUing to endure 
all sorts of persecutions, together with the most shameful and 
painful death, for Christ'^s sake, when called to it. Chrysostom. 
Hom. cxxxix. Vol. v. p. 878, i^a irpoi roi/s favSu¥iW9 ifiw irapa« 
rerayiJL^vot, to oT/ua fifxwv hf rai9 '^uyai^ ir€pi<f>ipovT€if, 'trpo^ 
etjkMyifv fcal ddvarow iTOifioi Ka9ffH€pivoy. Theophylact in loc. 
explains it by ainmurariaOai r^ irapav<rfi ^C0^» xal eKitUvai eavrop 
€fr QJaurrov row iiroV^iZifrrovm And on Matt. xvi. p. 95, tov 
cravpotf aipeiv, Tovreari, Oavarop aipeiaBoi, icai fierd inrauStji 
eiri^i|T€f I/, Kal Oavarov top ivof^eiito'TOPm TocoStov yap 6 arav' 
pof vapd TOf $ woXoiocf • 

— -~ wcoXavOti otriam /uov] Aristoph. Plut. 13, o<m<^ axoXov^ 
$€1 KatoTTtp avOpwTTou TV^Xov, and 757» o\ ^ fi$coKov0ciup jraro- 
iriir iaTe^pa^wfiipog* 

99- o evpwv\ tor o OiXtaw evpelv. See iii. 14. And €vpi<rK€iV' 
is used in the sense of <twI^€ip* In the parallel passage, Mark viii. 
35, we read 09 yap av diXti Tiyv yfrv^iiv avTou crUcrai, and Luke 
xvii. 33, OS iav ^lyriftrfi r^ir yf^vj^j^v avrvS awrai* 

-^ T^ ^Inrx^V^] ^^^' 'Ken. Kup* iraiS. iii. 3, 20, NSi^ iel 
avopas ayaOovs elvcu' vvp yap we/oi yffvj(WP t£p ipjeripmi o aywp* 
Herod, i. 112, o t« yap reOpews ^aafXriivfi raipifi Kupiiaei, xal 
o ir€piewp ovK atroXecrei tiJp "^vj^jiip* So the Latins use anima 
for vita. Com. Nep. Epam. ix.* 3, Epaminondas animadvertit, 
si ferrum quod ex hastili in corpore remanserat, extraxisset, 
animam stadm amissurum. Joseph. Ant. vi. 13, 9i ai;To9 i^oi 
vaierai iroXXcut<$ vV ai/ToS <ra>1^6fAepofj ovii ti^p >fnfj(fjp ^avepik 
€nroXXv/uL€Prjp Xa/uifiapwp, 

There is however in this sentence a kind' of paronomasia, 
whereby the same word is used in different senses, in such a 


manaer ai ta conreji the sentiment with greater wergy to the 
attentive. '^ He who bj making a taerifiee of hit dttty» preaeryea 
temporal life, shall loae etenial Hfe; and eootiariwiaeu^ The 
like trope our Lord employs viii. SSL In the preacnt im^ance 
the trope has a beauty in the original which we camiot give it 
in a version. The word ylivx^ it equivocal, aignifyii^ both life 
and soul, and consequently ia much better fitted for exhibitingv 
with entire perspicuity the two meanings^ than the English word 
life. The Syro^Chaldaic which was the language then apoken iq 
Palestine, had in this respect the same advantage with the Greek. 

**^ cnraXeorei ai/r^v] xvi. 26, ^tf/MuSiiaMTm air^u. Theophy^ 
lact on Luke ix. p. 369, 09 av MXiy ^n^ui joaToi Kovfkevy ounrog 
airoOaveirai Kara >/n;^9jr. And on Matt. o. xvi« p. 96» wpi^Kt^ 
t4v ^vxi^ wpas TO vapaUf TovrecrTc, o-io^ci, 6 apvaifiLemHf 09 
iroi cHroXXt/<riv iarepow. awoSXvai H rifv yfryy^vy aXX ip€K€¥ toS 
X/Durroii, 09 fiaprvpt^i uwep ovroS. as Kal €¥p$ia& cuimiw cm 
d^apa^iq Kmi ^tafj dccoM^ . See Forteus> Lect. ix. .p« &46. Bp. 
Taylor'a Works, 'Vol. in. p. 152. 

40. Q Se)(Ofi€vo9] Entertama hospitably. Heb« xi. 31 : Jamea 
ii. 25. It was a common saying among the Jews, He that re^ 
eeiveth a learned man, receiveth the Shemah. Our Lord theie.* 
fore here claims those hoooiurs which were assigned by the people 
to the God of their fathers. 

41 « ci9 orofUL wfio^i^Tov] for if wpoipifTfit^, on that account 
that he is such : Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 444, ut seu quatenus prc^ibeH 
tarn: By vpoKp^rijq may be understood the ministers of Christ^s 
religion, as the Apostles here; and by jiicoios he that without 
being commissioned to teach, believes in Jesus Christ, and ob« 
serves his conunandments* See Mede^s Works, Disc* xxiii. p. 84. 

42. finicpiiv] He who doea any good office to the meanest 
of my disciples. A few MSS. lead twv €Xax<crroiir. 

— nroTUTYi iroTff/Qioi^] worc^civ iroriipioy !• q. ^«Jovo«. In the 
Septuagint Trori^ecv tak«a the double aco. as Numb« v. 24, 
vQTiel Tpv yuvcuKa va vwp. 

y ^/a^oi;] Sub. tSJaro?. Sq xi, 8, /aoXoica are soft raimmta: 
Luke xii. 47, ^p^erai woXXop, sub. irXnyas* Thia ellipais of 
the substantive is very frequent in the Old Testament. See 
9 Sam. xxi. 16 : Fs. ix. 8 : Ixxii. la 

Epictet. XXXV. /iij ^/fu^^oi^ TiWiy. Plut. de Garrul. p. 511, 
Xa^v ^vxpou HvXuca. FUq. £p. vi. 16, Semel atque iterum 
frigidam poposcit. Hor. Sat. 11. 7) 90, Perfundit galida. Seh^ 
Supple aqua. Martial, Frigida noh deerit, non deerit calda 


*-— ov ;m) o^roXccFYf top ikuy9o¥ ai!roif} Hflm. Od. m. IdS, t^ 
ot irXcor oviror oketTot 179 dper^. Liban. D. 13, 71^ ^ o 
fitaOo^ aKwKKvTo. Joseph. Ant. i. 10, 3, eiroiMera? ii wroS 
n}if dperijv o 0eos, aXX' 01^ airoXel^, ^>i^rc, /ii<i'0oi)s ovf aj^tov 
eo'TUf tre eirt rocaimiiy tiwpayiais /ifo/«i^e^0ai. 

Chap. XI. 

!• Kai iyi^er^ Srt] for ot« ii, 

-^^ oiaTOffffitfi'] fpr ^aracrtrMM as Levii. xvi. 20^ avt/rekeaei 
ff^iXaoiro/u6iH)9* See Deut. xxxi. 1, 24. So Luke t. 4, cirauira- 
ToXoXiSir. See Glass. Phil. Sae. p. 360. And Bos. £11. Qr. 
p. 361. For eTffXff(r€M some MSS. read cupirekBaep* 

^-> ^erefitj CKelOev] See viii. 34, i. e. from the country of 
Capernaum. Macknight sujqaoses our l4>rd probably set out 
-with them that yery evening, on a new tour through the cities 
>md villages. 

--^ troXcvrip uvrmv] vis. of the Galileans. It is not uncom^ 
non with, the Hebrews to use the relatlTe pronoun in cases where 
ao noun has gone before, but which may easily be understood 
from the context. See xii. 9: Lukeiv. 15: ▼. 17: Acts v. 41. 
And as it is evident from what precedes, that Jesus was then 
in Galilee, rwir roXiXocow must be imderstood. Wolf seems to 
think T£y 'lovSakov. Airiv has also been referred to the words 
roi? itiiefia fiaOifTaU avroS) and the cities here mentioned have 
been understood to be those cities of GaUl^, of which the disciples 
were. See Acts ii. 7- lEuthym. in ralg woXcxriii 7tu|/ fULoBt/rwuf 
ij^ wv JlpjukifyTO' 

9. o ii ^Iwdvvrfsl It would seem fnmi what is here rdated 
that John the Baptist had been put in prison a little while after 
Jesus had entered on his public ministry, &nd befoi:^ he had 
wrought any considerable rairadee. See iv. 12, 

•*^ iea-fi^mnff^] John was detained in prison at Machssrus. 

*^^T€t ipya Toi XpurroS] The miracles: Luke xxiv. 19s 
John ▼. 36 : vii. 3, 21 :* Heb. iii. 9. This probably has a re. 
fetence to the raising of Jaims^ daughter, add the widow of 
Nain'^t eon ; as appears from St. Luke who brings in the history 
of John*s message immediatdy after these miracles, in the foI« 
lowing words, Luke vii. 18, And the disoiples of John shewed 
him. of all these things. 

-— Tw Xpifrrod] A few MSS. and one version read tov 
*lfiaou. 'Ivcrov^, Kvpi(K, Q^o^j and X^0-to9 having been antiently 
almost always written by contraction, were more liable to be 


mistaken than other words. It may be observed that the word 
^puTTos is never when alone and with the article used in the 
Gospels as a proper name. It is the name of an office. 

— irw^av eWev] i. e. he ordered them to say unto him, 
ix. 18. Thus Xen. Hist. Gr. iii. 1, 17» ireyu^aff wpos AeprvX- 
XiSap, eWev, on iXOoi av €s \oyoui» And v. 2, 12, iriiM^^awres 
7rpo9 fjfiais ir/oociwoK lifuv. 

— iuo] For which in some MSS. is read &a, probably owing 
to the carelessness of transcribers. In the parallel passage of 
St. Liike vii. 19» it is ivo rcva? tw fiaOffrwv avrw* Hence 
Wassenbergh, (p. 20. See Valck. Schol.) thinks Ivo a Gloss and 
would read irc/u^o^ tom^ /uLoOrfTwv-avTWf scil. Tiva^. 

•«— Twy imaBfiTtiv] Sub. €k, John i. 35, xac ck tw fioBvfrmv 
avTov ovo, 

3. av el] Sub. fiifTt* So Gen. xxvii. 21, 24: or ei, num. 
Schseffer thinks there is no ellipsis. See Bos. Ell. Gr. 674. 

— o €p')(ojuL€vo9] for o €\evaofUL€voi. See Glass. Phil. Sac. 
p. 353. So Acts iii. 2, where €uT7ropeu6iuL€¥oi is changed to oi 
fiiWoirre^ eicriivm. See Matt. xxi. 5 : xxiii. 39^ Here is signified 
the person confessedly expected. This appellation was g^ven 
to the Messiah, whom the Jews were then in expectation of, 
see Gen. xlix. 10 : Fs. cxvii. 26 : Isai. xxxv. 4 : Ixii. 11 : Zach^ 
ix. 9 : Mark xi. 10 : Heb. vi. 5 : and seems to have been a« 
much appropriated as 6 'Kpia-ras and o* v\o^ raS AafilS. See 
Chandler^s Defence of Christianity, p. 136: Eidder^s Dem. c^ 
Messiah, Fart i. p. 37- In St. Luke xix. 38, he is called o 
efyxpfieiHf$ /3curi\ev9> And this name of the Messiah they received 
from Habakkuk ii. 3, where he is sdled 6 €fy)(pfi€vo9, and from 
Daniel vii. 13, where he is styled 6 ipjfo/neuosf he that cometh 
with the clouds of heaven. See also Matt. xxiv. 30 : xxvi. 64 : 
Heb. X. 37. 

It is not expressly mentioned why John sent disciples to 
Christ: hence conjectures have arisen, and commentators have 
been divided in opinion whether he sent them for his own satis- 
faction or that of his disciples. See Benson^s Hulsean Lectures 
for 1820, p. 60 — 67- Kidder as above. Lightfoot, Vol. 11* 
p. 182. But the Baptist^s solemn testimony to Christ, the sign 
from heaven, and the miraculous impulse which made John 
acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah seem to add weight to the 
probability that he sent his disciples for their conviction. 

4. xo/o6v06rrc$] Redundant. St. Matthew has omitted here 
one circumstance, which seems very much to illustrate this re- 
lation, viz.. That Jesus worked several miracles in the presence 


of John^s disciples, Luke vii. 21. He did 3uch works as none 
dould do without the Divine assistance, and those very works 
also which the Messiah was to do, according to the predictions 
of him, when he came into the world. 

— dirayyeiKaTel Plainly claiming the powers ascribed by 
Isaiah to the Messiah. For that prophet had expressly foretold, 
XXXV. 5, that at the coming of Grod to save his people, then the 
eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall 
be unstopped: then shall the lame man leap as ain hart, and 
the tongue of the dumb sing. See also Fs. cxlv. 8. By his 
miracles therefore Jesus clearly proved himself to be Messiah; 
only he left it to the Baptist arid his disciples to draw the con- 
clusion themselves. See FearsOn on the Creed, Vol. i. p. 139>. 
Bishop Taylor's Works, Vol. in. p. IO7. 

— ' a wcw€re icai /SXiwere] Diog. Laert. Feriand. i. 100, koi 
troi avayyekeif el eirs/MMO, ori yAv axovaetep tj <&m. Stob. 
Serm. xxxi. de Zenone, twv ce irpetrfiewv ^firoi/irrofy, ti dwa^y- 
yetkwTi irepl airov irpo^ 'Apriyoifov I tout auro, iifn/^ o /SXe- 

5. TiKJiKol] See Glass. Fhil. Sac. p. 7* 

— dyafiXetrouffi] recover their sigKt. 

*— Xeirpoc KaBapS^ovrai] Of the lepers being cleansed and 
the dead raised by the Messiah, we read nothing in the prophets : 
though in Isai. xxxv. we read generally that the Messiah should 
heal diseases. The raising of the dead however was one of the 
tokens which the Jews believed was to distinguish the reign* of 
the Messiah*: and we find the appeal to the Jews universally 
made in compliance with the popular and well known traditions 
and opinions. 

The reference is here to what they A^ard done at Nain, where 
the widow'^s son was raised, Luke vii. 18 : and saw done before 
their eyes, when Jesus cured many t£v fxaarlywv, for leprosy 
is often stiled the plague of leprosy, and was looked upon by 
the Jews as as an immediate chastisement sent' from God. 

• -^ WTftijfoi evayy€\i(^ovT€u] for irTw^oi^ evayyeXll^eraii We 
find the pass, signif. in Heb. iv. 2, koI yap etrpMv evfjyyeXicr'* 
fiivoi^ and ver. 6, 01 irpo*repov evayyeKtaOiyrei. 

These words are added here from Isai. Ixi. 1, to giv^ the 
disciples of John to understand that the kingdom of heaven was 
to have nothing of outward pomp and ^andeur. And they 
were remarkably verified in Jesus, who courted not the favour 
of the great and rich, but instructed and preached to. the poor, 
and assisted 4hem by his miracles a» readily as the rich : hereby 


diBtinguishing himself from the Jewish doctors^ the Scribes and 
Pharisees, who aBsodated with the rich, and neglected and con«- 
temned the poor as people .of the earth, Jc^n vii. 49 : and also 
from the heathen philosophers and priests who eonoealed their 
mysfceries from the vulgar and those who w^e not initiated. 
See Tillotson^s Senaons, Voi. vti. Sterm. cx^tt. Atterburyls 
Sermoas, Vol. iiu Serm. ii. p. 43. Bishop Taylor^s Works, 
Yol. It. p. 447. 

6. cncap^\ia^fi\ i. e« disbetiete^ or fidl olF from me fay reasoa 
of my mean circumstances in this present world ; or because of 
those afflictions he may suffer for my sake, or fer adbering to 
my doctrine^ "SxatAiXov signifies whatever may cause any one 
to fall, or put him in danger of falling: i. e. whatever may be 
the occasion of sinning, or his ruin. £ccl. xxiii. 8, o aixaprtuXor 
teat X^i&opf^. jcai vtr€/Mf0aMi9 cnean^aXardifo'oirrat ep avrovp. xxkv. 

SaKeaOiicreT^n iv airn^. See p* 133. 

^-^ tf 1/ e/uot] propter me, met caus£. Glass. Fhil. Sac. p. 461. 

7- npl^a'To Xe7€ii;] for 6X676^ see iv. I7. Polyb. xv. I7, 3, o 
^6 HovXtas Sia fipajfiwv Ifp^aTo Xiysiu trpas aArpus* Thucyd. iv. 
ijpj^avTo fi€v ovv KOI €u6u9 tueTtt Tifir aXxna'tP uirip vptMr<r€iv. 

"■^ ^i] Quid est quod vos impuUt ad cxeundum, 8ic» Hoo- 
geveea, Doetr. Part» c. lix. Sect 6. § 5. 
, ^^^-^ ek T^9f iprffioif] Scil. rjfr 'Imf&aict^ coU. xii. 1. 

^^ ^vt^^ocrdai] i. e. ad videndum. See Glass. FhiL Sac p. 980. 

-^^ 4ciXniM>p] Sttb» fkij: «a also in the following apOfmrcp, 
irpo0ifri|i', be i. e. a man of tmetafal^ disposition and of a 
cowaidly behaviour, Eph^ iv. 14 : Heb. xiii. 9* In thts question 
which implies a strong negation, the invincible oourage and 
constancy of die Baptist is applaiudedk In this and the next 
verse Christ describes what Jolm in not ; and ver. 9^ what he isi. 

8. aXXa] i« q. ij interrog. . Thus Xen. Anab. v» 8, 5, o$itas U 
mu X4^aif ^ rii^o^ ««rXif 7179 ; iror^pcfp jpnovv n ^e, iccu eme! ovk 
iSiiwiiy iitctufp^ !4XX' aTijToup ; *AXXci we/oi Trmi&mip iiaypfievKt 
A XX a iJifeBiimp nrap^ptjaa^ Demosth. ar^i ar'e^ 8. t< yap kqI 

Trjv eipfjinjvi a XX' vTijpjfjBP artwrw^ 'AAX' esri t&p irvXefuiv; 
oXX' Kxiroi. wc/»2 ^ri^nfi i^mikmvm^. 

-— ■^ funXcMcaiv] i* e* made with fine or soft 8tiiff> such as paq^e, 
fine iinea, or sdk. Accordingly St. Lmke haa expvessed Chriat^s 
meaniag ia ifxarnrfkii cyjo^, vii. 25. Thus Hom. Od. a. 437» 
fiukoKOp S eicjuiw "j^rma. Ding* Laert. Vit. Heradid. v. 6, 
ojrof iaOfiri tc /umXcnt^ ixf^^rc* Flaut. Mil. G. i. 1, 3B, Erne 


ml vir, lanam, unde tibi pallitim ttalacum et ctodidttm iswifickWir, 
tunic8&que hibemse bons. In this question the austere mortiiied 
life of the Baptist is praised, and the spiritual nature df the 
Messiah^s kingdom insinuated. 

—— ev ftoKcucoi^ IfrnTioit] In several MSS. ifttaTi^ is wanting, 
probably from the carelessness of tranM;ribeTs in consequence of 
the apLOionreXeuToVi and observing ra fUnXaita afbefrwards aIone» 
Wassenbergh (see Valck. Schol.) thinks the participle het« tHi 
addition of more recent date to tamfiete the sense. He ifiet^fiMre 
would reject it, as well as in Luke vii. 25 ; and this would be 
in conformity with tfmre elegant Gf*eek writers as well as those 
of the New T«stament» 

— ra fiakoKd 0opoi;m-€(] Scil. i^ana, see Bos. Ell. Gt. 124 $ 
or ipSf^artti See Glass. Phil. $ac» p. 96 ; from the former part 
cif the sentence. Thus John xx» 1% iv Xeuxoh- Arrian Epictet* 
Uti, 23, €1/ Kotcicivcfits iteptncarciivTa, vtoA lv» 11, trt ou fci ^p£p 


Toup h^e wi^s to expunge rti : but ad &ish<^ Middlel?dn 
obsa*ves (Gr. Ait. p. 208), ndt perceiving that the passages 
whidi he adduces in support of Imb cod))ecture, have tio bearing 
Mi the question. That Xrcwca ipopeiv^ drOcva ^peivy fitc. are 
the legitimflUke phrases in ordinary cases, nobody will dispute! 
but supposing that Xetr/cd i/mTta had bMn i^ecently spoken >of^ 
the pitfase in such case would certainly be oi Ta Aevica ipopovrre^ t 
for the €t89umpHon respects not merely the act of wearing, but 
tdso the colour of the garmentd. 

-•**• Ar ToTv oficoiy Tw fiaaxKewv eitrl] for 6r rti eprifitp ook mL 
Such persons may be expected in kings^ palaces rather than itt 
deserts. Thus Theocr. Id. xxi. 36, ro 5e Xvj^ytop hf ^pvmvexw, 
i* 6. \v')(ytop ovK Vi^/teif. 

9. Kai nrepiaKTOTepov *rrpoi^ijTov\ MaimWiides obscttTfcs, that 
though tJie Jews generally feckon eleven degrees of prophecy, 
yet two of them were something more sublime and excellent than 
ordmary prophecy. The one of these was what they call the 
Gradus Mosaicus, when the prophet had a femiliar converse whh 
God upon aU occaesions ; ^and the other when he had his revela'» 
lions not from a dream or exstasy, but an immediate dictate of 
the Holy Ghost. Of this soit was John the Baptist, who wad 
phdnly tdd by the Father, Matt. iii. 17: «fohn i; 33, and as 
plaiidy proclaimed it to others diat Jesus was the Lamb of God. 
Other prophets spake of the coming of Christ ; but then they did 
it in a dark and obscure manner. They saw him only at a 
^£«tance, in a dream, or in a vision of the night ; ;and couched their 


predictions under a veil of enigmatical phrases: but the' Baptist 
spake of him (^nly and distinctly. Hence we find him called, 
Luke i. 15, one filled with the Holy Ghost, and by way of 
excellence, the prophet of the Most High, ver. 76* 

10. irepc ov Yeypairrai] Mai. iii. 1. The present Hebrew 
and the Septuagint version are here conformable to each other; 
fmd both extremely different from the Evangelists. But Dr. 
Owen think« there is. great reason to suspect that the Hebrew 
was first corrupted, and that the Greek was afterwards adjusted 
to it. 

* »- Tov ayyeXov /aov] My messenger or ambassador. Tins 
name is sometimes given to the prophets, as to Moses, Numb. xx. 
16: Hag. i. 13: Sometimes to the high priest, Mai. ii. 7- And 
so Diod. Sic. cited by Photius, Aprjftepea tcXttov irpoaayopeuovatj 
icai vofii^owriv auroi^ AyyeXov yevicrOcu t£v tov Qeou Trpoor- 
Tayfxdrwvl to the Bishops of the Churches under the New 
Testament, Rev. ii. 1 : to all those that are sent from Grod, 
Judg. ii. 1 : 2 Chron. xxxvi. 16, 16 : And to the Son of God 
himself, who is stiled the angel of the covenant, Mai. iii. 1. 

— irpo irpoadirov o'ov] i. q. ifiirpoadiv <roi;. There is in the 
Hebrew, before me or before my face. This difference makes 
no alteration in the sense. Jesus Christ hath explained here. 
Malachi^s prophecy in quoting it, because God is come into the 
world only in the person of his Son. Comp. Matt. x. 40 1 John xir. 

— - 09 xaratricfi/curei] i. q. eroc/iaVei, iii. 3. An allusion to 
what is practised by Swings, who send persons before them, to 
prepare what is necessary in places they are to go through. 
St. John prepared the way to Jesus Christ, by testifying he 
was the Messiah, and by disposing sinners to repentance. But 
see a short account of John the Baptist and of his office : and by 
what ways and means he discharged tke office which he owned 
and took upon him, Kidder, Fart ii. c. 16. 

11. Qf yevufp'ol^ yuvcuKwtf] for viro yvpaucwv* With passive 
participles the Hebrews commonly join the genitive, which con* 
struction the Seventy sometimes follow, as 1 Kings i. 49, xXifrdc 
TOV 'A^y'iov for i^o tov 'Aowviov, FewtfTol yvuaucwy is a Hebrew 
circumlocution used instead of the word avOpwiroh s^ Job xiv. 1. 
And Ecclus. x. 18, yemnijtiaai yvpancwy* It may be observed 
that this passage is to be understood only of the times that pre- . 
ceded the coming of John the Baptist and the Messiah, as is 
evident from the following words. 

— iyiy€pTat\ This verb is frequently used of the prophets 

CHAP9BR XI. ' 273^ 

approaching to their office or performing it, Matt. xxiv. 11 : 
Luke vii. 16: John vii. 53: 

— /uei^oiy] i- q. 9r€/Mcr<rorepo$* 

-'— fULucpoTepas er Trj /SacriXci ^' roiv oi/pavoM^] for fwcporaros ■ or 
tfXa^icrrov. Not the meanest Christian, but the meanest eran- 
gelical prophet, or preacher of the Christian doctrine, is greater 
than he, in respect of his office, which was to preach Christ 
crucified, his resurrection from the dead, Jus exaltation to the 
right hand of Grod, the blessings tendered to those that shotdd 
believe in his name; and therefore also greater in respect of 
his doctrine which was more spiritual and heavenly than that 
of John, and founded upon better promises. Also in respect 
of that Divine assistance by which their doctrine was confirmed; 
the evangelical- prophets speaking by the gifts and afflatus of 
the Holy Ghost^ wluch Christ sa>t down fiK>m heaven on them. 

12. /3ia^«Tm] Hesych.^ fitai^erai* fiiait»9 Kpareirai. The 
passive signification is confirmed by the twords which follow,* 
Kal /Sicurraf, 8io. The Kingdom of Heaven, preached first to 
the Jewish nation, is taken by violence by those accounted to 
have small right to it, who kno^ not the law, and are accursed,' 
by the multitudes of lower Jews, publicans and sinners whor 
are considered invaders and intruders, from the Rulers, Pha- 
risees and Scribes, who have the first claim, but have not 
received the Grospel, or taken care of it. St. Luke xvi. 16, in 
the parallel passage, has xal airo Tore ti fiaaiKtla rov 0«ou 

— Koi fiuurrai] This is one of the aira^ Xeyofievay though 
found- in Fhilo de Agricult. p. 300, t/wo fiuurrwv Karawveoirrwu 
eif avT'^v iraOwv kcu aSucfuuLaTwv' and proba;bly here« signifies 
men of irregular lives, those that followed such employments 
as might dispose them to violence and extortion. The reading 
with the exception of one MS. is without the article, and denotes 
some individuals of a class: not that all plunderers and extor- 
tioners should find their way into the Kingdom of Heaven. So 
fidyoij ii. 1 : ayyekoty iv. 11. Chrysostom has oi /uiera criroui^ 
TTpoaioirre^. Whitby, who by their continual attendance on the 
doctrine of the Gospel preached to them^ their care to under- 
stand it dnd readiness to receive it, shew their ardent desires 
to be made partakers of it.* But according to this interpreta-^ 
tion, Bp. Middleton says, (6r. Art. p. 210) we should expect 
oi fimarroA or the whole class, and even then the assertion would 
not amount to much. 

— opira^oMTiK] Seize with eagerness. '■ Fhilo dc Cherub< 



p..l239 Tom dperti fiev m fi^kafiepmf yeXartUy Kaxla Se m^ 
w<j>€\ifiov apira^ercu. Hor. Epod. xiii. 4» Rapiamtte amici occa- 
sionem de die. 

13* iravrtf yap oi n/tx)0^Tai] All tbe prophets were the 
teachers whom the people were to hear, and the law as explained 
hy them was the only revelation of Grod^s will to the people of 
Israel; which so far as it related to me, was but an obscure 
intimation of what men were to expect from my appearance : 
Ikut John opened a much more perfect dispensation. 

14. ei OeXrre ^j^curOai} Scil. TovTOy viz. what I am about 
to say : if ye will attend to and receive my testimony ; believe 
me. Luke viii. 13 : Acts viii. 14 : xi. 1 : xvii. 11. The words 
bint some suspicion that they would not receive his doctrine, 
which tbe obstinate expectation of that nation unto this very 
day, that Elias is personally to come, witnesseth also. 

Soph. QBd. Tyr. 216, toij^ idv OiXfn ewiy KXvayv ^yetrOoi • . • • 
i\Kii» Xa/3(H9 av icav€ucovtf>uriv JcamSy. Eurip. Hippol. 694, ij(m 
ii laiyw irpot toS €c 2e^«if \eyetf. Thucyd. y. 60, xal o ''Ay 19 
ie^dp^evoK tw^ \dyaw aiiro9* Cic. Ep. Fam. iv. 4, Accipio 
excusationem tuam :- for which he afterwards has iUam partem 
excusaticmis nee agnosco nee probo. 

— - avToi itrriv 'HXia$} The person whom Malachi describes 
under that name, iv. 6, 6.. 

It waa a general tradition of the Jewish nation that Elias the 
Tisbite was to. come in person as the forerunner of the Messiah 
of the Jews, that he in person was to anoint him and make him 
known unto the people ; and that before the advent of the Son 
of David, EHas was to come to preach concerning him. Hence 
Trypho the Jew (Just. Mart.) declares warren lifi^i^ rov XpuT' 
Toi^ avOpunreu irpoir^ifiey yevecrBai, koI tov 'HXiay XP^^ 
airov iXdoirra.. It was also the general tradition of the writers 
0f the Christian Church, ev^i from the second coitury, that 
Elias the Tisbite, by virtue of those words of Malachi, is to 
come in person before our Lord'^s second advent to prepare 
men for it. See Chrysost. Hom. lvii. in Matt. p. 363. Theo- 
phyhct on Matt. xvii. 11, 13 : and on Mark ix. p. 236. Tertul- 
lian de Animfi, e. l. p. 501 : Theodoret on Malachi iv. 5, p. 945. 
But t^ese words of our Lord clearly shew, that that Elias of 
whom the prophets spake, as of one for to come, was come 
abeady ; and make it manifest that all that was in MaUchi or 
any other prophet spoken of Elias was made good in the Baptist, 
who came iv irveiz/uart icai ^vvdfi€i 'HXioi;, Luke i. 17- Chiysoa-. 
torn, Hom. lvii* on Matt, p. 364, 'Iworit^v 'HXiar cVoXccrev o 


Kptaros ^la *t^v Koivtapiap Ttjs Sicucavia^. And also ov itd tovto 
d€ fiovov 'HXlav auTotf ovofial^ei iravrayov^ oXX' lya oeiJ^ti <T(f>6opa 
auToif T^ iraXai^ frv/xfiaivovra^ Km Katd irp&prireiav Koi Trjv 
^apowfiav ovaav. Nor were the Jews unanimous in the opinion 
of Eliaa^s coming in person. The Talmudists many of them 
taught otherwise; and said he should be only in deeds such 
a one as Elias. And Maimonides, speaking of Elias^s personal 
appearance saith, These and the like things no man knows dis- 
tinctly before the event shall reveal them. They are obscurely 
delivered in the Prophets : there is no certain tradition concern- 
ing them among the Wise Men« What is certain is only by 
necessary illation from Scripture. And elsewhere be says, Thid 
h certain that a prophet shall arise before the coming of the 
Messias, which some of the Wise Men conceive shall be Elias 
himself. See Chandler'^s Defence of Christianity, Chap. tv. Sect, i; 
p. 382. 

15. o ix^v ^o,, &c.] With this reflection Christ sometime^ 
concludes his discourses, to make his hearers sensible of the im- 
portance of what he delivers, and to engage them to dive Into 
the sense of it, xiii. 9' 43 : Mark iv. 9, 23 : vii. 16 : Luke viii. 8^ 
xiv. 35 : St. John also uses it in the Revelations ii. 7^ Up 17* 29: 
lii. 6, 13, 33 : xiii. 9. iElian A. H. viii. 17) ortp fr-jfoKvi fiav^ 
OdweiVf ovTov uTrejfwv to, tora aicoi/eroi. 

— ami] Loesner says nimirum rij^ ^I'X^* which Philo adds^ 
de Charit. p. 7^2, canriKpvs fiowu xal KWKfioyw^ roT^ oira ej^ovciv 
iv "^vyri. ' Dr. Abrah< toIs aKod^ eypwrtv eu ttj "^yx^ Oemri^ei 

16. T^p yewedv rauTtiv] The men of this age, Luke vii. 31, 
TOW dvQpayirov^ t^ yevea^ Toi/n/y, i. e. those Jews who rejected 
the doctrine of John and of Christy i. e. the Pharisees. So ferrea 
proles ; Cicero in Arat. To shew the Pharisees more plainly the 
perverseness of their dispositions, he told thenl they were like 
children at play, who never do what their companions desire them, 
being peevish and displeased with every thing. 

— Traiiapiotis iv dyopai^^ Several read TtaiSioi^ iv r^ aryop^ 
which seems to have come from Luke vii. 32. By dyopai^ or 
dyopqi is meant the public streets and roads. 

-<— o/ioia €o-Ti] Our Lord^s meaning is that the men of that 
generation, or the cavillers of whom he was now speaking, were 
like the children complained of, not like those that made the 
complaint. But more especially in St. Matthew^s style the 
phrase ofioia iarl often signifies only in general that the thing 
spoken of may be illustrated by the following similitude.. And 

s 2 


ao the phrase must be understood Matt. xiii. 24, 45^: xviii. 23 : 
XX. 1 : xxii. 2. 

— Koi *trpoa<l>wvod<ri] Some read a "x-poaffHovavvra^ which 
seems like a gloss, and is to be rejected; as is also erepoc^ for 
€Taipot99 wluch seems to have arisen from St. Luke^s wpoatpt^ 

. voviHv oKKfikoi^* 

17* nvKnaa^v i!/Aiv] This comparison is a kind of proverb. 
.£sop. Fab. XXXIX. oi KUKiara ^wa, ire ijvXoupf ovk wftjfeioBe, 
6t€ Si .Treirctvfiaif tovto Troitflrc- 

In Judea it was usual at feasts to have music of an airy kind, 
accompanied with dancing, Luke xv. 26 ; and at funerals melan- 
choly airs, to which were joined the lamentations of persons hired 
for the purpose : Josephus, in the third Book de B. J. mentions 
their hiring aiktiras ol 9piivw¥ i^^px^^* '^^^ children therefore 
of that country imitating these things in their diversions, while 
one band 6t them performed the musical part, if the other hap- 
pening to be fro ward would not answer them by dancing or 
lamenting as the game directed, it naturally gave occasion to the 
complaint j^vXiytrofiev, &c. which at length was turned into a 

— edpijyi/traMer] Signifies wailing, or lamenting in an audible 
manner. Poly. xii. 16, 3, irpo^ Se tovtoi^ ot caredavey rifi' 
yvvcLiKa ^ijcri tcaTcucXaco/ueyiyF €wtov qutw dpriveiv' ri S ovk 
iyw <ri'j nl o ovk i/ii av; Lament. Jerem. i. 1, i0piiiftjae rov 
Op^vov TouToy eirl le/soi/craXij/ui. Athanasius Toirom roi)? \o- 
yovi iQpvivtia^v *lep€fiw vepl Ttj^ 'lepowraXtifAm 

^ Kal OVK 0cdyffaa9€'\ Sub. to arrfifi. For KoirreaOat St. Luke 
vii. 32, uses kXaieiv. Epictet. xxxv. w^ rd irai^ia avaarpa^^ari, 
a vSv fxev TrctkaurTos Trainee, vvv ce avKrird^, vvv Ce piovofiaxpviy 
clra aaKrrS^eif cIto TpayipSel, 

The mourning airs in this proverb fitly represent the severity 
of the Baptises manners, and the disagreeableness of the doctrine 
of repentance which he preached. On the other hand the cheer- 
ful airs beautifully represent our Lord^s sweet disposition, affidile 
conversation, and engaging method of giving instruction ; so that 
every thing was tried that could possibly have influence to bring 
the Jews to repent. Clemens Alex, in Frotrept. p. ^j represents 
to us the different ways that the Word employs to save men, 
To79 06 Kol Qptiv^i TW¥ aiSpiiiTWV^ w^t ^6 oXXoi?^ KoQcLirep dyaOos 
ioTpof .... dir€tK£v vovBcrei, \oiiopovfi€vo9 eirt<yTpi<f>ei, Optptm 
€\6rT» >//aX\cui; irapoKokel. 

18. fi\Oe\ Redundant: but only used in this manner with 
participles* Thus Horn. II. ^. 4«89, rev^l^a Se ^i;(r€ia ireXwpta, 


Bavfia i&eaOai^ ''HXvff e^cuv, i* e. el^e. Dion. Hal. A. R. ii. 
p. 1379 irepl wv epr^ofiai \e^wvj i> e. XiJ^w. In the same manner 
venio is used in Latin : Macrob. Saturn, i. 2, De hoc ipso quae- 
situm venio, et explices velim, quale illud convivium fuerit: 
i.e. qusero. A few MSS. add x/909 v/ia?* 

— fiiire .itrdiMVy jjLiire irlvwv] In the stem dignity of their 
antient prophets : with an uncommon austerity of behaviour. 
Luke vii. 33, jurire afrrov etrOiwUf fnire olvov irivwv. By these 
words Dan. x. 3, an austere life is indicated. 

— • firgre, firire] See Hoogeveen, Doct. Fart. c. xxvii. Sect. 9. 

V 19. etrdiwv koX irtvwv] Living like other men, Glass. Phil. 
Sac. p. 213, without abstaining from wine and the common sort 
of food, practising none of those mortifications whieh rendered 
the Baptist remarkable ; and not avoiding even the society of 
Publicans and sinners. 

•~ i&N)] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 396. 

— Koi iiiKcuwdvi] Koi attamen : i. q. aXXa as is frequently 
the case in the Old and New Testament; or Kal' iSiKauiOij. 
The aorist here has the force of the present : is justified and 

— 1} <To(pia^ See Middleton, Greek Article, Part i. c. v. 
Sect. 1. § 2. 

— ccTTo] Causam eificientem notat. Isocr. Pac. rd^ avj^L- 
^ptti Tas av auTwv yeuofiivas. Matt. xii. 38, &e\oiii€V airo 
<Tov amieiov ioeiv : Rev. xii. 6, toitov lirotjuLaafiivov airo &€ov. 

— * T(iiJi> TeKviov avTifi\ Scil. r^ ao<piai. Thus Lukex. 16, 
VC09 elpiivrj^ I xvi. 8, viol tov 0aiTO9 : Eph. ii. 2 : v. 6, viol tijs 
aircideia^. It seems natural to take the sentence as a reflection 
of our Lord on the conduct of the Pharisees, and to signify, 
When the perverseness of men has done its utmost in asperising 
the preachers of true religion, wisdom and virtue will still vin- 
dicate themselves; and the methods of Divine Providence, in 
its several dispensations of mercy to mankind, will finally appear 
to be wise and good. 

^* vp^^'^o weiSO^etv] Mark xvi. 14, oveiSiae t^v aVurrcai' 
avTwv Kol aK\fipoKapSiav. Plato oveioi^wp eva BKotrrov, 

21. Oval <Toi, &c.] These words do not contain an impreca- 
tion, but only a denunciation of the judgments which they were 
bringing down upon themselves by their impenitence. See also 
Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 551. 

— - Xopa^i/] On the western side of the Lake : Bethsaida on 
the east. Jerome in his Book of Hebrew places says it was 


about two miles distant from Capernaum. Though it is reck* 
oned here among die cities wherein most of our Saviour^s mira- 
cles were done; yet it is never mentioned but by two of the 
Evangelists, St. Matthew and St. Luke, and by these two only 
in this discourse. Nor does it occur elsewhere in profane writers* 
Origen seems to have read ^cSpa TAv^ and so Cellarius in Geog. 
III. p. 492, says it should be read. But all the best MSS have 

— - Bi^o'ac&x] The woe denounced upon it by our Saviour 
is in some measure long since come upon it ; it being reduced 
to the state of a very poor village again, or hardly that, 
consisting long ago but of five or six poor cottages. 

The reading 'Qtfiadihav seems to have originated with the 
transcribers, who from the other Grospds have substituted the 
Bcc. for the voc« case. Wetstein admits it into the text. 

— HvfHp Koi 2c ^cSm] Heathen cities on the sea coast of 
Phoenicia, remarkable for their luxury, pride, debauchery and 
.contempt of religion. See Judg. xviii. 7 - IsAi- xxiii. 9 : Ezek. 
xxviii. 2, 6, 17, 22 : Amos i. 9, 10. 

— €1^ <r€eicic^] A kind of cloth made with hair and some other 
coarse stuff. The prophets used to put on sackcloth when they 
preached repentance, and the people were then wont to lie on 
ashes, and to strew some on their heads. Job ii. 8 : Matt. iii. 4f. 
Sackcloth and ashes were used by the Jews in token of the bitterest 
grief. Judith iv. 10, 14, inedevro aaxKim «^1 tos ocr0i/ay ai/- 
t£v, Jos. Ant. xx. 6, 1, ol oi TpSroi • • . * twv 'lepoaoXu^ 
furwp . 9 • • iJv etcov €C9 dtoy kcucSv f/JyeOos ^icomti, lAeTevivirdfieyoi 
adicKOW, Kal o'ttooov tos ic60a\a9 ofairXi/crainre;, See Isai. Iviii. 
5 : Jer. vL 26 : Lam. ii. 10 : Dan. ix* 3 : Esther iv. I, 3. Nor 
were these expressions of grief and humiliation peculiar to the 
Jews. They were used by the Gentiles also ; Jonah iii. 5, 6, 8* 
Menand. Frag, p, 42: eireira aaKtaov eXa/ioif, el^ ff oSov 'Eica- 
diaap airol eirl KoirpoVf Kal r^v Qeov 'F^eKcuravro t^ raTeimaai 
a(l>6Spa. Apuleius ix. Mira tristitie deformis apparuit, flebili 
centunculo semiamicta, nudis et intectis pedibus » . • • et dis- 
cerpts comas, semicanse, sordentes inspersu cineris^ 

— <nroof\ A few MSS. add Kadii/uLcvat^ 

2^. Trkfjv \eywg &c.] See x. 15. Moreover, or ' more than 
that, xxvi. 64; Mark xiv. 62. Herodian iii. 4, 1, iroXXijv arpw' 
Tiav aOpoiaa^f vX^u atreipav fiaxfn Koi iropwv. 

*— ^ rifiifxf. irpiVeaj^] In the day of the judgment, and in the 
day of the great judgment : Lightfoot says it is a form of speech 
very usual among the Jews. 


23. Kot trif Kaireppoom] He fiientioiis Ciq)eniauin separately 
by itself, and last of all, because hemg the place of hi's ordinaiy 
reeideiice, it liad been blessed with more of his sermons nnd 
tniracles than any other town. 

— €W£ ToS ovpavoS] This and the following are allegoridal 
expressions taken from the Old Testament, and signifying the 
highest exaltation and the lowest depresedoo. See Glass. Phil. 
Sac p. 1284. See 1 Sam. ii. 6: Isai. xiv. 13, 15: Ivii. 9. So 
2 Mace ix. 10, rcSy ovpapimv acFTpwf airretrOai SoKoSvra* 

This prophecy has been so exactly fulfilled in the destruction 
of Capernaum, that according to the relation ci travellers, there 
are not above six or eight cottages where it stood. Bdand 
says its situation cannot be determined, Pal. Sac 683. This 
destruction came upon it in the time of Vespasian, and the 
ccxnmotions which then arose in Galilee. 

*^^iw9 ^Hou] A very few MSS« omit to$ before aipctvw, 
probably with a view to conformity with what follows. There 
is however this difference, tliat ovpava^ in the New Testament 
is used equally in all its cases, whilst ^&|f occurs chiefly in 
the oblique cases after prepositions, which may have caused the 
article to be omitted. 

''AiCfi^ does not signify here the place of the damned, and 
indeed it hardly ever has that signification in Scripture: it means 
only the sepulchre, or the condition and place of the dead:: and 
here it signifies the sepulchre, which is called the lowest parts 
of the earth, Eph. iv. 9- So Tob. xiii. 2, airro? fuurriyoi ira2 
eKeut Kardy^i eit oSvip kcU avayu. AnthoL i. 60, 15^ eiv rvytiv. 
Tovs S airo t£p psffniKw eh dt^riv Kardyei, 

— KaTa(iifi€KT0iicrfi] Mill and Hammond seem to prefer icaro- 
/3i|(rJ7. Jacob in Gen. xxxvii. 35, says Karafinaoficu irpos top 
vioy juLou^ vevOwv eW qi&ou. But KaTa(ii(id}^e<r6<H is used for 
descendere in Philo, in lib. quod Deus sit imm. p. 310, Srav 6 
\iya9*m»cari Tmy deum-ipoov iyvotifiar^v ««9 avBpunrivQS Kal Kevw 
&>^as KaTafiifidaOff, 

Our Lord denounced woes against the three cities a 8eo6nd 
time, when he was going to exercise his ministry in Judea, on 
which occasion the woes were fitly repeated, because they inti* 
mated that it was the incorrigible cibstiiiacy of the inhabitants of 
thos^ cities, which had prevented their profiting by his instruc- 
tions, and which had made him resolve to leave their country. 

— ^le^P* '^^^ aifACpov] Scil. tf^^pw* 

24. au€KTOT€poU] Sub. KpifAa, which We meet with in xxiii. 18, 
nept&aorepov Kpl/tia. See Bos. £11. Gr. 137* This seems to 


be spoken to suppress the pride of the Jewidi nation, and the 
severity of their judgment upon others ; they being wont to say 
that the whole Jewish nation, with the exception of some few 
heretics and apostates, should be saved: but that the pieople 
of Sodom should have no portion in the world to come. 

26. eu iiceivtfi r^ icacp^] It aj^ars from Luke x. 31, that 
Jesus spoke these words, when the Seventy, who had been sent 
out by him, returned. The words iu eKelwfi r^ Kaiptp therefore 
must be taken in a more extensive signification, as Tore some- 
times is. 

— aVdcpidei^ elwev] This phrase is often used in the New 
Testament when nothing had gone before to which an answer 
could be accommodated: and therefore then it only signifies 
that such an one spake with relation to such a matter, saying. 
So it occurs xii. 38 : xvii. 4 : xxii. 1 : xxvi. 26, 63 . xxvii. 21 : 
Mark ix. 38: xi.'l4: Lukexiii. 14: 1 Mace. ii. 17: viii. 19- 
See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 336. 

'-r^ij^ofioKoyodfiai] With a dative of the person following, 
signifies, to give praise or glory to : see Rom. xiv. 11. The 
Seventy translate the same Hebrew verb by i^ofio\oy€7<T0ai, 
2 Sam. xxii. 60 : Fs. xxix. 12 : and by aitfelv, Gen. xlix. 8 : 
1 Chron. xvi. 7 *• and by iz/imv, Isai. xii. 4. In Fs. xliv. 20, 
Sid TovTo \aol ij^ofioKoytfCovTal croi eis tov aw¥a tov cuwvc^. 
On which Theodoret, p, 673, observes, xaSra vpoBecnriiras o 
^aX/Aciijo9, €y CKaarri yeve^ jfd rwv Kara KOipov evaefiSv to 
Qvofka TO Oeiov avvjJLV€tv vtrtayyeiTaC - ovtw yap Kai ol Tpei^ 
c^c^oMrav. *Awii¥fi^w to ivofia crov, Sid tovto Xaot vfiwitrovai tre 
€19 aiiiva Sifiv€Km> In Fs. xlviii. 18, ej^ojUioXoyffiiitreTai aroij 
ordv dyoBvyin avr^ I and Theodoret, p. 687) observes tovto 
a'a<l>ea'T€poy o Si/^t/ua^o? elpffKcp. ' ETraivtjtrei tre eav KOiKms 
iroititrris avrois * ovtos yap o dXtfiii^ immvos, to /lii| /uoi^or ^oirra 
ciXXd Kal TeTeXevTffKora doiSifiov ^Ivai ical iroXvOpvXKtirov, 

Philo, Alleg. I. p. 66, o.«.t^ too Qeov ^ppomjaewf daxifT^ 
i^ofioXoyeircu ev'^apiaTiKOK t^ to dya6ov dfpdovms Swpttaafievff* 
Alleg. III. p. 1106, 6t€ yap i^d/uioXoyiiaa&Oai Ttp Qetp Kal 
frapajfoypijaai irdtrra i(r)(y<T€v i} >^i/^)}, KrfjfAa Kpeiaaov Xajieiv 
ov Koreiye, 

— "cnrer/oinf^as] Aor. with signification of pres. 
' God is often said in Scripture to do those things which he 
determines to permit^ and which he foresees will be in fact the 
consequences of those circumstances in which his creatures are 
placed, though their wills are laid under no constraint. Compare 
Exod. vii. 3, 4: 2 Sara. xii. 11, 12: xxiv. 1 : 1 Kings xxii, 23. 


in this sense alone could he be said to hide those things from 
the learned men of this age, which he revealed so plainly, ^hat 
honest and well-disposed persons, though children in under- 
standing, might come to the knowledge of them. 

— -*ori awiicpvyffa^] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 640. Our Saviour 
does not thank God that he had hid these things from the wise ; 
but that having done so he had revealed them unto babes. See 
Rom. vi. 17, yipi^ ^e t^ G^^ tnri ^€ doi/Xoc t^? afuuyria^f 
virf|icoi/<raT6 ce ex xapcias ei? ov vapeooufire tvttov oicayfi^\ 
i. e. whereas ye formerly were the servants of sin, ye have now 
been obedient to the laws of Christ. See Isai. xii. 1. 

— Toiral The doctrine of the Gospel which he had called 
the counsel of God, Luke vii. 30. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 159* 
The word seems to have a reference to what follows rather than 
what goes before. 

— -<ro0<Si/ KOi GwerHv] Not men truly and spiritually wise, 
but men possessed with carnal worldly wisdom, and with a swelling 
conceit of their proficiency in wisdom, those that are puffed up 
with their own knowledge, the priests, scribes and rulers, ol 
SoKovvres cro^ol elvai^ 1 Cor. iii. 18. These things indispose 
men to embrace true spiritual wisdom, and from these God is 
therefore said to have hid the wisdom of the Gospel, because 
he permitted them to continue in that self-^conceit and worldly- 
mindedness which caused them to reject it as not being agreeable 
to their inclinations and mistaken sentiments. 

Aristot. Eudenu 11. 1, iiraivovfjLev yap ov fxovov roy^ Sucaiov^j 
aXXa Kal rcH/9 (rvverov^ icat <rofpov^, 

— vfiwioisi\ Without the article. In the incluwoe form 
Middleton observes the afiirmation would not have been true. 

By i^wioc are meant those modest humble persons, who having 
a low esteem of their own wisdom give themselves up to the 
Divine wisdom; v. 1, trrw^oi r^ irvevinart^' and being free 
from carnal and worldly affections, and having nothing in them 
to oppose this spiritual wisdom, are fitted to embrace it when 
it is revealed. Or, persofts whose faculties are not improved 
by learning, cry/oa/ui/uarof, the to, imwpa rod KOffjULov, 1 Cor. i. 37 ; 
bift who to that sagacity and understanding which is purely 
natural, join the best dispositions of heart, such as meekness, 
modesty, innocence, honesty, humility, docility, and all the 
other engaging qualities that are to be found in children. This 
is plain from xviii. 3, Except ye be converted and become as 
little children, ye cannot enter into the kingdom of God. Babes 
therefore stand in opposition, not to men of soiuid judgment 


and reason, but to proud politicians and men of learning who 
are so fiill of themselves that they disdain to reoeive instructions 
from others, and who make all their abilities subservient to their 
advancement in this world. 

Ecclus iiL 19) woXXot elaiv vyl^tikoi kqI eirioo^oc, oXXa vpqiaiv 
a7roKa\vvT€Tcu fiaKTrfiptaf on fieydXri ^ Zvvcurreia rod KvploVf 
Kal vTTo Twv raveivAv oolQaS^(eTai* 

26. i^ai] Sane, utique, repetendum il^oiuiKayovfuii aoi* 

-— o irariip\ Nom. for Voc. Common with the Hebrews. So 
also Aristoph. Ran. 524, 6 vw, aKokovBei. Av. 1635, o T/k- 
/3aXXo9j oi/uLii^eiv Soxei aou Schol. 6 Tpt/3aXXo9 auTi toS m 
TpijSaXXe. So Cses. Aug. in a Letter to Caius in Aul. Grell. 
N. A. XV. 7* Have, mi Cai, meus Ocellus jucundissamus. 

-— ev^Kta] i.q. Oektifia, In the Septuagint and other versions 
of the New Testament, euSoKia and diXtifia, €vSotce7v and OiXciv 
arc frequently used for each other. In Ps. xxix. 7» the Seventy 
translate the same word by deXf^/ua, which Symmachus renders 
evSoKta. In this passage Theophylaet explains euSoxia by OiXno't^ 
Kal ap€(TK€ia, Theodoret on Ps. v. p. 417, evSoKtav 4 ^'^ 
ypaxpij KtCKel to ofyadov tcS Qedv OeXfifAa. See Luke xii. 32: 
1 Cor. X. 5. 

— - evcoKia eyewero e/iiTrpoaOip (toi/] i. q. ev^ictfaav, i* 6- 
j^eXiycra?.— e^ei/cro used for ffv^^-'^/iiirpoaOev aov for the dative 
of the pronoun,-— and ovrw^ iov tovto iroitiacu,* 

1 Cor. i. 21, euooKtidev 6 Qeo^ Sid r^ fAwplas tov Ktfpvy/uMToi 
crmaai rov^ nriarevovTa^. 2 Mace. xiv. 35, <rv Kvpte tww oXwu 
dirpoaoerj^ virdpywv^ evooKfjaa^ vaow t^v <r^s iTtcijawaewi ip ^fuy 
y€V€a0€u. * 

27- wdvra] All things relating to my Father^s will, th^ 
mysteries of the Gospel, or the salvation of mankind. This 
was said by him, turning to those that stood near him. John vii. 
io, J7 €fifi otoayfi ovic €<my efiij, aXXa tov vefiyavTos fie. 

-— 01/^619 iiriyiyvwaKei] These words evidently declare that 
there is something inexplicably mysterious in the nature and 
person of Christ. No man knoweth his character and dignity, 
what he has done and is yet to do for the salvation of the world. 
Chrysostom explains the word by t^v oKpiji^ yu£aiv- 

— ouSe Toy TTUTepa] Luke x. 22. Who* the Father is. The 
perfections and counsels of the Father. 

— 6i\ei] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 212. 

28. ot KOTTiwirrtv Kcu mtpopTKrjiievoi] See Ecdus xliii. 30. 
With the distresses of Ufe or with the sdnse of guih. Ps. xxxi. 
4: xxxvii. 5: with the ceremonies of the law, Gal. v. 1 : Acts xv. 


10: and with the traditions of the Pharisees, Matt« xxiii. 4. 
Chrysost. Horn, xxxviii. in Matt. p. 269, Ovx o Selva xal 6 ieiva, 
aXXa vavres ol €v ippovTicriVf di iv Xi/iraWy o\ iv oftapriaK. 
AevTej ovjf Iva airainiata eiOvva^y aXX* iva Xwrm to ajULapnifAcera, 
AeSr«, ovK iireicav ^o/ucu vfiwv Ttj^ ^^^t ^^' etretcdy ^ofiai 
vfiwv T^s crwTfipiO^* iyia yap, ^i^ir, avairavcto ifia^' ovk elire, 
awaw fAOvoVf dXXa jcai, o «roX\^ irXeov ^v, iv aSeiif, rnvraoTfja'to 
TTWTfi* Theophylact explains Kowrnvrts of the Jews m irapar 
TfipfifiaTa vo^iKa fiapea fA€T€pj(piii€VOif koI KomSpre^ iv rti 
ipyaor'uf rHv evToKwp tov vo/uiou, 

— &irr« vpot fie] Believe in me and become my disciples. 
See John vi. 3fiy o ip')(Ofi€vo^ irpo9 /U6 ov /ui} mtvcurfi, which 
in the following words are expounded o iri<rr€dwp eU e^i ov /ti^ 
iiyjfiiafl nwTTCTe. See John yii. 3^, 88, &c. 

— avawavcrw vfxa^^ Ecclus xxxviii. 14, Kalyap avToi Kvplov 
i^vfiviaovTat, tva tuoicio'vi avafrawriv koI ioffiv xapiv i/m^uiaeafs* 
This verb is often used by historians when speaking of soldiers 
resting after a march or fatigue. Thus Polyb. iii. 53, 9) says 
Hannibal /3oi/Xo/tt6M>9 a^ia /miv avanavaat tov9 SuureoS^ofUvov^j afia 
ii trpoaSel^dtrOcu tov9 viroXeiirotiievouf, Arrian. de Exp. Alex. ii. 
8, 2, av€7rav€ rtjv crpaTiav to Xoiirov r^ vvkto^* And iii. 7» 9, 
and III. 9? I9 Ttiw arpariav ex r^ oiov avewuvae. 

29. TOV ^vyov /uLou] i.e. The doctrine and precepts of the 
Christian rdigion. See 1 John v. 3. The d<tetors frequently 
speak of the yoke of the law, the yoke of the commandments, 
amd the yoke of the kingdom of heaven, which is Christ^s yoke. 
Schol. ad Eurip. Phien. 7^9 ^^^ Kvpiw% kirl t£v Kvfiepvirwv, 
iv (fi KoOifiuLevoi Tci icrrca yuera^ci/oc^oin-cu* KaTaj(pv<^TiKws Si 
isal Ctrl aXXfi9 i^ovaia9 tovto ^hxkti, Suidas, ^iryov, o vofio^ 
irapd Tp Oeiif, ypa<b^* koI 6 Xpt<TTos' apare tov ^vyov /ulov, 

'^-'apaT9 TOV ^vyov fiov] Lam. iii. 27) dyaOov avipiy orav 
cLpfi ^vydv iv veortyrt. So Pindar uses (pipew (^vyov, Pyth. B. 
172, (f>€pfiv }[ iXa/^pm iiravj(ivtov Xa/iovTa Zuyov y dpriy€i. 

— /uLad€T€ air' 6/uoi/] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 324. I impose 
nothing upon men but what I myself bear. Seneca Consol. ad 
Polyb. XXXVI. I^scat ab illo dementiam, atque a mitissimo 
omnium principe mitis fieri. 

— vp^os eifu] This character of Jesus Christ is opposed 
to the cruelty, the pride and haughtiness of the Pharisees, who 
daily rendered the yoke of the law more intolerable by their 
traditions, and who despised the humble and meek : but Christ 
<:ould avpLTcaQriGfu raif oadevtiai^^ Heb. iv. 15, and therefore 
would not lay upon his followers heavier burdens than they 


were able to bear. See Bp. Taylor, Discourse xv. Vol. iii. 
p. 133, &c. 

— Ttj Kap^iff] In my heart. See Middleton, 6r. Art. Part. i. 
c. III. Sect. !• § 4. 

— eipiiaere dydircuHTiPf &c.] These words are in Jer. vi. 16. 
Christ frequently uses the words of the prophets. 

Ecclus li. 27) Toere ei^ o00aX/ioi9 ifmVf ori oXiyatf iKowlaifXa 
Koi evpop i/navTtfi *n-6XXrjv amvavfriv* Xenoph. Kvp. iratd. vii. 5, 
Vjy SoKci jULoi KOI 97 €/Ai} ^^X^^ dvairaweds Tivoi a^iovv Tvyyaveiv, 

The ceremonial performances, when observed most exactly, 
could not perfect the observer as to his conscience, or take 
away the guilt of sin ; and so could give no peace or rest unto 
the soul. 

30. ^uyos X/'n^T-os] In opposition to the Ceremonies of the 
law and the traditions of the Pharisees. 

The law of ceremonies imposed upon the Jews by Moses, is 
styled by St. Pfiul ^1/709 ^ovXeias, Gal. v. 1 : and by St. Peter 
a yoke which neither they nor their fathers were able to bear. 
Acts XV. 10 : by reason of the long and frequent joumies to 
Jerusalem, and the great payments for tithes and offerings it 
imposed iqpon them: and the burdens which besides this the 
Pharisees laid upon them by their traditions, are styled by our 
Lord ^opTia jiapea koi ^vfrftaaTcucra, Matt, xxiii. 4. 

-^-^ ipopriov eXa(f>p6v'\ Diog. Laert. in Vit. Solon, i. 2, 15, 
€v yap 0^K€ v6yjo\f^ ai/rocs ayBea KOV(p6TaTa. 
. Clem. Alex. Psed. i. 12, speaking of the Christian doctrine, 
says £<m Se o KapajfTtipia/uLOi, ov ipofiepo^ ayav avToVy oioe 
«cXi/Tos KOjULiofi VTTO yptjaTOTip'os* And Strom. 11. p. 368, apare 
a(f> vfmv TOP fiapiv l^vyop xal Xafiere top Trp^oy, fiypa<f>ti <ptt(T.t^ 
KaSdirep Kat o\ Trocf/roi SovXeiop ^vyoPm Theophylact in cap. xi. 
p. 63, TTOtreu al eproXtd toJJ Xpiorov ^vyos Xeyoprcu, tu tifcs 
iXatppai eicri otd rtiv iieXX/owrap aprlSoaiPf ei koi m-po^ Kaipov 
fiapeiai ^(wcrip. Chrysostom Hom. xiv. on 1 Cor. p. 331, 

o^vyo^ fiov XP^^'^^9 ^^ ^' ^^ 9^*^ ai(r0dpri r^s Kov(f}6TfjTos, 

SrjXov ore irpoOvinlap eppw/tiepijp ovk €X€<9« wtrvep yap Taunis 
(Aan^ Kol rd fiapia KoS(f>a, ovt<o^ ovk ovaij^ koi ra Koirt^a 

Chap. XII. 

1. €1^ €K€lp(p Ttp Kou^] i. q. TOTc. This is a common form 
of connecting what follows with what has gone before; see 
xiv. 1 ; and by no means connects the plucking of the ears of 
com with the event related either before or after that circumstance. 



In Deuteronomy, from c. i. to x., it occurs fourteen times. 
In Luke vi. 1, the Evangelist points out the sabbath and day 
whereon this happened, ei^ crajifidT^ cevTepoTrptinpf the first 
sabbath after the second day of the Passover (see Levit. xxiii. 
15), when the handful of com was offered up, before which 
the sickle could not be put to the harvest. 

It is evident that the disciples did not pluck the ears before 
the passover. It was particularly forbidden to gather any com 
before the sheaf of the first-fruits had been waved in the temple ; 
the Jews would undoubtedly have reproached them, had they 
cause for so doing, with this twofold violation of the law, the 
plucking of the com before the time allowed, and the doing 
so also on the sabbath; whereas they confined themselves only 
to the latter charge. 

-''—T019 aafificuri] A irepoKktaia similar to irpofituri and 
Kplveai from trpofiarov and Kpivov. Sub. ev^ see ver. 2. See 
Bos. Ell. 6r. 428. In one MS. the article is wanting. But 
this word, Middleton says, usually takes it, unless when there 
is an especial reason for dispensing with it. The plural here 
has the signification of the singular : see Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 64 ; 
as xxviii. 1: Acts xiii. 14. Joseph. Ant. iii. 10, 1, Kara Si 
i^o/uLfiP lifiipav, fjTis aafiliaTa KaXelrai. The Seventy also 
transUte the same word by crdfifiaroy, Exod. xxxi. 14 ; and 
adfifiaTOy Jer. xxvii. 21, 24: Levit. xxiii. 32. Hor. Sat. i. 9, 
69, Sunt hodie tricesima Sabbata. 

«— TcSy cnropifiiov^ Scil. ywpwv* Thus Xen. Kvp. traic, i. 
4, 16, Ta ipydaiiiia. Dioscor. iii. 128, yevvarai kqI es X^pa^ 
(TTTOpifxow. Michaelis in Bos. Ell. Or. 45, understands yev 
vfl/utaTwu. Through paths that were in the com, i.e. in the 
barley which was then ripe in Judea. 

-— eircfVcujov] The custom of the nation, as yet, had held 
them fasting, which' suffered none unless he were sick, to taste 
any thing on the sabbath before the morning prayers of the 
synagogue w^re done. 

— lip^avTo TiWeiVf &c.] i. e. €riK\ov jcoi tjaOiov. See Luke 
vi. 1, who here also uses ^dyovre^. 

2. iroiovatv o ouk e^ecri] The Jews were allowed by the 
law, when they came into the standing com of their neighbours, 
to pluck some ears and eat them, Deut. xxiii. 25. But as they 
were by the same law forbidden to reap and grind on the sabbath- 
day, Exod. xxxiv, 21, and also by the traditionary law, the 
Pharisees seem to have accounted this action of the disciples 
a kind of servile work: and therefore they do not contend 


about the thing itself, because it was lawful; but about the 
thing done on the sabbath. They pretend that thej had 
yiolated the rest of that holy day, and thus transgressed the 
Mosaical law. Augustin. c. Faust, vi. 4, Judiei sabbato suo 
non solum in agro fructum suum non decerpunt, sed nee in 
domo concidunt aut coquunt. 

3. ovK dveyvarre^ Scil. ep Toit ypa<f>a7i. See 1 Sam. xxi. 
3, 4 : xxii. 10. In the high-priesthood of Ahimelech. 

The canons of the scribes adjudged the disciples to stoning 
for what they had done, if so be it could be proved that they 
had done it presumptuously. Hence' therefore our Saviour begins 
their defence, that this waa done by the disciples out of neces- 
sity, hunger compelling them, not out of any contempt of the laws. 

— avTOi] Wanting in many MSS. and some versions. 
Griesbach supposes it to have crept into the text here tram St. 
Mark and St. Luke. 

-*-oi fiCT. avTou] There were none but David that went 
to the high-priest, for he had left his companions some way off. 
Lightfoot says the words of Ahimelech are to be understood 
comparatively, to that noble train wherewith David was wont 
to go attended, and which became the captain-general of Israel. 

4. ohcov Tou Oeov] The court of the tabernacle, which was 
at that time pitched at Nob, one of the priests^ cities in the 
tribe of Benjamin. The temple, which is oftenest in Scripture 
called the House of God, was not then built. That it was 
not into the Holy Place that David went, appears from this 
circumstance: the loaves of which he partook, had been that 
day removed from before the Lord, and new bread had been 
put into their room. 1 Sam. xxi. 6. 

— — T0V9 aproi/9 T$¥ irpoOicrew^^ Called in the Hebrew thd 
bread of faces ; so named because it was placed before the Lord, 
i. e. not far from the ark of the covenant, which was the symbol 
of his more inunediate presence. The Seventy sometimes have 
apTov^ 'rrpoaonrovy sometimes irpoKeifievov^f but most frequently 
as here, irpoOeaews. There were twelve offered every sabbath- 
day, which were set in the sanctuary on the golden table. 
Exod. XXV. 30 : Levit. xxiv. 6. 

•— €1 fuj] i. q. dXXa. See Hoogeveen, c. xvi. Sect. 6. § 6. 
Ghiss. Phil. Sac. p. 439. 

5. iv T^ vofjup] Numb, xxviii. 9. Besides the continual burnt- 
offering, the priests were obliged on the sabbath to sacrifice two 
lambs extraordinary, by which their servile work was that day 
double of what it was on the other days of the week. This^ 


though really no profanation of the sabbath, might according 
to the common notion of the Jews be so termed. 

— * ori] i. q. vm, as Mark yi. 2. 

— ^^riKovai] See Glass. Phil. Sac p. 1277. So used also 
1 Mace. ii. 34. They were obliged to p^orm such servile work 
in the temple, as considered separately from the end of it, was 
a pro&nation of the sabbath, and yet were gniltless, because 
it was necessary to the public worsUp on account of which the 
sabbath was instituted. Such was lighting the fires, killing, 
Maying and dressing the sacrifices, &c. Accordingly the Jews 
were wont to say, Uiat there is no sabbath in the temple; — the 
senrile work which is done in holy things is not servile. 

— apcuTioi] Hesych. avaiTios " odwoy, aveyKKfiT09. Macrob. 
Saturn, i. 16, tells us according to the Pontifical laws among the 
Romans, Umbro negabat eum pollui qui opus ad Deos pertinens 
sacrorumve causa fecisset. These laws they received from the 
Etruscans, who seem to have had them through the Tynans 
finom the Hebrews. 

6. ^€i^a>i'] Many MSS. with Theophylact read /i«t^oi/, sub. 
n. The Lord of the temple. See Mai. iii. 1: Luke ii. 49- 
The neuter is used again, irXcIoi;, ver. 41, 42 : irepifraorepov^ 
xi. 9: and Luke xi. 31. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 54. Macknight 
and others understand it of a greater or more noble work carrying 
on, than the temple service. 

7- ei iywiKeirel Corresponding to the Greek phrases rjv 
ymre, ei figure, used when others are admonished to weigh 
and consider the excellence of any thing. See Abresch. Diluc. 
Thucyd. p. 392. 

— eXeov 0€\a)] See ix. 13. Philo de Plant. N. p. 229, fiwfioh 
yap avvpoiVf irepl ou9 aperal j(opevowrt, yeytfiev o Beds* De 
Vict* QflP. p. 849, o Qeo9 y^aipei^ ovk ay eKarofifias avdyri ri^ 
.•^'^cdpei & <l>iKo6eoi9 yvwfuu^ itac avSpatriv curictfrcu^ octortiTo^m 
From which it appears that OiXeiv is used in the sense of ysy tfiivai 
and jfaipeiv* 

Plato Alcib. ii. Kal yap av Seivov eitj, ei irpos to Swpa xal to^ 
Ovalat airofiXeirovaiv tjfii&v o\ Oeol: dXXa jn^ wpos ttip ^vj(fiv, 
av Tus oatos koI iiKoioi wu tvyyavrf. See Joseph. Ant. vi. 

— KoX ov] For fiSKkov ^. I prefer mercy to sacrifice. 

«— -Toir; ai^oirioup] Christ and his Apostles.- Without the 
article the proposition would have been exclusive, and would 
thus have denied more than the circumstances required. Mid- 
dleton, Gr, Art. p. 211. 


8. Kt/pcof 70/0] St. Mark introduces these \90rds with 
St. Matthew with yap : and both may be justified. But it may 
be looked upon as a considerable proof that the sacred writers 
were not always critically exact in the use of their partides: 
a remark of great importance both for clearing their sense and 
vindicating their character. Whoever considers the ambiguity 
of many of those Hebrew particles which correspond to the 
Greek will find little reason to wonder at it. 

— KOI rov 2a)3)3aroi;] If this be a correct reading it implies 
that the Sabbath was an institution of great and distinguished 
importance. But koI is wanting in very many MSS. and some 
Fathers; and Mill and Griesbach have supposed it to have 
crept into the text here from Mark ii. 28 : Luke vi. 5. Whitby 
thinks it should be retained. 

Jesus was often blamed by the Pharisees as having brokoi 
the Sabbathy particularly xii. 10 : Luke vi. 2 : xiii. 14 : xiv. 2 : 
John V. 16 : ix. 14. 

— - o 1/(09 Tov avQp<iiFov\ This title is used eighty-eight times 
in the New Testament, and is applicable only to Jesus Christ. 
And in Dad. vii. 13, from whence it is originally taken, it is 
thought by all antient Jews as well as Christians to signify 
the Messiah only. 

The, series of our Lord^s ailments here is intended to prove 
that circumstances of necessity dispense with some ceremonial 
observances which were in general commanded by Gtxl, and 
manifestly goes upon this foundation, that ceremonial insti- 
tutions being the means of religion, if circumstances occurred 
in which they interfered with the end of it, they were suspended 
of course. 

. There being the same authority required to abrogate or alter, 
that there is to make a law, Bp. Pearson mentions this as a 
branch of that dominion that belongeth to our Saviour as Son of 
Man. See on the Creed, Vol. i. p. 241. 

9. /Ltera/Sa;, &c.] St. Matthew seems to say this miracle hap^ 
pened immediately after the transaction mentioned above: but 
the transition which he makes use. of does not necessarily imply 
this. And St. Luke vi. 6, expressly tells us it was iv erefxp 

— exeWev] from the fields where the above had happened. 

10. ^u T^u X^^P^l ^^ *^^ Coptic Version and one or two 
MSS. ^u Tfjy are wanting: a very probable reading, Middleton 
says, though the received one has nothing objectionable ;^- 
hand, as elsewhere. 



. i: 


*-^ X^^P^ ^X^^ ^^P^^] ^ ^ Kings xiii. 4, 6. 

— ifrffpoinfaav aiTov\ viz, the Phariseee. CoU. ver. 14 : Luke 
^k-TtL .vi. 7* Here Xiyayre^ redundant after ewfipwrijaap' 

■■:: r This is i!ot contrary to what St. Mark iii. 4, and St. Luke 

vi. 9) say that^hrist asked them : for both are true, that they 
asked him, whether it were lawful to hieal? And he replies 
by saying I will ask you also whether it be not lawful to do 
good on the sabbath day? 

-— " €< €^e<m] Xen. Kvp, ^ai^. iv. irnipwra e< eXiy^e* Propert. 
II. 29, 23, Volui 9% sola quiescerei ilia, Visere. Hor. i. Ep. vi. 41, 
Chlamydes Lucullus ut aiunt. Si posset centum scenae praabere 
rogatus. Acts i. 6. 

They put this question to him, by which they declared in 
the strongest terms their opinion of its unlawfulness. 

— Ufa KaTfiyopnaaxriv] The Seventy in Prov. xxx. 10, use 
Komffopeivy where Symmachus translates iiafiaSXeiv. See also 
Isocr. Paneg. c. xxxvi. Their intention was to render him odious 
to the common people, expecting that he would openly declare 
such things lawful in opposition to the definitions of the Doc- 
tors, who had determined that to perform cures on the sabbath 
was a violation of the holy rest. Or if he should give no answer 
to their question, as it implied an affirmative of the unlawfulness 
of what he was about to attempt, they thought it would render 
him inexcusable, and give the better colour to their accusation. 

11. ris, itrrai €^ vfiw avdpom-os] Hebrew construction for- 
ce rxv iiiuiv' See vii. 9. Schmidt however says the interroga- 
tion is in . TI9 not aiyi' A few MSS. read co-rc. 

— iav efiireatf, &c.] The Jewish saying is mentioned by 
some writers, ^^ It is unlawful to do any servile work on the 
sabbath day, unless it is on purpose to save a soul,^^ which com- 
prehends also brutes. And from what is here said, and also 
Luke xiii. 15 : xiv. 6, it appears that this was then a common 
saying. . But it was f^so a Canon *^ We must take tender ca^e 
of the goods of an Israelite.^ Maimonides in Schabb. c.;Xxv^ 
says. If a beast fall into a ditch or into a pool of waters, let ^ 
(the owner) bring him food in that place if he can : but if he 
cannot, let him bring him clothes and litter, and bear up t)ie 
beast ; whence if he can come up, let him come up, &c. 

— fioduvov] St. Luke uses xiv. 5, (f>peap» Here the word signifies 
a cistern for the reception of water. Etym. M. /3odi/i^09 o Xot«/ro9. 

— oiyl KpaTri<x€i airo koI eyepei] Kpartiaei here a pleonasm. 
St. Luke xiv. 5, has simply dvaaiFao'ei, 

Philo dc Charit. p. 707> trpcaraTrei k^v iydpHv virtS^vy^ 





a)fiofl>opovpTa r^ /3a^i irieodeirra Trpoaitetrff, /ti^ TraffBkBiiTv, 
aKKa <rv^wi9Cou<f>i(tcu kaI ervveyeipai. Macrob. Saturn, i. 16. 
Scaevola consulens quid feriis agere liceret ? respondit, quod pne^ 
termisBum nbceret. Quapropter si bos in specum decidisset^ 
emnque Paterfamilias adhibitis operis liberasset, non est visus 
ferias 'poUuisse. Nee ille qui trabem teicti fractam fulciendo ab 
imminenti vindicavit ruinfi. Unde et Maro omnium disdplinarum 
peritus, sciens Iivvari ovem, aut lanse purgandae, aut scabiei oi- 
randse gratifi, pronuntiavit banc ovem per ferias licere mersari, 
si hoc remedii causfi fieret. Balantumque gregem fiavio mersare 

12. avOpwros itpofidrovJi One MS. which is often singukir 
with respect to the article, has rod irpofiaTOu- This roust be 
wrong: for though Trpofiarov has been mentioned before, there 
ii^ no reference to it; the assertion is of any man and any 
dieep. See Middleton, 6r. Art. p. SI 3. 

— wrre] See Stephens, Thesaur. Gr. iv. p. 10991- Schwartz 
and Palairet take it in the sense of itaque. See also Hoogeveen, 
Doct. Part. c. lvii. Sect. 16. § 6. Antisthenes Epist. Socrat. 
ovT€ Xf}iKoi yivoiVTo ay o\ iroXXoi afnoBw ovre^, xat ravra Tvpav^ 
voi, w(rT€ <roc aifjUL^vXevo'cufit av dirtevai ^paKOwrHv tc xal 
ScJceXia^. And Solon in Diog. Laert. ii. p. 88, 'Q wdrptij wrog 
fA^p SoXftii^ iToifias Tot xal Xoyw koi epytp afiiveiv, Tot9 o ap 
fiaivetrOtu ootcS, ware awetfui oi ex pAcrov, 

This decision appears to be in direct opposition to the very 
extiuordinary decision of the School of Schammai. Let no one 
console the sick or visit the mourning on the sabbath day. It 
was principally against the decisions of this School that our 
Lord spake 1 for the School of Hillel in some respects decided 

13. efeVcii^ Kol aifOKaT€aTadfi\ i. e. e^cTetve cSiroicaTacrTa- 
$e7(rau vyiij w^ ^ aXkij. 

— awojcarecrrafty] Galen, in Hippocr. de Tract, iii. Karanr-i 
r^ai KTVinfim^ \iyawnv o\ Kura r^v 'Aaiav ''EXXj/wy, aprl Voi? 
wpo9 T^v ouceiav ^dpav aryayelv, airo tovtov ie jUiOi SokcI xal 
o 'I^nroir/iariTS TreiroitiKivai Ka\ vvv to t^ KaTaffrdcew^ oimfta^ 
••• ms'TavToy atipiaipetv ii cn/rov tvi KaBiSpvaei, tjTi^ evSeucwrat 
TO Kara j(w'pav 'iSpwral ri. 

-^ If oXXj}] i. q. irepa, v. 89. 

• 14. cvfifioukLov €Ka^v\ See xxvii. 1. Some MSS, read 
cVofo^y, which probably having been written on the ' margin 
from Mark iii. 6, at length crept into the text. Plato use^ 
avpi^s>v\iip ifoi€iv : in which sense <TVfiftov\iw seems very rarel 


It has been Bupposed to be probable that the Soribes and 
Pharisees who were present at this miracle were members of 
the Sanhedrim. St. Mark iii. 69 has oi ^apuraioi jutra twv 

-*— €^cX0ovT€v3 ^iz. from the sjmagogue. See ver. 9- 
^* oirAfg] Most modem transhitions follow the Vulgate '^ quo- 
modo perderent eum.'" But Chrysostom renders 6irwi by iva 
Hot by irm or ov Tpivow^ 'SjUfifiovXetioyrcu wa apiXtoaw airop. 

15. 'yyoiJff J Scil. ore avfifiovXiov eXa/3ov /car avrod. 

— *- avex^pip^w^ ^o the Lake of ^iberias. Mark iii. % 
-!— inivTais] who were sick and desirous of being healed. 

16. imrifuaia^v] Euthymius gires ^n-apnyyetXe as synonym 

— KpcwMpip TTointftaow^ See ix. 80. They should not dis- 
cover his person against which the Jews had conspired. Lights 
foot says this prohibition tends the same way as his preaching 
by parables did, xiii. 13, I qpeak to them by parables, because 
seeing they see not. He would not be known by them who 
would not know him. 

Polyb. II. 40, 1, Taj(€a>^ t^w avTtis oi/iwt/xiv iiroiijae 00" 
p€pav. And if>ay9pav ttwwv Tt/v apyt^ir t/v €tj(€ irpos tov9 

17* .^ta .'Ho-oioi/] xlii. 1. This prophecy of Isaiah is. not 
dted here according to the Hebrew original, nor according to 
the Septuagint. And Dr. Owen thinks it affords a plain proof 
that the Septuagint has been wilfully corrupted. For the inser- 
tion of the words 'Iwcwfi and 'lapatjXj of which there are no 
traces in the Hebrew, seems to have been made on purpose by 
the Jews, that the text might not be applied to the Messiah, 
though the Targnm on the place is express i&r it. The rest 
has been much altered as appears from Justin Martyr, who 
quotes the text twice and in both places differently. 

18. if/WTttra] Hesych. ^pertadtxriv* tiydinja'a, irr^vfitfcra, 
nBeXfiaoj fifoadfiv. In the Septuagint the word used is arrc- 

r~^o arfampro^^ i. e. Unicus, in which signification the Seventy 
use it. See p. 82. 

-r-« eic ov tfiiSoicj/erev] In. the Septuagint, Trpoaeoej^aTo ai/ror 
p ^vyii fiav^ The Seventy use cii^ojcely either .with the acc« of 
the person, as Ps. L 19 ; or with the preposition ivy as Matt. iii. 
17. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 453. 

— 1} 4^vjci /too] i. q. iywo 

— p Bfiawj In the Septuagint eSwKa' but as the prophet is 


gpeaking of a future event, it is* perhaps better in the future 

-— Kpltrtv] The Laws and Conunandments of God, which he 
was by virtue of the unction of the Spirit to deliver in his 
Father^s name : as Exod. xxi. 1 : Deut. iv. 5, 14 : Matt, xxiii. 
33 : Luke xi. 42. There are abundant instances of this mean- 
ing of the word in Ps. cxviii. It is observable firom Mark iii. 
6,.79 ^^^^ when the Pharisees held a council to destroy hiniy 
he recedes from them to the Sea of Galilee, whither came to 
him a great multitude froip Galilee, from Idumea, and beyond 
Jordan, and from the parts about Tyre and Sidon, and by teach- 
ing them and doing his miracles before them, he shewed judg- 
ment to the Gentiles. 

19- ouK epiaei oiii Kpavyacrei] i. e. he shall not be conten- 
tious, or set forth himself with noise or tumult or ostentatioD 
of his doings ; and this was here fulfilled by his ceasing to 
dispute any longer with those Pharisees, who when they could 
not answer him a word, consulted how they might destroy him; 
and by his strict charge to the multitudes he had healed, that 
they should not make him known. Eisner quotes a passage 
from Plutarch, co^ ydp oi TeKoifievoiy kot apya^ iv Oopi^ 
Kol ^fj irpo^ aXXii\ov9 wOov/ievot avviacri^ hpwfUwav ck Koi Seuc" 
rvfiivtav tSv lepmvf nrpoae^ovai iStf /uerd ^(3ou Kal aumr^* 
oSrw Kal ^iXoero^ias ep apyii koI irepi Qvptxs, voKvv Oopvfioif 
0^61 icai OpaauTfiTa Kal \ci\idp, iiOovfiivmv irpo^ t^v So^ap 
eviwv aypoiKw^ tc Kal /ScaW* o oe €vto9 yevoyuevoif ixepov 
Xafiwp ^ry^iia koX (ntoTniif Kal Oa/mfio^, wrmp Oe^ r^ Xoyw 
Taireivos cri/veirerai nal KeKotrfififieya^. 

The Seventy have ov KCKpa^erai ov^ avritrei. In the Hebrew 
text are two words of the same signification denoting clamour; 
but ipi^eiv in the Evangelists is adopted probably in allusion 
to the usual clamours and altercations of the Rabbins. 

Some interpreters explain this passage thus: Though Mes- 
fiah might easily bear down his enemies by .force of arms, he 
shall not strive with martial violence, nor cry the alarm of war 
in the field of battle, neither shall his heard in the 
streets, as of an enraged general sacking a. conquered town: 
Kpavyvf^ in Greek writers being often used for the shout raised 
in battle, and ^i^€(rQai for the strife which is made in close 

— €1^ Tal? ir7<aT€lat^^ In the Septuagint, ovii aKovtrOfiaeTai 
e^ta 17 0IOF]} avToS' Michaelis would * here understand pi^mi : 
Schaefier 68019. See Bos. £11. Gr. 245. 


20. KoKafaop (ru¥T€Tpiikfik¥ov\ The Seventy have xaXaftov 
T€6Xaafiivov ov trwrpi^ei, koX Xivov Kairvi^6fk€¥OV oi erfieaei. 
These seem to be proverbial expressions to signify a person -of 
a most gentle character ; one who is afflicted from a sense of 
his sins and in fear of God^s anger, and who is contrite. Such 
a one the Messias will not cast away nor destroyi but raise up 
and restore : where the least stmrk of grace spears, he will not 
quench it, but take the utmost care to keep it aUve and im- 
prove it. 

Or, the bruised reed and smoking flax may signify the 

weakness of Chrisf s enemies, whom he could have destroyed 

as easily as men break a bruised reed, or extinguish a fire tha£ 

.18 beginning to kindle, consequently the clause is of the same 

import as the former. 

LightfooOays th^3e words are to be applied, as appears by 
those that w6nt before, to oar Saviour^s silent transaction of 
his own affairs, without hunting after applause or the loud re- 
ports of fame. He shall not make so great a noise as is made 
from the breaking of a reed now already bruised and half broken, 
or from the hissing of smoking flax only, when water is thrown 
upon it. 

— 01/ Kareal^et] Thus Aristsenet. i. 7* ''^^ '*'« OvporiKov 
Karia^e' KaXafiov. Ayvv/ni forms its tenses from ayw, 

-— \7yop Tv<po/uL€vov] Here Xipov will signify the wick of a 
lamp, made of flaxen threads, which the Jews used as we do 
cotton : the thing nuule being expressed by the materials of which 
it is made ; and that by Synechdoche for the lamp itself which 
when near going out yields more smoke than light. Used figura- 
tively perhaps for a weak and almost extinguished faith. See 
Forteus, Lect. x. p. 261. 

-— rv<b6/jL6vov\ Schol. Origenis XiwK ^v<l>ofjt€V09 oi Karemu' 
p6fi€voi T^ dkifOeia^. Hesych. Tvif^wdcu, juapaiv&rOaif fiovx^ 
eKKaleaOcuj j(wph <p\oyos xairvop etvcu, Philo de Migrat. Abrah. 
p. 455, (nrivO^p yctp leal o Ppajfyraro^ ivrvipo/iieyoif irav Kara" 
irvevcrOels l^wirvptfifii /neydXtiv i^dirrei irvpdv. Plutarch. Solon. 
TrapeipvXitfy Tv(l)Ofiepffy aSpov irvpo^ en l^wtrav ipXoya^ rtfp epw^ 
T«cj)r fipiifinv Kai yupiv. Schol. Soph. Antig. 1124, rvipeiv eart 

TO fipifia vwoa/iiix^^' 

-— €€os ap €K0aKfi €is PiKOi T);v Kpiaiv] i. e. till he has made 
his Gospel and righteous law victorious over all its enemies. 
Thus in Polyb. i. 68, we find ek c&vpaTOp eicjSaXXfiy used for 
*' to render impossible,^ KodoKau Si ael re kqipop Trpoael^evpurKoVj 
eig dSvparop eK^aXKopTes rifp iiaXvaip, Sid to iroXXovs ica^^irTav- 


Koi crraamSei's ii^ aJroi^ inrapyet¥. So Plato, Epist. -vii. hvra 
iroK^ffaey ci? apapfuxrriav icai airpiireiap eic/3aXXciy. 

^*~ eit view Tiip xplffiv] In the Septuagint it is oXAa elr 
<iXf706iay e^oiVec icpimv* Here irpi(rcf used to signify a divine law 
at rule of life, as in ver. 18. After it some MSS. add ovroi;^ 
which shews in what sense it was imderstood. 

21. iv T^ ovoftart ovroi/] for iv oirr^. Several MSS« want ey. 
St Matthew here follows the Septuagint. The original is '< And 
the isles shall wait for his law.^ In the language of the Old 
Testament the isles commonly denote the idolatrous nations to 
the west of Judaea, inhabiting the islands of Greece and Italy. 
The prophets meaning therefore is, that the heathen nations, 
charmed with the humanity and gentleness of the Measiah^s dispo- 
sition, the equity of his government, and the beauty and rectitude 
of his laws, shall trust in him and obtain for themselves protection 
iand safety by becoming his subjects. 

22. ede/MKweucreF avrop] St Luke ^y cic/3aXXcoy to icufioviopm 
See Porteus, Lect. %. p. 262* 

•— > XoXsiy Kai /3Xex6ty] for jSXexety xal XaXeiy. 

23. e^iarravTol Hesych. iOaifial^op. i^icmip' iOaJUficura, c^€« 

— M?;ti] Beginning seriously to think that he was. See 
Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. c. xxvii* Sect 13. § 4. 

— vm Tov Aa/3i2] i. e. The Messiah, o Xpurros^ which some 
MSS. add. See ix. 27. 

24. rd Saiftjipta] Not all demons: but those whom he does 
cast out, he casts out through the aid of Beelzebub. 

— ei fiiil Between ovk and el /ui}, Michaelis supposes an 
ellipsis of ev aXXap. See Bos. £1L Gr. p. 1^. 

— . BeeX^cjSoiJX] See x. 26. 

'^^ afxyovn, &c.] Porphyr. de Abst. ii. 41, 42, says they 
who did evil by enchantments roi/rovc fioKurra koi top irpowr-^ 
Twra avTwp eKTifi&ri. 

25. ei^ ii i *ln<To!n\ He knew that the wickedness of their 
hearts and not the weakness of their understandings, had led 
them to form the opinion they had uttered, if it was their real 
opinion ( or rather to affirm it contrary to their conviction, which 
was the reason that at the conclusion of his defence, he repri* 
manded them in the sharpest manner. 

^-< waoxt /3ao'<Xtf(a4 be] A proverb. Buxtorf mentions a 
similar saying of the Rabbins ; Lex. Talmud. Xen. Mem. iv. 
4^ 16, ayct; ok op^ovow oir dv froKi^ ev woXiTcvOelti, ovre oIjco9 
itoXiSv oiKffieifi. Cic. liwl. vii. Qusb enim domus tarn stabilis. 


quse tarn firma dyitas est^ quse non odiis atque dis^idiis fim^itus 
possit everti. Also de Fin. i. 18, Neque enim civitas in ^editione 
beata esse potest, nee in discordia dominorum domus^ Soph. 
Antig. 683, avap^ia/s yap pLSil^ov ovk i<m¥ koicop, auTTi ttoXcis 
t' oWiHruf, i c aifocTaTov^ oikov^ TtOtiaip* Seneca de Ir& ii. 31, 
Salva autem esse sodetas nisi amore et QUStodi& partiMm non 

— oJ (TTaOiiaeTai^ for oi ivvarcu trraO^vatf Mark iii. 34. 

26. o Sarovas roy SaroMav] for iavrow: the Hebrews fre- 
quently using the noun for the pronoun as Gen. xix. $4i: so 
2 Tim. i. 18. Hence St. Mark iii. 26, has Yaravas aveo'Tti iif^ 

— - ^n-is ow CToBiiiTeTai ;] An interrogation answering the 
purpose of a negation, ov Svvarcu crrad^vai, i* q. ipfi/jLourau 

27- Kcd €1 iyw iv BtfeX^eiSovX, &c.] That it was the oustom 
of the Jews to cast out devils by. the invocation of the name of 
the Most High, or the God of Abraham, Isaac 4uid Jacob, we 
leam from Justin Martyr, Dialog* c. Tryph* p, 311, ei apa 
e^opxi^oi T<r ifJuSp Kara tov Q^ov 'Afipaofi, Kfil Oeov 'I(roaK, ical 
Geov Jcucm^j icrioi vnoTw^iiaeTai And from .Ireneesis. i. 2,. B^ 
£t hujus invocatione etiam ante adventum Domini nostri salva^ 
bantur homines a spiritibuB nequissknis aut a demoniis universis. 
Origen iv. c. Cels: aaipHs ^ ori yevedk/KyoiyTcu 'loi/^alpf airo 
TW Tp*Sv waripun^^ Toi 'Aftpofiifk Kal t<w 'laaix koI tov 'Iaic<u)3, 
WW ToaovTov ivpavTQt rd ovofiara uwaTrrofiwa r^ tw OcoS 
*Tpo<myopl^, itfg oil I40VC¥ Toif^ iwo TfiXi e0pqw \pticOcu ew rat^ 
7/m Qew evj(ai^ xal t^ icarcv^^iir ScufAOWM^ oAAa yap (r)(eSo¥ 
Mol naPTav tous rd rm ivwimv teal fAayeuip wpayfiaTevofUvovs* 
^vpicTKerai yap €v roi^ jtayucols (rvyypafxfiacri iroWaypv if 
TOiavrn TOV Oeof; eViicXi|(i:<s. See also TertuUian, Theophilus 
and Jerome. Josephus Ant. viii. 2^ 5, tells us that Grod ^ve 
this art to Solompn against devils, thait he should teach it «f9 
wtbeXeiav xal depaweiav roi^ awOpw^oi^* He expressly says Koi 
avTti yijfpi vvp 'trap ^fkir i Oepan^ia TrXwrrow iayieu .And 
Irenaeus, Judsei usque nunc hfic ips& advocatione daemonas effu- 
gant. See Mark ix. 38: Luke.ix. 4Qz Acts xix. 13< Lucuin. 
Tragopodag. I7I9 oXX^w iirooi^T^ iinBerUp e/uHrai^erai, *lovSaios 
irepoy fiwpop i^4^e^ Xa^v. Thus then our Saviouc seems to 
argue. You doubt not but your exordsts who use the name of 
God, the Grod of Abraham, &c. do cast out devils by virtue 
of that name, it will then be a matter of your condemnation, who 
pass so favorable a judgment upon them, to pass such an unjust 
censure upon me, in whom you see far greater evidences of the 

296' ST. MATTHEW. 

finger of 6od» in casting out all manner of evil spirits and healing 
all kinds of diseases. 

Calvin thought that Grod conferred a power of this kind on 
some particular persons among the Jews antiently, that by thus 
proving his presence amongst them, he might retain the nation 
in the faith of his covenant ; and that the people having experi- 
enced God'^s power in those instances, came foolishly to institute 
for themselves the office of an exorcist. Agreeably to this it may 
be observed that oUr Loid'*s argument does not require that the 
demons were actually expelled by these exorcists. It is sufiicient 
that the Jews thought they were expelled, and did not find fault 
with those pretended miracles, as they did with Christ^s real ones. 

^-^ oi viol vjUiSv] Your disciples : the disciples of the Phari- 
sees. Among the Hebrews it was common for the master to call 
his disciples softs : and they in return called him father. 1 Kings 
xxi. 35: 3 Kings ii. 3: 2 Tim. i. 2: Fhilem. 10. 

28. iy wevfian Oeov] St. Luke xi. 20, iv hoKrvKip Beov. 
This may signify no more than by divine cooperation: and so 
^veZfw, is used in the fifth of Bishop Middleton^s senses. See 
Gr. Art. p. 16a 

— ' apa\ See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. c. v. Sect. 1. § 6. 

— i<p6acTe¥ €(f> vfuif] 1 Thess. ii. 16 : Hom. XL i- 502, 
^avei ie re iraaav ew* alav BKdwrovtr avOpwirov^* 

-^ ri ^aiKeta rod Oeov] The inference of Christ firom this 
is clear, that he was the Messias promised to set up the kingdom 
spoken of by Daniel: for seeing in their own opinion their 
Messiidi was to erect this kingdom, that Divine assistance which 
proved that. he was now come who was the Messiah, must also 
prove the kingdom of Grod was come: and seeing the kingdom 
of Satan was by this power overthrown, they reasonably might 
think the kingdom of God was ready to be set up, and that 
one stronger than he was come among them, ver. 29* See 
Warburton's Works, Vol. vi. p. 331. 

29. j}] See Gkss. Phil. Sac. p. 52?. 

— - rod ur)(ffpwl\ In this comparison o ixryvpos is generally 
supposed to be meant for Satan. But it may be observed, that 
from a comparison of the parallel place, Luke xi. 21, 22, Bishop 
Middleton thinks that Satan is not meant; and he adds, the 
artide need not create any difficulty ; its true use in this place 
being what he denominates hypothetic. See Gr. Art. Part i. 
p. 60. RosenmuUer translates potentis alicujus. 

"•^ ^capwcurcc] Several MSS. read Stafytraavi- 

30. 6 /uij mv fiL€T €Moi7, &c.] See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. 



c. XXVII. Sect. 2. § 13. This is a proverb founded upon the 
maxims of the world, that when two powers are at irreconcileable 
enmity against each other,, he that forbears joining with one side 
is reputed to be against it. In many proverbial expressions 
the first person is put aopltrrw^ for any other: and if that be 
the case in this proverb, yet when the application is made, it 
will signify. He that sides not with me contending against 
Satan and his kingdom, is against me, as being unwilling that 
his kingdom should be destroyed. And he that in doing this 
work is not against me, but casts out devils in my name, though 
he doth not yet follow me, is for me, Luke ix. 49, 50. 

Cic. pro Ligar. xi. Valeat tua vox ilia quas vidt. Te enim 
dicere audiebamus; nos omnes adversarios putare, qui non no- 
biscum essent : te omnes, qui contra te non essent, tuos. Quintil. 
viix. 6, 61, Obstat quicquid non adjuvat. Flut. Solon, roiif ^ 
aWmv avTov vofAwv Hio^ fieif itaKiCTTa koI vapa&o^o^ o KcKevwy 
aTifxov elyai rov iv (TTcurei fiffieTipa^ fiepiBos yevofxevov. 

— fier ifiiov\ fieTa tm/o^ eli'ai signifies to be of any person^s 
side, to lend him aid. Demosth. ad Phil. Epist. p. 66, koI vvv 
fieff vfiwv yevofiepo^ pctouo^ KaTaTroKefi^frei t^v ^iXitr'trov oivafuv* 
De Class, p. 76, el roivw Ti( diercu Oi/jSacow etrecrOai /uter exeipov. 
Thucyd. vi. 44, o\ ii oi^ fieff eTepwv eipcurav iaeaOcu* and 
VII. 67» /UL€T oiXXiiXwv ardpre^* SchoL trvfiyjiyfiaavTes oXXi/Xoc?* 
Joseph. Ant. xv. fi^ £v to Bikoiov io'TiVy fier exelvwy o Ge<k« 

31. &a roi/To] This inference is not particularly connected 
with the member of the discourse immediately preceding it, but 
arises fix>m the whole series of the reasoning. 

-— Trao-a ofxapria] i. e. all other sin that is not attended with 
the same degree of malice. St. Luke restrains these blasphemies 
to those that are spoken against the Son of Man, Luke xii. 10. 

-^ ^i\aa'(pfifiia] Injurious expressions or detraction in the 
largest acceptation, whether against God or man. When God 
is the object, it is properly rendered blasphemy. It is evident 
in this passage both are included. 

— a(p€6ii<T€Tai] i. e- upon their hearty and unfeigned re- 
pentance. As the Hebrew has no subjunctive or potential mood, 
the future tense is frequently made use of for supplying this 
defect. This idiom is common in the Septuagint, and has been 
thence adopted into the New Testament. It is evidently our 
Lord'^s meaning here, not that every such sin shall actually be 
pardoned, but that it is in the Divine GBconomy capable of being 
pardoned. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 198. Our Saviour^s words 
do not speak of the event of things, but of the provision which 


is now made: Blasphemy shall be. forgiven, i. e. there is pardon 
to be had. See Waterland, Vol. ix. Serm. xxviii. 

— — fiTioaxf^fffila toS nvev/uzTo^] i- e. Kara rot; nveufiaroi. 
Which according to some Divines consisted in their maliciously 
ascribing the miracles wrought to Beelzebub, and not to the 
Spirit of Grod; as they must have known that they could not 
be accounted for in a natural way; and the Divine hand was 
so visible that it could not be missed by any who were not wil- 
fully blind. According to this interpretation it is confined solely 
and exclusively to those Pharisees who saw the miracles per- 
formed and attributed them to the agency of evil spirits. 

The crime is here called not rin, but blasphemy against the 
Holy Ghost; which evidently refers not to actions, but to words; 
not to any thing done, but to something said against the Holy 
Ghost. It was the belying, slandering or reviling the Divine 
Spirit, by which our Lord wrought his miracles, ascribing them 
to the Devil. See Waterland, Vol. ix. p. 352 — 356. 

Others apply it to maliciously speaking against the Holy Spirit 
when the grand dispensation of it shall open after Christ^s resur- 
rection. When that period cometh, and the miraculous gifts 
of the Holy Ghost are shed down upon almost all believers, 
and the nature of the Messiah^s kingdom is more fully made 
known, the foimdation of your prejudices against me shall be 
removed. Wherefore if you shall then speak against the Holy 
Ghost, by maliciously affirming that his gifts and miracles come 
from the devil, it shall not be forgiven you, because it is a sin 
which you cannot possibly repent of, inasmuch as further evi- 
dence shall not be offered to you. This is Whitby'^s opinion, 
to which Doddridge assents. But, besides that our Saviour had 
not as yet made mention either of his own ascension, or of the 
mission of the Holy Ghost, since the power whereby both he and 
the Apostles wrought their miracles, proceeded firom the same 
Divine Spirit, a reviling this power when our Saviour did the 
miracle, must be blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, as much 
as it was when his Apostles did it ; and so the difference amounts 
to nothing. There is but little weight in the objection that 
the Holy Ghost could not be blasphemed at that tune, because 
he was not yet given : for our blessed Lord most undoubtedly 
bad the Holy Spirit always residing in him without limitation 
or measure; and he himself professes that it was by the Spirit 
of God that he cast out devils; so that the blas|dieming that 
Divine- power by which he wrought his miracles was plainly 
blaspheming the Holy Spirit. It is true tliat the Holy Ghost 

ClIAPtER XII. 299 

wiEui not yet given in fuU measure to our Lord^s disciples; but 
to our Lord himself he most certainly was; ftnd therefore the 
objection in this case is slight and comes not up to the point. 
Other opinions see in Waterland xx. p. 354, and Bishop Taylor, 
Vol. IX. p, 203. 

33. o9 av ^itfi Kara rod viov} &c.] eifreiv Kara rtvo^ in [the 
saise of /3Xaer0Y/M€7i^ eU ripa, which is used in Luke xii. 10, 
Ch av eiirri \oyoVf scil. pKa<T<f>tiikovy Bos. Ell. 6r. p. 88. 

--— vtov rod av9ptiirov\ Jesus Christ as considered in that 
state of humiliation, which was apt to give offence to persons 
possessed with false notions of the Messiah. Thus we find him 
contemned and reproached for the meanness of his birth, the 
poverty of his condition, or freedom of his conversation, as calling 
Imn a deceiver, a glutton, a winebibber and the like, and after- 
wards for the ignominy of his death : but this sin did not-excltide 
the possibility of repentance and the hope of pardon. 

-— Tov IIwi/juwxToy ToS ayiov\ The meaning of irvevfjLa ayiov 
in this place is not absolutely determined by the article, though 
it is evidently used in the personal or fourth of Middleton^s 
meanings, or else according to the fifth to denote the Holy In- 
fluence. The context however determines at once in favour of 
the former of these, as is plain from to TrvevfAa to ayiov being 
used in opposition to o i/co? tov QeoS in the preceding part of 
the verse: for an antithesis between a person and an influence 
would be unnatural, to irvevyM therefore in the last verse was 
also used in the personal sense. See 6r. Art. p. 213. On this 
verse Pearson grounds an argument that the Holy Ghost is a 
person and that uncre&ted.* Creed, Vol. i. p. 475. 

•— -* ovK aipffii^eTai\ A fieiofai^ for he shaU be most severely 
punished. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 231. 

There were many sins under the law of Moses, for which 
no remission was to be had from any sacrifice allowed by that 
law. He that was guilty was liable either to death or to ea^ 
cision. And blasphemy was one of those for which there was 
no legal expiation. But the Jews had hopes that every sin 
should be atoned for by death; so that they would have 
their part in the promise to the Israelites of the world to 

— - ouT€ iv TouTip T^ atwvi aure ev T<j5 /ucXXoinri] Several 
MSS. and some Fathers read ry i/i/i; instead of roin-y t^. Hesych. 
diwv* o )3«o9 Twv ayOpw^rwUf 6 Ttj^ ^w^^ yjpovo^. Neither here 
upon earth, nor at the great day of accounts. See Mark iii. 29 : 
Luke xii. 10. This is a common mode of speaking among the 

300 8T. MATTHEW^ 

Jews ; 2 Mace. vi. 26, aWa rpis rod TravroKparopos X^'ipos wiT€ 

^wv CH/T6 €aro0amiv itcff^ev^ofAcu. In the constdtutions of Clement i 

VI. 18, we findt>i pka(r(prifULijaain'€9 to TLvev/ia ti^9 "xapiros, jcal 

airamvia'avTes Tijv trap' avrov cwpedv fierd Tfiv jfopiVj ok ouk 

a<p€0ii(T€Tai ovre 9v r^ auSi/t^roi/r^ avre ev t^ fiiWovn, 

— ^XXoim] ^lian. V. H. xjii. 37> €is top /lerd radra 
aiwva* Herodian. i. p. 9, €'y«caTaXc?r(iiy aperii^ ai^ov fiu^firiv €19 
Tov iao/ievov ai£va. 

S3, irouiaare] Treat or esteem us. Confess that the tree 
is good which produces good fruit; or the tree had which pro- 
duces bad fruit. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 226. Joseph. Ant. iv« 
8, 14, €K€iyovs TOV Qeov iuvaTwrepov^ iroiei. Flut. in Apophth. 
Twy /meyicrrwy €vtvj(i£v eiroieiTo ivo, De Orac. Def. vkeiovas 
9roioi7rra9 X^P'^ aWi/Xwy icoor/uow. Sotades apud Stob. Serm. 
ccxLvii. "SiOKpuTtiv 6 Koafios freiroityice ao<pov elvai, Herod, iii. 
5, Owvfia ie iroiev/Aevwv twv KaTcurKoirwv vepl tUp CTewy, And 
IX. 110, o Se Seivov re koI avapatov eiroceero. See vii. I7 : 
Luke vi. 43. 

iroXov] Athenseus i. twv ^ifSpwu to /liif Kap7ro<f>opa iroXa 
vpoaayopevei* evOa ^popea KoXd ire<piMi* 

— aairp6v\ Ecclus xiv. 19, 6^701; aftirofiepov which gives 
not solid satisfaction. 

34. yewiiiuMTa ejfiSpwy] See iii. 7* 

— - wm oivcurOe'l for wm av SvvcuaOe. The indie, here has 
the signification of the optat. 

— ay add XoXeTy] In opposition to pKcur(p9ifxuz, ver. 31 • 

— €K yap TOV ireptaatvuxaTos, Sec] In the heart faith is 
sealed; with the tongue confession is made; between these two 
salvation is completed. Pearson on the Creed, Vol. i. p. 23. 
Menander, dvSpo^ yapcucrrip €k \oywv yvwpil^eTcum Aristides, 
olos 6 Tpoirosj TOiovTOi teal o Xoyos^ Quintil. "xi* 1, 30, Profert 
enim mores plerumque oratio, et animi secreta detegit. Nee sine 
caus& Grssd prodiderunt, ut vivat, quemque etiam dicere. See 
Acts V. 3. 

35. o dya9o9y &c.] The article, Middleton says, is here 
employed hypothetically. 

— 99faavpov^ See ii. 11. Demophilus in Opusc. Mytholog. 
p. 620, has a similar sentiment, olov to tfio^ iKaarov, T0109 ^ 
/3w Kal irpd^et^» ^hOC'^ y^P ^^'^^ TOfjuelov, dyaO^ yAv dyaOod, 


— t5s KapSia%] Wanting in very many MSS. and probably, 
repeated from the preceding verse, or fipom the parallel passage, 
Luke vi. 45. 


«— - eic)3a\Xei] In Luke vi. 45, irp6<f>epet. The Seventy use 
both translations of the same Hebrew verb. • 

Herod, vi. 69, cyww 5e koI avroi o ^Aplarwv ov fuera iroKkiv 
'XpovoVf m dvoifi* TO eiros eir/3a\o( touto. Eurip. Ion. QSQy 
oucrpa TToXXa arofiaroi eKfidkova eim» See also 924, and 
Helena 1563. 

— rd dyaOd] Followed by vowipd without the article. 
This difference has occasioned some critical discussion. Bishop 
Middleton says he is persuaded that no such difference as thiit 
which our received text now exhibits, originally existed; that 
either both dryaOd and wovripd had the article, or that both were 
without it ; and of these, the latter is by far the more probable : 
for the aawmption that the things brought forth were good, 
is scarcely allowable, this being the very thing to be asserted. 
The MSS. though some few have ra vowipd are much more 
strongly in favour of his supposition : no less than twenty'-seven . 
of Wetstein, ten of Birch, including Vat. 1209, and fifteen of 
Matthai, among which are several of his best, omitting rd 
before dyadd. In the parallel passage, Luke vi. 45, we have 
TO dr/aOov and to irovtipov. But adjectives in the neut. sing., 
used in the abstract sense require the article. See 6r. Art. 
Part I. c. III. Sect. i. § 6. 

36. Xiyw vfiiv ori] in sometimes is added to Xrya» v/uivy 
and sometimes not, as xi. 22, 24. 

— - ptiiAa dpyov^ Mean malicious or impious expressions : 
^lluding still to the main, subject of his discourse, the spiteful . 
and opprobrious words which the Pharisees had impiously thrown 
out against the Spirit of God. See Waterland, Vol. ix. p. 352. 
Porteus, Lect. X. p. 274. They were such as demonstrated the 
speaker to be an evil man, out of an evil heart qpeaking evil 
words. Hence some MSS. read nwripov. In the same way in 
Eph. V. 6, we meet with ircvoi9 Xoyots* See Bishop Taylor^'s 
Works, Vol. V. p. 38, and p. 333 : and Vol. xiv. p. 295. 

Pythag. apud Stob. Serm. xxxiv. aiperdrepov croi icTw XiOov 
ein^ PciXXeiy 17 \6yov dpyov. Plato de Leg. iv. Kov(f>wy Koi 
arrwwy \oywv (iapifraTti ^17/uiia. Cicero de Fato xii. Appellatur 
a Philosophis dpyos X0709, cui si pareamus nihil omnino est quod 
agamus in vita. Chrysostom interprets dfyyiv by to fin Kwrd 
irpdyfiaTOi Keifievov, to yj/ev^if to avKo^vriav i\ov^ and adds 
«rfi/e9 2e ipatriv ori xal to fjMraiov, to yeXarra kivoSv araicroi;, 
fj TO aiaypov xal dvat<r)(yvTov xal ayeXevdepov, 

The sacred writers frequently use this kind of fieluKTu, joining 
the negi^tive particle to word^ of a signification contrary to that 

30^ 8T. MATTHEW. 

which they wish to express. So also Ecclus xyi 1, a'xp^itm^ 
impious. So Xen. Ki/p. iracj. i. 3, 8, fkij XvaiTeKetv to be per- 
nicious, to bring destruction. In which sense Cicero uses the 
word inutile. Off. iii. 13, Haec tot, et alia plura nonne inutile 
est vitiorum subire nomina ? De Invent, ii. 52, Appetendarum 
rerum partes simt honestas et utilitas ; vitandarum turpitudo et 

wav fSifia apyop o iap XaXiiawtriv is nom. abs., oommon in 
Hebrew at the beginning of a sentence, and not unusual in Greek, 
for Trepi iravro9 pifuvrtK, &c. See Matthise, Gr. Gram. 310 : or 
sub. Kori. quod attinet ad, Bos. £11. Ghr. 449* Fausan. Fhoc. x. 
Kal ofTfi \eiaf avoBtvras Tavrijv Kal ra ^i|/uara eiri t^v Trvpaw 
Koi eveyra^ trvp. Herod, ii. 162, *0 dc, eirec T€ atriKOfievos xaTe* 
Xajuifiape tou9 Aiyvwriovij Tavra fJLtf iroieeiv Xeyovro^ ai/rov, 
Twv Tw Alyunrimv iirtfrde crray irepteOffM oi Kvpeijw. *0 Si for 
TovTtp 06 or Tf 5e. 

' — cnro^crovo-c \6yov] See Rom. xiv. 12. Dion. Hal. A. R. i. 
trepi Twv a<popfiwv airoSicov^ Xoyov^y and x. irepl tAv ireirpay^ 
fkivwv \oyov airciav^ e^wfjLoaaTo apy^^w* Joseph. Ant. xix. 6, 8, 
itdXtwra err ipje avaydiivai twv ireirpayiAeywv Xoyou airoSti^ 
fTovran. But this and other similar phrases include also their 
consequence, and imply the suffering of punishment which follows 
the giving account. 

— « rrepi ai/Toi;] The relative here used, evidentise et ipep* 
yelas causa. Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 177« 

37* €#c yap Twp Xoywv\ Xen. Ki/p. iroi^. ix« 2, 13, ei ciSoiey, 
oTi €K Twv epywv Kal avroi Kptvofievoi t&v nJ^mv tev^oivro. 

-i- jcai] Both of the clauses in this verse cannot belong to 
the same person^ therefore Kal must be put for or, as Mark 
iv. 27 : Phil. iv. 16 : Exod. xxi. 16, I7 : Numb. xxx. 4, 5, 6. 
Aristot. 17 aperij fkerd Xvirti^ xal i^Soyfi^* ^ ^^ ^^ Tibullus i. 
9, 49, for aut ; Ilia velim rapida Vulcanus carmina flamma Tor- 
reat, et liquida deleat amnis aqua. Whence we find ij instead 
of Kal in many antient MSS. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 526. 

38. avcKpiOijadp rti^] Not the same persons who had ac* 
cused Christ o! casting out Devils by Beelzebub, but others. 
Luke xi. 16, erepoi hi ir€ipa^o¥T€%» 

— BiXoiJL€v\ We wish, we are desirous. Xen. Anab. 11. 6, 11, 
iv flip ovp T019 Setvois iideXov airov wcoveip <r<p6Spa. 

— atjfieiov iSeiv'l '^^^ miraculous works of Christ, such as 
healing the sick, &c. were signs, but the Jews required some 
of another nature, so that the sign here meant is avfieiov oiro 
rov ovpapcSi Mark vili. 11 : coU. Matt. xvi. 1 : Luke xi. 26< 


some uncommon appearance in the heavens, like those that 
were caused by Joshua (x. 13) by Samuel (1 Sam. vii. 10) and 
by Elijah (1 Kings xviii. 32.) See Lardner, Vol. i. B« i. c. 5. 

§2- , , 

39« yevea wovffpd «cou /uocxaXJ9] A degenerate and base gene* 
ration, which haUi departed from the holiness pf its ancestors. 
This passage is an allusion to Isai. Ivii. 3, 4. Comp. John viii. 
34 — 44 : Fs. cxliii. 7, 8. In the Old Testament God is often 
compared to a husband, and the Jewish nation to a wife : whence 
their' impiety and idolatry is expressed by words implying adul- 
tery. Hos. iii. 1 : Greg. Nyss. c. Apollinar. Vol. ui. p. 263^ 
wov9ipa jULevy Cioi to oXav Tore roy KoajuLOtf €p r^ wainfp^ KtiaOai" 
fA<M^aXi9 o€ oiu TO dirocFTaarcu avTfjv toS ayaOov - vvfixf>ioVf xal 
Tov Ota KOKiOi fioi^evovTi Tctv >/a;^o9 aucucpa6iJ9fcu» And Theo- 
phylact on Matt. xvi. 4, p. 92, wovifpa yeved ireipal^ovTeg* /uoc- 
J(aki9 M a^urrtlpLevoi tov Qeov^ koi KohXmpMvoi Ttp oia/3oX^. 

— cwi^ifrel] ^i?T««> Mark viii. 11, 12 ; whence some MSS. 
here read ^i|T67. But trrifieiov e*!ri^ifru is for afffielov irap 
ifAoS eirt^ifTei, seeks in addition, or eagerly. Ecclus xxviii. 3, 
Tcapd KvfHov ^«7T6i Mtriv* 

-— ICO I atifjbslov] Sed. Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 527. 

'^^^flfieiov 'loiva] That which happened in the person of 
Jcmah. As he was restored alive unto the dry land again, so 
should the Messias after three days be token out of the jaws 
of death and restored unto the kmd of the living, Pearson on 
the Creed, Vol. i. p. 390. This prophet was sent to call the 
Ninevites to repentance, and was successful in his undertaking: 
and his miraculous escape fipom the belly of the whale was a 
competent proof that he was sent by God, and very fit to gain 
him credit with the Ninevites. And very probable it is that 
the fame of what^ had befallen him had come to the men of 
Nineveh, and that it made way for the reception of the doctrine 
which he preached. The resurrection of Jesus was a greater 
sign, and that which made way for the entertainment of his 
doctrine in the world: for it did confirm the truth of all which 
he had said beyond exception, and was given them as a sign 
for this purpose. 

40. iv TTi Koiklq. TOV ACf/rov?] It is no where said in the 
Old Testament that Jonah was swallowed by a whale; and it 
is the less probable, as whales are seldom found in the Mediter- 
ranean, and as the gullet of a whale is said to be so small as 
not to be capable of receiving even the head of a man. It is 
therefore probable that it was some other great fish, such ai^ 



was called by the Greeks Lamia, because its mouth and throat 
were very large. The word ir$ro9 may signify any large fish. 
Hesych. kotos' OaXcuraios lyOv^ irafiii&yiQffs^ He also explains 
tarrw€a<ra by fieydXtj, in which signification we find it in Homer 
11. j3. 581, oi a el'xpv KolXtiv AoKeocufiova Ktirweatrav, i. e. fieya^ 
X^tt, Eustath. 

—— iv T^ KapSl^ T^ y^hli Hebraism for ev r^ •y^. See Glass. 
Phil. Sac. p. 116. Alluding to what Jonah says ii. 4, KopSia 
OaXdacrtfi. In Ezek. xxviii. 2, Tyre is said to be in the heart 
of the sea, though it was so near the main land, that when 
Alexander besieged it he carried a causeway from the land to 
the dty. See Fs. xIt. 2 : Exod. xv. 8 : Prov. xxx. 19 : 'Ezek. 
xxvii. 4, 25, 26. 

— rpeis riixepa^ Ka\ rpel^ w/icray] See Pearson on the Creed, 
VoL I. p. 393. Christ was in the sepulchre two nights, one 
whole day and two parts of a day. But it may be observed 
that the Easterns reckoned any part of a day of twenty-four 
hours for a whole day : and say a thing was done after three 
or seven days, &c, if it was done on the third or seventh day 
from that last-mentioned. Comp. 1 Kings xx. 29 : 2 Chron. x. 
5, 12: Luke ii. 21. And one of their authors lays this down 
as a rule, part of the month is as the whole, and part of the 
year is as the whole. And as the Hebrews had no word ex- 
actly answering to the Greek wyQifxepov, to signify a natural 
day of twenty-four hours, they use night and day, or day and 
night for it. So that to say a thing happened after three days 
and three nights was the same as to say it happened after thiee 
days or on the third^day. Thus the Hebrew child was to be 
circumcised the eighth day : but then the day of its birth and 
of its circumcision were both counted. The Pentecost was the 
fiftieth day from the day of the wave-offering; but then both 
the one and the other are reckoned in this account. This is 
but the phrase of the Old Testament. Again the priests in 
their courses were to minister one week : yet Joseph. Ant. vii. 
11, tells us that they were obliged to minister eVc lifiepa^ oktw 
avo aaft^Tov eirt adfi^Tov. The Jubilee is expressly called 
the fiftieth year, Levit. xxv. 10,. 11, and yet it is certain that 
it is but the forty-ninth from the end of the preceding Jubilee. 
Compare Esth. iv. 16, with v. 1 : Gen. vii. 4, 13 : Exod. xxiv. 
18: xxxiv. 28. See Kidder Dem. of Messiah, Part ii. p. 61. 
So Porphyr. in Quasst. Homer, Kal yap 6 Xtfyoiatfi fj^^epa^ 
eiroiKryra^ teal T^y rpirij^ iwOev i^uSv, rri Tpirti dvoSrifA€t¥ 


41. avSplK Nivsevlrac} Luke xi. 32, cufipe^ Nipeii^ But here 
aifip€9 redundant, as Acts xix. 86, awipe^ '£0ff(nof,-— xvii. 22^ 
€uwpe9 'A6fivai{H: xi* 20^ dv^pe^ Ki/ir/Moe Kai Kvptfvcuoi* 

—^ fUTo] in q* e^rt. Some think there is in iuravcumfaovrat 
8 reference to die custom of witnesses rising op to give their 
• «-*- eir Tff KpUrsi] i. q. iy tmepa Kpurem9» See x. 15. Med^, p. 24«: 

— - juLerevotjaav] See Bp. Taylor^s Works, Vol. ii. p. 420. 
. — tfis TO Kiipuytio] propter. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 462. In 
which sense Herodotus uses irpo^ to Kiipvyima, in. B2, ^poq-Tovra 
TO KTipuyfia ovT€ TC9 01 itokiymrOcu, of/re oiKiourt i^xeaOmt 

— fl-Xsiov] See vi. 25; vepKrcorepoVf xi. 9- 

42. ficuTiKuTaa votov] A queen of the South. The allusion^ 
Middleton says, is to the princess recorded in 1 Bangs x. 1 r 
2 Chron. ix. 1, 3: but the reference was not necessary, especially 
when the event alluded to had happened so many centuries before. 
Indeed the insertion of the article would rather have directed the 
mind of the hearer to some Queen then livibg ; whilst the omis-f 
sion would leave him at liberty to make the intended application. 

Phrynichus, p. 96^ Tiaaikiaaa avSels twv apxjaiwv eiwev^ aXKd i 

/SatriXeia ^ (icuriXls : which is supported by Thomas M., Mssris, 
Eustathiui^, the Schol. to Oppian, &c. But we meet with it in 
^enophon, Plutarch, Herodian, Heliodorus, Polybius, '&c. and 
in several passages in Josephus, iLnd Diodorus Siculus. We may 
infer from the Septuagint that it was common in the Macedonian 
and Alexandrian dialects. 

— voTov] The country over M^hich this Queen reigned, ia 
in the Old Testament called Sheba, and is supposed to have 
been that which in profane authors goes. by the name of Sabssa. 
Yet Josephus does not allow her to have been QUeen of that 
country> because Arabia Felix, of which Sabaea was a part, 
lay more to the east than to the south, of Judsea* He says 
she took her title from Saba, a city of Meroe, an island fa 
the Nile, over which she reigned, and the Queens of w|;iich ake 
afterwards called Caudace. Ant. viii. 2. 

Claudian. in Eutrop. i. Sumeret iUicitos etenim si foendna 
fasces,. Esset turpe minus. Medis levibusque Sabseis Jmperat 
hie sexus, reginarumque sub armis Barbarise pars magna jacet. 

— Twp TrepaTifnv rifi yvpi] Remote country : not necessarily 
implying its being bounded by the sea^ though sometimes used 

in that signification. Themist. Or. vii. p. 165, ol iveKa ck jreplir . 

rw¥ 6*9 tripara ytfi . iiropeiOfiVf and p. 171> €ic veparaiv ei^ ' 

Trepara 7^^ opfiffirivau Josephus B. J. v, 1^ 3^ moXXoi o-rsv-* 

U ... 

906 ST. M ATTBBW. 

dvyrcf oiro yijs irtparmv itepl rip tuow9fiO¥ mt TrSmw aiSip^ 
^rocs. X»po¥ irfiov* Philo de Monudi. p. 891, «Ira Totv 
^vKofievms cr ratf okiair airmp \epovpyeiP ouk i^phffWy 
ciXX inrrapivovi uiro irepdrwp y^- eis Toir* o^KP€f90ac 
xfXci/ei. Thticyd. i. 69/ n4p re ydp M^iop avrol ta^fiep itc 
vepoTWP yfi^ 'trpoTtpop ctt* t^p neXoirovwjerci^ iX&opra* lAry 
X3U. 43, Ab Ooeano tenninisqiie ultimis t^rranun hue per- 

— - Tfjp^ frafpioLP SoXofMtirfog] i. e. his learning. The Greeks 
wen woDt to give the name of acK^ to the knowledge of things 
human and divine, of nature and religion. This was the wisdom 
which the Egytians boasted of, Acts vii. S2, and the Giedan 
Philosophers professed. 

-•^ SoXo/LUtfrror] One MS. has to? SoXo/uiSrrof whidi is 
neither necessary nor very usual in the regimen of proper names. 
See Middleton, Or. Art. Part i. p. 53. Several MSS. read 2o* 

— ^ irXscoi; ^\opApTOs\ God had promised to Solomon sneh 
wisdom, that as there was none like him before among mere men, 
so should there none hereafter arise like unto him, 1 Kings iii. 12; 
These words therefore seem a pretty plain intimation of Jesus 
being the Messiah, notwithstanding his reserve in declaring it 
in express words. 

43. TO iKoBafrrop wrav/io tcS cci^pc^irov} An unclean spirit, 
when he is gon^ out of a man. Thus xv. 11, d to €Utepj(Oft€POP 
sir ri trrofia koipoI to9 ap0pwin)v. And Mark vii. 10, €^isAsi^ 
TOP wfQpmTTov. The comparison is explained in vef. 45. ^m- 
Oaprop here used for moptip^Pf for in ver. 45, we find inrnt- 
perepa, * 

-<-* apiipvm\ -The word here used in the sense of e/unui^, 
see Ps. cv. 14, in the Septuagint ; and evidently referring to the 
common notion that evil demons had their haunts hi deserts 
and desolate places.' Comp. Isai. xiii. 31, and Rev. xviti. S: 
Tob. viiL 3 : Baruch iv« 36. Euthym, ipvipov^ TOirov^ \iy€i 

-— Kot ov\ ei/p/o-icei] i. q. <iXXa. 

44. vyoKi^oirra] PluU Gracch. p^'840, to, QiEwpfrnifna m- 
0«rXe Kml t^ ^fuf^ a\o\al^apTa fuff lipLCpapairiiei^e top TOirof. 
Here used in mid. sig. Some MSS. prefix kqI 

•*- <re<rapmfMPOp] Hesych. ouiper Koafi^i, KaXKipei. ^aipeiPf 
itotrfmiv. Lucian D. D* xxrv. 1. Vol. i. p. 275, ^pmtp to trpp^ 

45. frapoXcMc^Mi] See iv. 5, Matt. xvii. 1 : xviii. 16': xXvii 
ay.: Mask ix. 2c Luke ix. 28. A few MSS. rand Xo^/ftim. 

CHAPTER xn. 907 

-^ iirrd erepa] i. e. Many. A defimtfe for an uncertain 
ttumben John iv. 1 : 1 Sam. ii. 5. 

— irovfiporepa iavrov^ Xen. Ki/p. Tracd. v. 4, 17, cnfr^f 
wdpfipa9 wp irSuri iravffpaTepoit eavTou frvftfm)(ptv j^fifreraL 

— Kal yireTiu] i. q, Arre. xd iayaraf scil. kuko, or arv'* 
XV/iMPra* Tae. Ann. rx. S3, eesserunt prima postrenods, et bona 
juredtse teoectiia flagitiosa oUiterovit. 

— oirn09 etrrai rrj yeveq tavrtf] These words seem plainly 
to apply the parable to the unbdieying Jews of the age, andt 
therefore to import, that the Devil, who by the labours of Christ 
and his disciples had been cast oot of so many of diem, finding 
no rest among the heathens from whose persons and templed- 
the Christians would every where expel him, and finding the 
Jewish nation by their prodigious wickedness and obstinate in<^ 
credulity still more prepared than ever to receive him, wouM 
return unto them and render thein more incredulous, contu-i' 
raadous and obdurate, more impure and wicked, hypocritical and 
blasphemous tlum they were bdTore, till he had brought them 
to destruction. 

46. €Ti ai/Toi) \a\ov¥ro>s] So Herodotfis, in rovriiov TWttCf 

— * Kal oi aSeXipol ef JroS] His near relations or cousins : sont^ 
of Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alpheus, John six. 9S. See 
xiiii 55. In the * style of the sacred writings those are called^ 
brethren to one another, who are akin though they are not strietly^ 
brethren. Thus uncle and nephew are said to be brednren : and 
so are also brothers^ and sisters^ children ; nmd those who are 
of the same family though removed at some distance from on^. 
another. Gen. xii. 5, with xiii/ 8 : xxix. 13, with xv. : Levit x. 4. 
See idso Pearson on the Creed, Vol* i. p. 2iJ4f. Theophylact on 
John xix. p. 826, eiaoOev ^ ypa(pii roi)$ uvyyevM, cAeKipov^ 

^^ 6umiKeta'ay] Has the termination of phisquam ^p&rlec^ 
tum, but signification of present* Thucyd. iv. 78, inoitrdv «cce- 
0€<miK€i : Theocritus Id. xxv. 101, eiari/icef irapa (iovatv avtip, 
Schol. Callim. Hymn, in ApoU. 15, a^ro tov 'ttrrrffu 'n-apcuceijuLepov 
iffnpcay WTTO toutov ifotouatv oi ^paKowrtoi ev€<rr£ra efrnjicaK 

— ^ i^w] Without the house in which he was: not beings 
able to come near for the crowd, Luke viM. 19<^ 

— l^rrrovpreff &c.] i. q. dsXoirrs?. Isocr. in £vag. ^i/rrf Xa* 
Xtcv. Aristopfa. Plut. 870, tifr^it /i^iraXa/Secy. Flut. in PuUic. 
p* 99, e^i^TOvi/ a0€Xe(rdaft ra^ eirKrroXcif ^ 


47- aoi XoX^d'oi] Some read ae^ which Griesbach thinks has 
been transferred from Mark iii. 32, as ae iieip has to others 
from Luke viii. 20. 

49* ixteiva^ njv y€ipa\ Mark iii. 34, ir€fHl3Ke>(mtJi€Pog tcvKku 
Tovs irepi airov KoBiifiivav^^ 

• «^ iioo ti finrtip fURT, &C.] We meet irith many instances of 
language remarkably similar to these words of our Lord. Hom^ 

II. Y* 429, ''EicTop ardp av fta iacri irartip koI worma /xtfTfip, 
'^H^ KaalywiTos, <n) je ^ot OaXepo^ irapauuHTi^. Eurip. Orest. 
722, (piXraff tfXiKWv iiuLol • • . • Kal 0iXftfi/ icai ^uyyeveia^' iravra 
yap Tai^ et cni fiw. Dion. Hal. A. R. viii. p. 621, Veturia says 
lo Coriolanus, opffkufov viro toS waTpo^ KardKetipdevTa irapa\ct- 
fioStra yifirtov, iiifievov iirl aot X'ip^f '^^^ '^^^ ^^' ^^ ircuiorj-po^ 
ibias ain^vT\ff<ra ttovov^, 01/ fiifnjp /uoiwv, aXka kcu ^urarvip^ Kot 
a&€kif>oi^ Koi Tpo^>6^, Kol OO6X0I7, Kol vdrva rcS ^ikraTa aot 
yevofievfi. Ptop^. I. 11, 23, Tu mihi sola domus, tu Cyn* 
thia sola parentes. Omnia tu nostras tanpora lastitias. Val. Place. 

III. 327, Tu mihi qui conjux pariter fraterque parensque Solus. 
Ovid. Heroid. iii. 51, Tot tamen amissis te compensavimus 
unum: Tu dominus, tu vir, tu mihi frater eras. 

60. otrrii av Trou/o-f?] Christ here takes upon him the beau^ 
tiful character which is given to Levi, Deut xxxiii. 9. What 
constitutes the children of Grod^ is what makes the kindred and 
brethren of the Son of God. Comp. Luke xi. 27, 28 : Matt. 
T. 9, 45. See also Pearson on the Creed, Vol. i. p. 60. 

Philo <le Vit. Mos. in. p. 679, l^iffxn avaXafiwv eKcurrof .... 
o'v^y^evecf xal ^1X01/9 atroKTeivaTO), ^iKiav koi avyyevelav im>- 
\afiw cTntti fAOPtip avipaw ayaOwy oatoTtira* De Vict. Off. 
p. 855, €<rr(u yap tiplv fiia oixeiorffi Kal iptkia^ ev avfifioKmf 
fl TTpo^ Qeov apktTKeta^ Kal to wdvra Xeyeiv t€ koi irparreiv 
virep evaepeiav* 

-*~ aceXipdis xal a&X09| xal MTt/p'] The article before a^- 
ipoi Middleton says is rightly omitted, because otitrrh Gr. Art. 
Part. I. c. III. Sect. 3. § 2. Several MSS. prefix Kal 

Chap. XIIL 

L lifteptf, eKeivfi] The day on which the mother and rela- 
tions of Jesus came to him. Though it may be observed that 
this expression is not always to be taken literally, but may signify 
at thai Hmey or one of those days. See Luke v. 17* 

. *- airo T$v oiKiai] From his house, the house in which he 
dwelt at Capernaum. See iv. 13. 


> — cKaOfiTo] i. q. icodiy/uitfrov ii&UTKCv or KoBla'aif eitiao'Kev 
See Luke y. 3, according to the usual jCustom of the Jewidi. 
Teachers. See Mark iv. 1. . 

*— T^y 0akaaaav'\ Scil. Tifieptd^* . 

2. eis TO irXoioy] for the conveniency of being heard and seen 
by ally which he might easily be, if the shore thereabouts was 
somewhat circular and declining after the manner of an amphi- 

Some MSS. here want the article, which Middleton supposes 
to have been the correction of some one, to whom its force was 
not apparent. It does not signify (tny ship, but a particular 
one which seems to have been kept on . the Lake for the use 
of Jesus and the Apostles. See also Ghiss. Phil. Sac. p« 135.. 
In Mark iii. 9, we find our Saviour directing that a small vessel 
should constantly be in waiting for him, irpoaKapT^pvi air^- 
And in Luke v. 3, w^ find a ship used by our Saviour for the* 
very purpose here mentioned^ declared expressly to be Simbn^s: 
and in Luke viii. 22, we have ifKoiav used definitely, as if it 
were intended that the reader should understand it of the ship* 
already spoken of. It is not improbable therefore that the 
vessel so frequently used by. our Saviour was that belonging. 
to Peter and Andrew. See Gr. Art. p. 218. 

*-^ eVi T0¥ alyuiKw\ 6wi ad, juxta, as Theocr. Idyl. vj. 3, 
eirl xpavav^ In St. Mark iv. 1, is the periphrasis w/>09 ri^v 0a-> 
Xaatrav eiri t^ yfjs. 

— > ei<m;icet] Stood or was. 'J^he custom of standing con- 
tinned to the death of Gamaliel the elder, and then so far 
ceased, that the scholars sat when their masters sat. 
3. iXaXtiaev] i* e. iii^atcey* 

•'-*- 9roXXa] Sub. jnnmra* See Bos. £11. Gr. p. 244. 
— - irofMx^XcLisi] The word irapafioX^j according to its ety- 
mology, signifies a comparison, airo toD TrapafiaXKew. Ammon. 
vafM^oKti jcai irapaSiiyfua Sia<f>ip€i' irapafioKti iiiv yap etrrip 
If ala T€ yepeaOai eiri wapa^iyftaros* ctoiT di ^ ore T19 T€ 
SpoKOPTa ioeiv* JJapa&etyfJLa vi yeyovoras frpdyfAaro^ arrcTra* 
paBtfTK, olvoi Kol Keirravpov avwXeaey. The word is some- 
times used in Scripture in a large and general sense, and applied, 
to short sententious sayings, maxims or aphorisms, expressed 
in a figurative, proverbial or even poetical manner. But in its 
strict and appropriate meaning, especially as applied to our 
Saviour^s pardbles, it signifies a short narrative of some event 
or fact, real or fictitious, in which a continued comparison is 
carried on between sensible apd spiritual obj^ts; add. under i 

310 $*¥. MAsrasw. 

thu flunilitude aome ioopoctant doctrine, moral or reUgioos, is 
conveyed and enforeed. 

No scheme of Jewish rhetoric was more familiarly used than 
ihat of parables, which perhaps cre^ng in firom thence among 
the heathen, ended in fiibles. The Jewish books abound every 
where with these figures, the nation inclining by a natural kjnd of 
.genius to this kind of rhetoric. Their doctors and all the wise 
men of the East taught by parables: and even some of those 
which our Lord used were taken from the Jews, as that of the 
rich glutton and the foolish virgins. Jerom. in Matt. xvni. 23, 
Familiare est Syris et maxim^ Palesdnis ad omnem sermonem 
suum parabolas jungere, ut quod per simplex prseceptum teneri 
ab auditoribus non potest, per simiUtudinem exemplaque teneatur. 
It is a mode of instruction which has many advantages over 
<6very other, more particularly in recommending virtue or re- 
proving vice. See 'Porteus, Lect. xi. p. 278. See also Chand- 
ler^s Defence of Christianity, p. 163v 

It may be observed that our Lord did not speak to the pec^e 
in parables* till the Scribes and Pharisees had accused him of 
working his miracles by the power of an evil spirit. The Mes- 
d^ then in mercy and compassion to these hearers and to all 
who were captious, begaii to address them in parables. These 
however did not contain the &ndamental precepts and doctrines 
4^ the Grospel {for thesQ were taught with sufficient clearness 
in the 5th 6th and 7th chapters of this Gospel) but only the 
mysteries relating to the progress of the Gospel, and the event 
of it among Jews and Gentiles. And the Jews themselves 
acknowledge, that the predictions of this nature trere usually 
taught in all^orical and emblematical expression^, being not so 
necessary to be known as were the fundamental rules of faith 
and manners. See NicholPs Conference with a Theist, Vol. i. 
p. 417 : or rather p. 413, &c. 

— - 1^^] A form the Hebrews have of beginning a panaition. 

^— 6 (nreipcoir] The article here gives cnreipmv the fotce and 
nature of a substantive. It is not inserted in compliance with 
the Hebrew usi^, but is a Greek idiom. Swo/devp tk would 
have accurately conveyed the meaning, but a^opeik is a wocd 
unknown to the Seventy, as well as to the writers of the New 
Testament Middleton, Gr. Art p. S21. 

Our Saviour^s parables are all of them images and allusions 
taken from nature, and from occurrences which are most fami- 
liar to our observation and experience in common life : and the 
-event* related are .not only such as might very probaUy hiqypen, 


but msvtnX of them ire siippoBed to be audi as actimHj did. 
Ftabablj therefore it was now seed taoie, end from the idiip in 
which he taught he mi^ht observe the husbandmen scattering 
their seed upon the earth; and from thenoe took occasion to 
iUustrate, by that rural and familiar image, the different effects 
whidi the doctrines of Christianity had on difoent men aoerard- 
ing to die different tempers and dispositions that they happened 
to meet with. 

-^Toi amifi€9p] Sub. erata. See Bos. SIL 6r. p. 433. 
The other readhig to5 afrelpai^ as. also the addition rom ffjrof^w 
snivw seems la have ciept into the text here from the parallel 
passages of St. Mark and St. Luke. 

4l cy 7^ owei/Bffcr avroi^] for <nre^payTOP H ai'uA^ 

'^-^u /uev] SciL awipfutra, or awaperra. 
. *^-JcoTe0a«y«y} £uittath. in Od. u p. 358^ eicwie, toSt' mrriu, 
TO way s^wiCk Ktiff ajtLOianjra T%9a roS ifkvyw aarXii^ koI to? 
jraroi^afysry, o s<m warTa ^kiyelp. AUien. x. 4f13» o M/Xoik 
Tavpov mtrifprnyew* 

. £• €91 Ta wsrpflp&i}. Scil. ympia or 7&spif » See Bos» £1L Or. 
p. 328. Continued rock, wkh a very diin cover ci earth. 

— eiSiw] Quintil. Inst i. 3, 3» lUud in^^omm praecox 
genus non temer^ unquam penrenit ad frttgem,«««-oon mukum 
prsBstat sed dto-^nee penitus jmmissis radiffibus innititur, ut 
quse summo mcAo sparse sunt semina celerius se eftindumt. 

«-<*5uj ro fin^X^oi] See Hoogeveen; Dootr. Part, c.^xtix. 
Sect 3. § 14. 

— /Soiov 7^] for /Sodsm 7$. See Gkss. Phil. Sac. p. 24, 
as aaoTo? v&itwii in ^eSeptuagint See 2. Sam. xxii. Ifl; colL 
Ps. xvii 11, whe^ is cncoreimor v^p. P<ifybb iik. 55y 1» Tavr>|r 
piip y%opa euitOKonrrop ehiu ovi«/9cMrey asM itd ra ^irpi^iparw 
o&rcufy dwaXiitf UTrapyw^ tcmi Std to ^u^wo» )3aOot i^BiVk 

The Greeks use fioBiytm for ground which has deep soil; 
in oppositiOB to XiAw^. Herod. it« 28, we Ski^ re 79 mi 
paOvyem* Ti c owo rotfrsv^ Amtfo^^ r c<rr4 ani wpjix^ railo 
de Vit. Con. p. 898^ oweyMnrsv oirri 7^ ^aOuy^t^u wt^^iSof 
v^kiXfiaus apwpa^, ^ \i6wifi xal diroKpcra \fopia. 

6. fiKiov avar^iXamrosl In one MS. is rw lyXJoik Kiddkton 
{Grt. Art. p. 221) says there 9S^ several instances even in the 
classical writers,, in which ^Kw^ wants the article; and the 
reason seems to be, that it is one of those nouns, which as 
Taylor observes. Inter nomine propria et kppellativa ssqualiter 
librantur. In the New Testament it sometimes wants the article, 
not only after prepositionB and in anarthrous regimen, but also 

312: ST. ViCtTHEW. 

in some genitives absolute; in which, as in the present instaniice,' 
the case di£Pers little from propositions whidh express merely 
the time when an event ,h said to happen : so Acts xvi. 35, 
fl^ifKts ^6 yeyofX€Vfi9» Matt. xiv. 6, yevwUov ayofiivtav. Luke 
xxiii. 54, cdfifiaTov erriifkiKrKe, 

— -eKavMorio-di;] The sowing takes place in Novanbor, when 
the sky is clouded ; the com therefore will spring up in stony 
places, and wither, when the clouds are dispersed by the sun. 

«-— /hi) €^€11^ P't^i'] i-^* <«avi7v, not having roots sufficioitly 
deep. See Hoogeyeen, Doctr. Part. c. xxvii. Sect. 3. § 14. 

7- avefifiaav ai a/cavdoi] Virg. Ed. v. 39, Carduua et spinis 
surgit paHurus acutis. 

— aTTCTTyi^ai/] Pliny, H. N. xxii. 26, uses necare in a similar 
manner for preventing growth. Theophrast. Caus. Plant, ii. 25, 
ji 0epfJLO9 Kai o &SKi')(as, irdirra ^ Taura fiXdwrei to, oevopa, 
xaTQwiyovra Kat imtrKia(ovTa Kai ti^p rpoffniv a^fHupwficwa. 

8. i^ov icapTroif] Mark iv. 8, 606pe : Luke viii. 8, iiroiffae, 
Philostr. Vit. Apol. i. 8, KoOapd etvai (pdaKWPf ovoaa ti yii 

airti iiSwai, Pind. Nem. xi. 60, fuXaival liapwov ihoKav apovptu. 

Thus Ovid, Metam. 1. 102, per se dabat omnia tellus. 
"^o fiev] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 145* Scil. (nrepfta, 

— o /mev ixarov, be] The fertility of the hmd of Israel in 
Bntient times was remarkable : see Gen. xxvi. 12 : and concerning 
it the Tahnudists qpeak much and hyperbolically enough : never* 
Jtheless they confess it to be turned long since into miserable 
barrenness; but are dim-sighted as to the true cause of it* 

Herod. I. 193, tov iei^s Atjfifirpo^ icapirov woe dyaOfi 
ikip€p€i¥ .ecTTi, wan iirl SiriKoaia fjuev to irapdirav diroowoi' 
iiredy Se apurra avr^ ewvT^9 eveUtf^ eiri TpirfKotna exi^peL 
Varro i. 44, Quare observabis' quantum in e& regione consuetude 
est serendi, ut tantum facias, quantum valet regip ap genus terne, 
lit ex eodem semine alicubi ciim decimo redeat, alicubi cum 
quinto decimo, ut in Hetruria et locis aliquot in Italia. In 
Sybaritano dicunt etiam cum centesuno redire sclitum. Silius ix. 
S04, Sen sunt Byzacia cordi Rum magis, centum Cereri fruti* 
cantia culmis. 

9. o ejfwp ttira, &c.] See xi. 15. 

10* Kai TTpoaeXOowrei] It appears from St. Mark iv. 10, that 
the disciples did not ask this till the multitudes were gone 

11* SeSorai] Scil. diro tov Oeov. Thus Xen. Hist. Gr. vii: 
1^ 2, cnro twv dewu SiSorai i/tiiv evruyeiv ev TovTtp. Anab. vi. 
6, 29, vfjuv ^€v yap, <tf$ €oiK€, SeSorai eKKOfiitrai roui avSpas* 


So Terence Eun. iii. 1, ^^ Est istuc datum profecto mihi, ut 
flint grata que facio, omnia. And Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. Non 
decet, non datum est, non potestis. There is not any sense 
more frequent in Scriptiure of the phrase ^^ I give,'*^ than this, 
I allow, vouchsafe, permit or think fit that such a thing be done. 
See Acts iv. 29: Eccles. iii. 10. This expression therefore does 
not imply that our Saviour'^s parables were dark and obscure, 
and that by speaking to the people in this manner he had a design 
to conceal any truth that was requisite . for them to know ; but 
only that he made a fuller discovery of his doctrine to his 
disciples than it was necessary at that time to make to the 
multitude, and that he instructed them in private, and enlarged 
upon the sense of his parables, and let them into the knowledge 
pf several things, which were not yet proper to be communicated 
to. all. The idea that . our Lord spake in parables that the 
pe(q[»le might not understand him, and their condemnation be still 
increased, is as unfounded as it is blasphemous. 

— Tci fULvtrriipui] The heathens used to give this name to 
thdr religious and secret ceremonies. Theodoret. in Rom. xi. 25, 
iiwTTtipiov eaTi TO y^i iratri yvwpifAov^ aXkd ftovov to7^ Oewpou- 
piivoK. We do not here understand the fundamental precepts 
and doctrines of the Gospel, but such mysteries as the rejection 
of the Jews, and the preaching of the Gospel to the Grentiles. 
See p. 310. 

— iKeivoii\ St. Mark iv. 11, eKeivois rois il^Wf i. e. to those 
who are not prepared to receive the doctrine. 

Justin says of the Prophets, oaa elirov xal iiroiriaap oi 
JlpiM^iyTai, vapafioXcus ical tottoiv aireKakir\fav, 0S9 M*? j^^im 
Ta irXeT<rra iJwq • irairrwi^ votfiijvai, KpvTrroyms tiJm iv airw 
aXijOetav, mi xat iroveaas^ tov^ ^ifrovirra? eupeiv Kal /maOelv^ 

12. o<mi yap e^ei] i* e. He that improves those advantages 
God has given him, and continually receives more till he has 
Attained to a full measure of them. 

— Kol o ex^'] l^hat which he thinks he has, Luke viii. 18; 
See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 229- The talents with which he has 
been entrusted, and has not improved. 

Juv. III. 208, Nil habuit Codrus et tamen illud Perdidit 

infelix nil. 

13. e¥ irapafioXaii] Thus Eurip. Rhes. 7^^» ra^ ovk iv 
aiviyikolai atiiuuv^i Kcuca* ca^w^ yap mo^ avyjiidyovi 

— oTi\ Here is axnoKoyiKovt and answers to ita rovro. 
See Hoogeveen, c. xxxviii. Sect. 6. § 2. 

314 ST« HATTHfiW. 

— * /3X€iroiiT«9 ov /3X«iroii(r4ir] This both in Scripture and 
otiier authcMrs is a proyerbial expresdon, oonc&ndng men ao 
wkked and so slothful that they either attend not to, or will 
not fcdlov the clearest convictions of their duty. See Ghus. 
PhiL Sac. p. 201. See Isai. xxxiL 3: xxxv. 6: Jer. v. 81: Eaek. 
xii. 1. Pharisaism and the sottishness of traditions had now a 
good while ago thrown them into blindness, stupidity and hardness 
of heart: and that for some ages before Christ was bom: so 
that thou^ the people saw with their eyes the outward proofs 
of Christ^s divine power, yet they would not perceive the evidence 
arising therefrom, that he was their Messiah. 

Demosth. i. c. Aristog. ol flip oirwH opwvre^ to, t»9 fJTujpf* 
Kormif ipya, S^re tv t^ wupotfda9, ipwvroi /uiiy opcu^ Km 
iKouovrui fiV oKou€{¥. JSsch. Prom. 466, oi frpHra ijl€p /SXevprre? 
ifiXeK'oit fidxtpf, icXi/ovTe? oJic lixoifov* SchoL oiori vovrmi 
^fiivfi^iif ouK etjfop* Philo uses the phrase in a similar way, 
where speaking of those that were addicted to wine and seosiud 
pleasures, he says opUvre^ ouk opHaiy teat cLroiSoyrc? owr atcouovai, 

^^ aviHovari] Regard or lay to heart. 

14. amirkripovTcu] This prophecy has been a second time 
fulfilled in the Jews that lived in 'our Saviour^s time, as it had 
been before in those Jews who had been contemporary with Isaiah: 
they being as indisposed to hearken to the words of this great 
Prophet, as the former Jews were to attend to the words of 
Isaiah. See Chandler^s Defence of Christianity, p. 336. 

— 6ir atJrois] Several read avroU^ 

— • i vpoipriTeia i} Xeyovaa] Isai. vi. 9, 10. i. q. o Xoyas 
^Haatau av elwe, John xii. 38: and to ptfiev ^ 'H^rcuou Xiyam-os's 
Matt iv. 14. Aeyovaa is anarthrous in two MSS., whiA 
Middleton says is probably wrong, because the writer would 
naturally assume that the prophecy was known to contain the 
words in question. Gar. Art. p. 222. 

^-'Ho-fluoi/j Al. rw 'HcFoiov. But Middleten observes that 
nothing is more oonunon than the omission of the article before 
proper names, even when they are governed by nouns which 
have the article prefixed.. 

— UKC^ ojBoucrcTv] A Hebraism, signifying the certainty of 
the matter to which it is applied. For diis kind of repetition 
according to the genius of the Jewish language is the strongest 
manner of affirmation. Thus Cien. sL 17^ tfoMrry diroftivclo^: 
Acts iv. 17» oweiX^ atr^CK^frdfieOa'i v. 28, ov nrnpayycKiq. 
'waptirfy€tXaMMw : Luke xxii. 15, iw40vfd^ ewcdJ/uufcra. 

16. eiraj(yv09i] Grown fat, i. 6. stupid, dull, and properly 

CHAPTEE Kill. 315 

affected with Midi a stupidity as is erased by prospmty, a 
proud, sensual, stubborn dispodtioB. See Deut. xxxii. 12, 15: 
Fs. cxviii. 70« This people have made themselves so wicked and 
proud, that they will neither hear nor see any thing opposite 
to their Insts^ insomuch that they look as if they were resolved 
not to be converted. Acistoph. Nub. 844, yvmaei js travrov m 
a/taOfi^ el koI vayy^» ^lian. V. H. xiii. 15, 7raj(yTftTO¥ yevierOfu 
T^y iiavo$av, Hesych. wa)(jivooi' irajfyw vovp S^oyre?^ dvoriroi. 
So pinguis and crassos iised in Latin. Apul. i. Tu vero crassis 
auribus et obstinato corde resptds quae forsitan vera perhibentur. 
Pers. III. 32, Sed stupet hie vitio, et fibris increvit opimum pingue. 
Ovid. M^tam. xi. 148, Pingue sed ingenium roansit ; nocituraque 
ut ante Rursus erant domino stolidss praeoordia mentis. 

St Matthew here. follows the reading of the Septuagint. The 
Heb. Vulg. Lat. and Iren. iv. 48, read imperatively incrassap-^ 
obtura, excseca. But the Hebrew verbs, with other pointings, 
will readily become indicatives as the Seventy took them to 

— i} icap^3 Here for the mind or understanding. A Hebrew 

God is the author of no man^s siq, nor can he be said to 
harden any mail or people in any sense that is derogatory to his 
holiness and justice. The infidelity of the Jews was foreseen 
and foretold; and it was owing to their own wickedness, which 
was so great, so general and so provoking, that 6x)d thought 
fit to abandon them and reject them from being his people, 
and leave them under that hardness of heart which they had 
brought upon themselves by *thdr own repeated provocations. 
See Bp. Taylor's Works, Vol. ii. p. 429. 

*-« roi9 cMEc /3ap6i09 linovarav] Lucian. Con. xxi. Vol. i. p-517» 
ToaovTip lofp^ B^wrap rci cora. 

It is common among the sacred writers, that an active verb, 
that hath no person going before it, is to be understood as a 
passive or impersonal, and the careful observing of this manner 
of speech will remove many difficulties that might otherwise 
disturb us. We have plenty of examples to this purpose both 
in the New and Old Testament. 

— eKoiuLfUMrav] The Schbl. on Lucian ad £p. Saturn, c. xxx v. 
Vol. III. p. 414, explains KoiA/uLveiv by 6<pOa\iuLov9 Kkeletu. In Hesych. 
and Suid. it is explained by jULuvrii^eaOai and fivwrdl^eip, which 
latter word is found in 2 Pet. i. 9» Philo de Somn. p. 589, 
ciXXa K^v liiuLM KafAfivaavTCi to t^ ^l^vyij^ ofifta^ fiif (nrovSa-^ 


jrai efpurrarau Xenophan uses KaTOfiwo (from which kamiifa 
is fomied by syncope and change of r into fi) de Yen. t. 11, 
orav §M9 eypffyop^ Karofwei Ta pXJfpapay irav ie KaOwS^f 
Ttt pK€<f)apa avairiirraTai, Aristoph. Vesp. 92, ^p f oirr 
tearafivtrti K^tf ^X^^^ — Kafifivm used only by the later writers. 

— -M^^ore iowai] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 543. 

— laatfffiai] Grovemed by fni'n-ore* In some MSS« is read 
laaonau For this St. Mark iv. 12, without a figure, uses m 
dfpeOfi avTol^ Ta afiapriifiaTa, And s6 also the Chaldee Para- 
phrast and the Syriac interpreter. 

16. fMwcaptoi 01 otpOcLkfiol] Understand also fuucapia before 
Ta mra. The Hebrews frequently use the members of Ihe body 
to signify the person : see Job xxix. 11 : Deut. iii. 21 : 2 Kings 
ii. 5: so that these words are equivalent to vfieiv ii fuucdpioi 
ecre, ori fikeirere Kal dKoiere* 

One MS. wants the articles before orfiOakfjLoi and wra. But 
Middleton observes it is but rarely that nouns governing pro- 
nouns in the genitive are anarthrous. 

17* iroXXoi] Used, Euthymius thinks, for iravrc^. 

^wpoipliTai] Under the Old Testament. This is what set 
the disciples above all prophets, and rendered them greatest 
in the kingdom of heaven. See Matt. xi. 11. Coinpare Luke ii.' 
85, 29, 30: John viii. 56 s 1 Pet. i. 10, 11, 12. 

18. trapafioXijv tov (nre/povro?] i. e. Tcepi tw <nreipo¥T09j 
as ver. 19, Xo7oi^ r^ /SeuriXeia^ for vepi r^ jSaaiXeia?. The 
seed signifies the doctrines of true religion* and the various kinds 
of ground the various kinds of hearers. The parable, like many 
others, is prophetic as well as instructive. See Porteus, Lect. xii. 
p. 298. 

19. M^ ovwerros] Who does not ponder and consider of, lay 
to heart and observe in order to .action, Neh. viii. 12 : Ps. v. 1 : 
ILuke viii. 12. 

— epj(6Tcu] Redundant, ex Hebraismo. Philo de Gigant. 
<x\Xa yap Kal rolv e^ayioToi^ iiriinyrarai woKKixi^ aiipvi^ios i} 
70V KoXou <f>€un'a<riaf avWajieiv S ctiri^p koI ^Xd^at wop 
€avT0i9 douvaTovtriP^ 

— o TTovfipof] Luke viii. 12, o ^lajSoXo^: Mark iv. 15, i 
Saraifap, who is generally supposed to be the first cause and 
origin of evil. This is a Hebrew expression, which is not to 
be literally understood : the devil is said to do what is caused 
by the passions and an inordinate love for this world, which are 
looked upon as his instruments. 

— -o-Tra/Dcir] i. c. The field that has been sowed, or received 


the seed. The Oreekf use the expressioii afreipeiv oiropov s« 
(nrepfiOf and <rmip€i9 "y^r* 1. apaupav, Hamond thinkfl o (nr6po9 
a word in common use in the Septuag^nt and New Testament 
is here understood. 

90. evl Ta veTptiifi] Sdl. j^wpia or fUpr/* 
. *— ^/tcera x^P^j ^henter. Heb. x. 34» 

21. pS^cuf ip eain*^] ^^ ^ properly the word that hath na 
root in itself. Compare Col. ii. 7 • Eph. iii. 18. By pt^oof is 
meant a firm and well-grounded faith accompanied with good 
works. See yii. 36, 97. Cicero has virtutem altissimis defixant 

-^ey ^carr^ For iaur^ as Mark v. 30, ey rf! o^Xfi for r^ 
a^X^: iv. 30, eir irot^ for iroi^. 

— v/HMTicaipo^] Luke riii. 13, ir/m looupov irifrrevei. The 
word signifies what lasts {or a short time, is temporary, as 
2 Cor. iv. 18, where wpoaKcupa and alwifia are put in opposition^ 
Here therefore one who believes for a time, an inconstant, 
unstable disciple. Eurip. in Plut. Consol. ad Apoll. p. 104, 

3* oX/3o9 ov (Ufiaio^ oXX' 60i//uiepo9* Schol. o ^ wXoi/to9 oi/ 
$»onfio£f oKKa vpoaKaipoi. Herodian i. 1, 6, wv oi /ueir ivifitf^ 
nitrrepov ecrypv ti^p ^pX^Pf ol ce wpoaKaipop ri/v ^i/naerrciay. 
Flaut. Pseudol. Quasi solstitialis herba paulisper fui: Repente 
exorsus sum, repentino occidi. 

— -^a/caydoXc^eroi] St. Luke viii. 13, axpifrraprau Apostatizes 
and renounces the Grospel. Campbell, relapses. 

22. ek TOP aKapOai] Philo AUegor. Leg. T. i. p. 136, ri 
ipvirai Kal pkatrravei ep atf^popoi ^^XV ^^^"^ '^o, K€PT<wPTa teal 
TiTpwTKOPra airn}y iradfij a dux avfifioKwp axapOa^ KeicKijKep* 
Jambl. Vit. Pythag. p. 64, irvKipai yap koI \d<ncu Xoj(f*at vepl 
Tiiff xppipa^ Kal rap KapiUxp ifireiliVKaai rfy /uu} KoBapm toI^ 
ftaOiifjLeurip opytoffOepTwv, irap to a^iepop Kal irpqop jcoi XtyytdTiKOp 
Tos "^ffV^Si iwiayial^owTai Kal KwXuoua'ai vpoffuiLPiik avj^ijOfifiey xal 
irpoKvy^ai rJ po/f/rucop^ 

-^t; fiiptfipa TOP aimpos tovtop] i. q. oXa^ayeia to? fiiop^ 

1 John ii. 16. Such a concenunent for this present life as renders 
us distracted and tormented with the fears of losing it : so that 
we cannot think of parting with it without horror, which makes 
us falter in the practice and even fall off from the profession 
of it : or those distracting worldly cares whidh fill our heads so 
full of contrivances, and so employ our time that we are not at 
leisure seriously to think upon, and carefully pursue the concern., 
raents of our souls; Luke xxi. 34, fupifjLuai jSiAirticai: Luke viii. 
14, fiiptfipot rod fiiop. This use of oceiv, sec Glass. Phil. Sac 

318 ST. UMTtBEW. 

p. 876t &c. Baal. M. m Ps. xlr. Ton^ i. p. 278^ Oix ^pStf 

^yerot ; ''AkavOai Si dffip ^Soval aapKot, icai irXot/rtyry toi ^^^a^ xai 
fiuaTiKal fxipiiMHiu Theophylact in loc. ''AxaiSai ii ixl ptifnfK¥m 
K€d ai Tpvifku, dcoT< to trip xal tA Ttj^ emOvpias kojL tJ «f$9 
yeiwfji dvairrovai. Kid Aairep ly €LKay6a o^eia oviniy tiaiivu 
CC9 TO trwfJMt Koi MoX'V iK^dhX^Tm* oSrta tml i Tpvff)^, iav '^j^ujpiv 

•— ainrriy roB wSootov] So 1 Tim. yi. 17> <tfi)fXoTj|ff roS 
irXovToi^y 8D that the oxptessioo might be for irKopTof o afrtr&ifj 
which is suitable to the nature of riches. But as oanfn^ has 
also the significaticm of repyf^tv (Moeris owaTfi' i; irXar^ irap 
'AttikoI^' airarti ie^ i} T€p>f/i9 irap' '^EXXiftriy) it has been taken- 
to mean the pleasures of riches which hold captive the minds of 
men. Under this notion Philo seems to hare used the word, 
De Decal; p. *Jli2j oi trpof avarfpf wcmJ9 «v TwreyjfOKrpiiKi ^Xcur- 
./uctra avmfipaluorrev. Pfadcyl. 30, 'xpvais mi ioKov ittrl teal 
apyvpas apOpwtroifrt* 

-«-" cuta/9iro9] Signifies who brings not fruit to maturity: 
an example of which we have in Demas, of whom St. Paul 
says i^fifia9 fie iyKareXitreVf ayainiaat top pvu aiHua, 9 Tim. 
iy. 10. 

23. o ^ itri niv yijPf &c.] In explaimng this parabk proper 
and figuratiye expresrions are mixed. 

— o oKouwv Koi auiftm] Middletdn, 6r. Art. p. 99S; spoken 
of the same person. 

^- irouii] Scil. impirov^* See ver. 26^ and iii. 8. See Bos. 
Ell. Gr. p. 130. 

24s4 ofioiMfi ii fiatrikeiay Sec] i. e. the same thing happens m 
the preaching of the Gospel, as woidd happen to a man that 
sows good com ; see Mark iy. 26, o/MuwOfi has the force of pres. 
tense : in yer. 31, we meet with ofioia ifrru 

This parable deseryes serious attention, as it giyes an answer 
to two questions of great curiosity and great importance, yiz. bow 
came moral eyil into the world ; and secondly, why is it sufiered 
to remain a single moment, and why is not every wicked man 
immediately punished as he deaeryes? See Porteus, Lect. xin. 

p. 329. 

— ■' apOpwitipl here used for tipI. 

^^ orir^f/ooin-c] Some MSS. read <np€lpavTi^ whieh is preferried 
in Bowyer. 

25. iv ie r^ icaQevietv roi^ apBp^ov^^ Whitby and oAttri 
here understand the men to whom the management of the field 

CHAPTER Xllf . 319 

WB8 tominitted) oi ^oSXoi tA aucoBeafnirau i biit thd words may 
be merely A description of night. See Job xxxiii. 16. 

— < iaireipe^ be] Damascenus ; ifutpria yap ci ^touciy iariv, 
oiii viro roS ifnuoifFfoi i^^iiy ivairapeiaUf aXX ix Ttfi rod &a* 
fioXov €7ri(T7ropas, ev 7-^ fj/xeTepq. avTc^ovalip wpocupeeei MKoyalam 

— ^i^ai/ia] This word is used only bjr St ^ Matthew^ and 
always in the t>laral, ye^. 26, 37, 29, 30, 36, 38, 40. Some have 
supposed it to iihply any weeds which are injurious to corn: 
others the inftiiit loliuni of Virgil, EcL v. 87 : Orid. Fdst. i. 691^ 
Et cafeftnt loUis.oculis yitiantibus agri. EtymoL o avev airopas 
&»lifrapatpmTai rtp trirtpm Suidas 17 ev t^ &iTqf tatpa* Olhera 
nif^se it to be a plailt common in Palestine, the seed of which 
18 HIec wheat, and the plant has the same yeidure and stalk. It 
cannot be the tare thikt is meant : this is excellent food fbr cattle 
and sometimes cultivated ibr their use : and being a spfeeies ef 
vetdi is distinguished firom com from the moment it appears 
above ground. Lightfoot observes that the Talmudic name 
answering to ^i^ai/ioy is Zoiiin which is probably fwmed irom 
the Greek. The most probabie opinion seems to be that it is 
the damd, lolium; viz. that species called by Botanists tanu* 
lentum, which grows among com, not the lolium perenne whieb 
grows in meadows. It agrees to the characters given of it in 
the Oospd, and has a itesemblanoe to wheat suflSdoit to justify 
all that relates to it in this parable. 

— aud fuaop] See Glass* Phil. Sac. p. 116 and 494. 

98. x^P'^^^ ^® blade of com as distinguidied from the ear. 

— * KUfyirov etroiryre] Express the forming of the ear, not the 
ripe ocra. Theophrast. Hist. Plant, i. 3, jcapwo? ^ eo^n to xnry^ 
Kei^ieviMf tnripfia ai«^ tw weptxapirlov. 

27* KipiJ] Of the use of this word, see Pearson oh the Cf eed,r 
Vol. II. p. 161. 

--^ av^} '^9X09 trireppLia] An interrogaiicn implying an affirm 
mation. See Hoogeveen, c. xxxix. Sect. 1. § 12 ; a eommon 
Hebrew form of expression. 

"^^ cV Tip <r^] Maaiy MSS. omit <r^* 

••— «^€< Tci ^<^«cvici] A grelit many MSS. oioii to, whiehr 
Middleton thinks is probably right: the servants would express 
dieir surprise rather at there being anif tares (darnel) at all, 
than at the particular ones in question : and therefore the article 
would be properly omitted. 

28. ix^poi at^Opm'ir&s] I e. iyOpo^ T19. See xviii. 23 : xx. 1. 

— .a-TTeX^oWc^J Redundant as Luke viii. 14 : Matt. viii. 32, 33- 


— <rv\k€^wfi€¥] Sub. Ilia. Bos. Ell. 6r. p. 478. Weed them 
out and bind them together in bundles. Some read oi/XXe^o/ucr- 

♦ — ai/ra] Scil. tcl ^c^airia. 

' 39* oJ] Sub. de\»9 &C. See Hoogeveen, Doctr. l*art. 
c. XXXIX. Sect. !• § 4. 

— fitjirore] for ii/a fjuprore. See Hoogeveen, Doct. Part, 
c. XXVII. Sect. 10. § 3. 

• ..^ ifia avToh] Sub. auv. Mich, in Bos. Ell. Gr. p. 48. 
90. aAere avvau^aveaOai a^tporepa] The Church as it em* 

braceth all the professors of the true faith of Christ, containeth 
in it not only such as do truly believe and are obedient to the 
word, but those also which are hypocrites and profane. Many 
profess the faith which have no true belief: many have some 
kind of faith, which live with no correspondence to the Gospel 
preached. Within therefore the notion of the Church are com- 
prehended good and bad, being both externally called, and both 
professing the same faith. See Pearson on the Creed, VoL i. 
p. 618. 

— - ei^ T^ Kcup^ rod Oepurfiov'] Here many MSS. omit t^, 
and Wetstein approves of the omission; but Middleton thinks 
it wrong because of tou Oepiafuw following : for governing nouns 
having become anarthrous on account of preceding prcpositicxis 
usually impart the same form to those which they govern : had 
we read eu xaip^ Qepuxfiov there could have been no doubt, as 
ver. 35, diro KarafioKfif Koa/wv, 

— Tov Oepuffiov] The noun repeated, after the Hebrew 
custom, for the pronoun avrov. See Gen. xxiv. 32, 36: 1 Sam. 
V. 3. 

31. aXKfiv wapafioXfiv] The design of this and the following 
parable was to teach the people that there would be but a small 
number of Jews that should embrace .the Gospel; but that they 
would be so many instruqients in the hands of Providence io 
converting an incredible number of Gentiles. Tertullian mentions, 
in addition to the names we find in the Apostolical writings, that 
in his time, about a. d. 200, these were subject to Christ GetiH 
lonun varietates, Maurorum multos fines, Hispaniarum omnes 
terminos, Galliarum diversas nationes, et Britannorum inaccessa 
Romanis loca, et Sarmatarum et Daoorum et Grermanorum et 
Scytharum et abditarum multarum gentium et provinciarum et 
insularum multarum Bomanis ignotarum. See also Iren»us i. 3 > 
Origen Horn. iv. in Ezek. : Amob. ii. 

— Xaj3«5i/ iaveipev] for ia'treipev^ sta ver. 33, Xa/Soi/o-a ere- 
Kpyyj/e, • 


82. fUKporepw, be] This is an exaggeration frequently used 
ia common discourse ; and is» to be understood as if Christ had 
said <' which is one of the smallest.*^ tAiKporepov is here used 
for fwcporaroif, see Ghiss. Phil. Sac. p. 60, as afterwards /uel^oy 
for fiiyttrrov, (which latter occurs but once in the New Testa- 
ment, 2 Pet. i. 4) : the Evangelists as well as other writers using 
the comparative for the superlative, Mark iv. 31 : Luke viu 28 : 
Matt, xviii. 1. 

In this comparison of the kingdom of heaven with a mustard 
seed, Christ made use of a phrase familiar to the Jews who were 
wont thus to describe a very small thing. See xvii. 20. 

— ^ell^pp Twv XayavtoVf &c.] The Jews give a wonderful 
account of its growth and increase, viz., there was a stalk of 
mustard in Sichin, from which sprung out three boughs, pf 
which one was broken ofT, and covered the tent of a potter, and 
produced three cabs of mustard. B. Simeon B. Calipha said, 
A stalk of mustard was in my field into which I was wont to climl^ 
as men do into a fig-tree. Several MSS. add irdvrwy after fiel^oy 

— yiverai SevSpov] Similarly Herod, i. 193, says ix Se Key, 
Xpov KOI afiaa/JLOv oaov ri oevhpov /miyeOiK yivercUf i^eirio'Ta-' 
fievos fiptifjiffy ov ironiaofixii* Seneca Ep. xxxviii. Seminis modq 
spargenda sunt, quod, quamvis sit exiguum, cum pccupavit 
idoneum locum vires suas explicat, et ex minimo in maximps 
auctus diffunditur, &c. 

— eXOeiv] redundant. 

— KaraaKtivovu] See Dan. iv. 9, 8kc. Matt. viii. 20. For 
ivuaardcu KarcurKfivoSv. See Mark iv. 32. They can find sheltei; 
and pass their time there, both in the day time while the weather 
is bad, and during the night while they sleep. 

33.] The precise difference between this and the former parable 
is, that the former represents the extensive propagation of the 
Gospel from the smallest beginnings ; but this the nature of the 
influence of its doctrines upon the minds of particular persons. 

— iveKpuyj/€p] Several MSS and Fathers have the simple 
erptn/rei; : but the transcribers frequently changed compound verbs 
into simple ones: and the oldest copies have ivcKpuyj/ei^ which 
occurs only in this passage and Luke xiii. 21. . . 

— ^«'M»?1 Theophylact in loc. Tjifkviv tow airoo'ToXow Xiyeh* 
UffTwep mf¥ fi ^ififi jmucpa oiaa okov to aXeupw m iaurtiv uera-:' 
irouii, ouTw Kal v/jneh SKov tw Koa/nov fi^rairqiiiaeTe^ ,K^y oXlyoi 


— adra rpia] Three measures, u e. an ephah, mentioned 
in particular, because this seems to be the quantity < that used 




to kneaded at once. See Gen. xviii. 6 : Jud. vi. 19 : 1 Sam. i. 24. 
Joseph. Ant. ix. 2, iirxyei ^ to aaTov fioSiov icai tifu/av 'IroXwor. 
-^€«0v ov] ws) when joined with a verb ig rendered donec^ 
in which case the gen. oi or irw is inserted, marking a coiw 
tinuance up to a certain point of time ; and is followed by Aor. 1. 
indie, indicating the past. See Hoogeveen, c. xix. Sect. i. §5. 

— oKo¥\ Sdl. oKevpav, i. q. ifkipafia, 1 Cor. v. 6 : Gral. v. 9. 
34. ywpi^ irapafioXiji ovk, &c.] This must be restricted to that 

time, and to the people that beard him then, sub. radra Travrai 
or to the progress of the Gk>Bpel among the Jews and Gentiles. This 
was the most inoffensive way of proposing these doctrines which in 
plain language they would not have rec^ved. And though they 
did not at the present understand them, the striking figures in 
the parables rivetted themselves in their memories, and were 
of great use to them afterwards, when they came to be explained 
by the events. In using this way of instruction Jesus followed 
the example of antient sages, (see Not. ver. 3,) and particularly 
Asaph, whose words the Evangelist quotes on this occasion, not 
as a prophecy, but accommodating them to Jesus. 
' 35. iid Tov irpoK^riTciu^ Ps. Ixxvii. 2. In some MSS. is read 
jid 'Hcraiov tov 'n-po^tfrov, which Jerome says he found in some 
copies in his time ; but he supposes St. Matthew to have written Im 
Adno20 roi; irptKpiiTov, whose name is inscribed to this Psalm. 
It seems more probable that Sui toS Trpo^viTov is the true reading, 
and most probably 'Aaaxf) has been a marginal annotation which 
tome transcriber may not have known, and therefore changed 
into 'Heracov a name more familiar, and inserted it into the text. 

— • avoi^^y &c.] £cclus xxxix. 6, avoi^ei to {rrofia avTov if 
nrpaaevyvi. Lucian. Philopseud. xxxiii. p. 60, oKKa /loc rac 
tj^prjcev o MifAvtov ai^ro9, avoi^a^ to arofia ev eireaiv iirrcli 
' * — ip€vl^ofxat\ In Ps. Ixxvii. ipQiyl^ofiau The words must 
have been quoted from recollection, as they do not agree with 
either the Hebrew or the Septuagint. 

• — K€KpviJLpLivct\ 1. q. irpo^XfifxaTa, aivlynaTa, In the same 
manner St. Paul has jjLv&Ttjpiov ypwoi^ aitoyiM^ <re<riyfffic¥ov» 
Rom. xvi. 25. Comp^ Col. i. 26 ; 1 Cor. ii. 7- 

— icaTa/3oX^] Though properly applied to laying the foun- 
dations of buildings, it is used metaphorically to signify the 
beginnii^ of any thing. Polyb. xiii. 6, 2, KarafioKfiv iwoieiro 
ictti OefjiiKtov vTrefiaXk^TO iro\vj(povuw kqI fiapeia^ rvpavviSos* 

36. iJXdei; 619 Ttiv oaciav^ At Capernaum. 
;. — ^pdaov] Which Origen in Jc^n iv. 86, explains by 
SimraxPff&w. . Hesych. ({^pcuroy, cIttc, Xe^oM, epiuLijvevtrop. Thus 


•Hdiodorus I, p. 37) to iter otmp tovtov e^pa^e tok toowov. 
£[)i8t. Socrat. p. 69t tovtq oi tn oixaia «m xal coXatc evwra 
irtipaaofiai crot ifipd^etv. Plut. «w^. to ^ Tairnuv ^vyiirTov tcoi 
mpMPTnroir tm» e'tptinavn *py<^at f^paaatf. 

36. o aypm itmtr o voafuK] This, Middleton observes, is 
a convertible proposidon: and yet in the imct verse avvri\tta 
and a77<XM irant the article; we find indeed in ei^t MSS. 
Q trvm-eXtia, which is not an improbable reading, though in 
abstract nouns the article is less necessary than in others: but 
in a7'yeXo( the same licence is' not allowed ; and we certainly 
ought to render, " the reapers are angels," notwithstanding' that 
in other places as in ver. 49, of this diiip. and in xxt. 31, the 
task here spoken of is assigned to the angels generally. 
' — ovToi} referring to atteptta, though agreeing in construc- 
tion with the following noun uim. 

— viof Tiji /3a0iX«[ac] James ii. 5, JcXifporo'/iot t^ ^aoikeia^. 
In Matt. viii. 12, the unbelieving Jews are named the children 
of the kingdom in opposition to the GentUes, because that being 
bom within the covenant, the kingdom was theirs if they bad 
not rc^jected it by their unbelief. Here the children oS the 
kingdom are, first, the believing Jews, and secondly, the converted 
Gentiles that were substituted in the room of the unbelieving Jews. 

-~ Tov woirtf^v] i. q. rov ita^Xov. They that imitate him 
in his wickedness and are the instruments of his mischievous 
purposes, John viii. 41, 44. See v. 37- 

39. o trire'tpas avra] Scil. tq ^i^aMa. 

— avvri^Um Toii aiaitvc] A Hebrew expression frequently 
used in the New Testament. See ver. 40 : Heb. i. S. Here it 
signifies the end of the world. 

40. inpi (caTonraieTai] Joined by the Hebrews. Several read 
Kaierat : the other better. 

— oi^aiv eiTToi] i- e- oStw "yev^atrat- yivtcrBat being some- 
times used for cTvat and Vice versfi. 

From this as well as other places, it seems probable the 
wicked shall not be cast into everlasting fire till the end of the 
world. Matt. xxv. 41 : 2 Tim. iv. 8: Rev. xx. 15. 

41. TOW ayyiXovs, &c.] An allusion to Joel iii. 1^. See 
also Rev. xiv. 16. 

— Tti <7KavSa}iu\ See v. 39. It commonly denotes the 
actions or things which ensnare or seduce: here it is persous, 
being joined with Troiotii^a;. So xvi. 23. All those who are 

•a occasioh of falling, and who like tarts, hindered ttie good 

com from growing. Origen c. Cels. v. aXifdin ie to tvv o-**"" 



iaXou ovofia xoXi) iv -roit ypa/tfuxtrt rovT-wv eo^Ir, oirep eitiOafuw 

av-Xovcrre^iovc k<u stle^an-aTii'rovE. 

— Koi Toii irofovvras j x:aJ has been here taken io Ae sense 
of id est, scilicet. See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 606, whicb Koecbo- 
ieems not to disapprove. 

42. els Tifv Kafuvov rov ■inipoi\ Here used for ku/uvov kqu^ 
ftitnty, Dan. iii. 11 : Hos- vii. 4 : i. q. yvtyya rov xv^p, v. 23, 
and vSp TO a'ltSitov. 

— o KXavOfxos, &<:■"] See viii. 13. 

. 43. mXciM^/'oi'O'i} In this beautiful expression our Lord seems 
to have had hjs eye upon Dan. xit. 3, And they that be wise 
shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and they that 
turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever. See 
Matt. xvii. 3: Rev. i. 16. LJght, splendor, brightness, be. are 
the images used to indicate a state of happiness. Wisd. iii. 7> 
oiMuot iv Katp^ siruTKOir^ avruv avaXofiyJ/oviXt, koI m amt^tipev 
iv iaiKai>.ti otaSpatuMrrat. See Ecdus ix. 11: 1 Mace. ii. 62: 
1 Pet. V.4, 

'— o €j(wv WTO, Sic. 3 This exclamation intimates that truths 
of greater importance and solemnity cannot be uttered than those 
-which respect the final misery of the wicked and the inconc^vable 
happiness of the righteous, and that all who have the faculty 
of reason ought therefore to regard them wiHi becoming attention! 

44. TraAif] See v. 33. So Polyb. ix. 18, 5, iraXtv o,ioUk 
4>(Awnr« Kara ovo rpowow ^naprt. 

, The design of thi^ and the following comparison is to shew 
that the advantages of the kingdom of heaven are of so great 
a value, that he that can obtain them, ought to sacrifice every 
thing in the world to purchase them. Comp. Matt. xix. 27, 28, 29- 

— cvpiiv, &C.3 Aristot. Metaph. v. 30, oTovtl nr opvrrww 
^MfT^ ^oSpof evpe Qrjaavpw. 

— in T^ ayp^^ Some MSS. and Chrysostom omit Tf ■ 
Middletoa observes that the article seems to have been originally 
inserted from the frequent use of d dypit in the sense of *' the 
country," and not from its being necessary in this place : here 
it must signify an estate or farm wi is evident from tw aypov 
eKeivov following. 

— auToii] Referring to Btjaaup^' as iv. 24, tucoq auTov. 

46. m fi/pcuu] Griefibach admits siiptov &i, OD the authority 
of a few MSS. and versions. 

— TToiKvTttiov] AmmoniuR, irokuTmoi itrnv o iroXX^t Ti/tqs 


Simplic. in Epict. 114, tU yap a¥ ou j^uaea ^aXiccMM^ arroX* 
'ki^cuTo jcara tov ^Qfiijpou Aio/JniSfi; tU H ovk of voSp iywv 
Ta fieyi^rra t^s ^^X^ ayadd irptcuTOf Ta eicrov irpoiifievosi 

47.] The meaning of this parable is much the same as that 
of the tares and the field. Both good and bad embrace the 
Gospel ; and remain confounded together till Jesus Christ comes 
with his angels to separate them the one from the other. 

— {ra*yi;Kiy] Hesych. frayrfvti, ro SIktvov, irXeyfia ri &c 
KoXdfJLwv €19 Oiipav ijfivwy. Philo de Vit. Mos. T. 11. p. 95, 
KaOavep (ioXov iydit^v irdrra^ iu kvkK^ aayrfvevaav iirunrarai. 

— €ic vavTo^ yevovs] SdL riva, as xxiii. 34. 

48. apafiificuravre^l Thus Herod. 1 11. ^6, dvefiificurav avrov 
iirl Tov irvpyoy. See Numb, xxiii. 4. The aorists are here 
used for pres. 

, — • TO icoXa . ,,. rd tratrpd] IjfOiSia generally understood. 
Some have however made the wordJs more general, and suppose 
them to mean not only fishes, but other things. 

— efw] With reference to dyyeia, 

49. etc fi€(rov] See Grlass. Phil. Sac. p. 115. 

61. Xeyei ai/roTv o 'IiycroS^] Wanting in some MSS., versions, 
and Origen. 

— auviiKaTe] See Bos. £11. 6r. p. 474. Aristoph. Av. 944, 

---^TauTa irairra] All these parables, the two last of which 
were not explained. 

— yoi] See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. c. xxxi. Sect. 1. §3. 
52. iid TouTo} A meie form ci transition, to be omitted in 

translating, as xxiii. 34 : Mark xii. 24. 

— 7ra9 ypa/uLfxarevi^ Properly denotes a doctor of the law : 
but Christ here speaks of the teachers of the Grospel; every scribe, 
discipled into the kingdom of heaven. In xxiii. 34, he linakes 
use of the word in the same sense. This may particularly be 
understood of our Saviour himself, who sometimes makes use 
of dark and obscure sayings, and sometimes explains them ; who 
at one time quotes Moses and the Prophets, and at another dtes 
sayings that were vulgarly used among the Jews. 

— tmaOnrevOels] In the language of Scripture /uLaOnr^uetv 
Tivd is to make a disciple: fioOfireueiv rtvl to be a disciple; as 
Joseph of Arimathea kiuidrireva^ Tip *Ifitrodf xxvii. 57« MaOif^ 
T£v0$Fai is .the same in this passage. So TAadtrrevOtiPcu r^ 
Kvpltp is often used by Basil, De Baptismate, whose title is 
art Sei wpwrov ftaOtfrevOiivcu r^ Kvpitpf koI t6t€ KaTa^uudtipat 
rod dyiov fiaTrricfiann. Hence those who were first converted 

326' ST. MATTHEW^ 

to the faith, were called. fiaOtrral as the disciples of Christ 
their doctor and master. Justin M. Apol. i. /uadirrcv0^vo< m 
TO, Oeia cicdyfiara. And Dial. c. Tryph. fA€i9ifT€v6iuL€WH €19 to 
o¥OfAa Tw ^yLpuTTci* See also Bp. Blomfield^s Sermon on this 
text, Note 7. 

•*» €1^ Tfiv jSaciXeiai/] Some read r^ ftatriXtlq, Either will 
express the Hebrew phrase. The other reading ev r^ /Sao-iXci^ 
has arisen from, t^ (iaatkeitf, 

T^ oiKoSsairoTff] He here compares a faithful and industrious 
preacher to a good householder who has gathered together the 
fruits of several years, and distributes them to his family. He 
has given the pattern and example of such a teacher in his 
discourse contained in this chapter. 

— eicjSctXXei] xii. 35, €k tov ayaOov Btfravpov t^^ KOf&ias 
ixfioKKei ra ayaOd, To bring out of his treasure or store^ 
house things jaew and old, was a kind of proverbial saying 
9mong the He]|;)rews; and denoted a jnan^s giving a plentiful 
or liberal entertainment to his friends and such as came about 

— - 6i7(ro(tY>ov] See ii. 11, p. 53, i.q. TOfjuBiou^ Eurip. .Ion. 
1141, \a(iwv d v(pd(rfiaff icpa Otiaavfmv irapd. 

— r Katvd ical irakcua] Scil. fip^tAora ' or o>/^a>raa. Eisner 
would understand aKeiri : and Mich, in Bos. ,EI1. 6r. p. 45, 
y^vinffiara. Ennius describing iElius Sextus says, Multa tenens 
antiqua, sepulta, vetusta, quae faciunt mores veteresque novosque 

53. fiertipep ixeiOetf] He crossed the lake to go to Gadara. 
Mark iv. 35. 

54. m Ttju 7raTpl^'\ Scil. iroXtv or j^tipaPm Na^aper ov ^y 
T^pofifkivcfs^ Luke iv. 16. The Evangelists call Nazareth our 
Lord^s own country, because it was the town in which he had 
been brought up, and to distinguish it from Capernaum where 
he ordinarily resided. Eustath. XL 2. p. 351, ire hi ye varfh 
MQvop \eyeTcu, iWetirrucm KCkKelrm, \eiiret ydp cJa, 4 7^> 

91 Tl T6iCVT0Vm 

•^-iriOev TovTff^ Epictet. Enchirid. 29> troQev ^/uliu aiinf i} 


-^ VI <ro<l>ia'\ That learning : which they were amazed to find 
in him, without having been taiigbt by their doctors. 

*--^ot hvva4iei%\ This word denotes both miracles and the 
power of performing them : the latter here meant. 

65. TvicToroff] Hesych, jeKTrnv^ nrd^ o tcj^mti^. It is a 
nceive^ '* ' ni the church, that Joseph was a; carpenter, 


wtddi Tixrwv by itadf implies, as 2 Kings xxii. 6: 2 Chron. xxiv. 
12: xxxiv. 11: Ezra iii. ^i Isai. xli. 7' Zech. i. 20: and there^ 
is not a passage in the sacred vrritings where it is employed 
in the same manner, to denote a man of a different occupation. 

St. Mark vi. 3, has ov^ oiro^ iarrtv o tcktwv; which many 
suppose to be by metonymy for re/croyo^ wofl but there is 
nothing to prevent the words being taken in a strict sense: for 
it was a custom among the Jews of what rank or quality soever, 
to teach their children some ingenious croft or art, not only as 
a remedy against idleness, but as a reserve iii time of want. 

Justin. M. Dial. § 88, p. 247) Kal ekOoyrof rov ^Itfacv ivl 
Tov 'Jopoavrfu, Kal vofut^ofiivov tov T€icroro9 vloS virdp^mVf koI' 
aeiScih, c^ ai ypaxfku iiaipiHT<rov^ ipcuvofieyov, koI Te$erovos 
uQfAil^oiuiipou (touto yap to, tcktowico ipya elpyd^eTo eu avOpm"' 
iroi9 €»v, aporpa Kal ^vya iid tovtwv koI Tci t^ oiKeuoaivffs 
crvfA^oka SiSdcKtov Kal ivepytj fiiov. 

-^a£eX^>oi avTou^ These four are often mentioned as our 
Saviour^s brethren: sons of Mary, sister to the Virgin Mary, 
and wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus. See Kidder^s Dem. of Mesa. 
Part. II. p. 66 : Pearson on the Creed, Vol. i. p. 276. 

— ^'lajccDjSos] James the Less, called by St. Paul oar Lord's' 
brother. Gal. i. 19- 

— ^i/xwv] Called the Zealot, or Canaanite, to distinguish him 
from Simon Peter. See x. 4. 

— 'louSai\ The author of the epistle that bears that name, 
wherein he styles himself Brother of James. See x. 3. 

•^— 'loxr^] Of Joses we hear no more ; probably he died. 

56. ravra iraVra] Referring to aro(f>ia and Suvaiiiett. 

-'^wpo^ if/w eicw] John i. 1, d \0ya9 fgy irpo^ Tot^ 6«ok. 
Mark xiv. 49? jco^ li/mipav funfiv irpQ9 ifM^l 1 Cor. xvi. 6,' 
irpc9 vfj£i ci Tvyov irapapievw, 

-— viMpiJTffi arifioi] This eiqpression is proverbial, signifying' 
that those who profess extrainrdinary todowments are no where 
in less request than among iheir relations and acquaintance. 
The reason is, superior merit never fails to be envied, and envy 
commonly turns the knowledge it has of persons some way or 
other to their disadvantage. Plut. de Exsil. p. 604, t£u ^>povt'^ 
fimrdroDv Kal (ro^MtiraTa>y iXlyov^ op evpoK €» rai9 tavrHv 
TTUTplai K^Kfiheoikivov^. Burip. Here. Fur. 186, 01; 'yap ea0 
oTTov eaffKov re ipcura^ imprvp au Xdjiois irdrpap* Aristid. 
waai 701 f <fHKo<r6ipoi^ iSoj^e jfoXewo^ iv r^ Trarpwi o fiio9* 
Seneca de Benef. iii. 3, Vile habetur quod domi est. 

— ei fAv]. See Bos. Ell. 6r. p. I7. 


68. Kal ovK cnoifiaeyf &c.] Christ displayed his power only 
towaxds those that believed in him. Hence this saying of his. 
Thy faith hath healed thee. 

Chap. XIV, 

V, iv ixsiPtp T^ Ka</^] When Christ had sent out his disciples 
to preach the Grospel, to cast out devils, and to heal diseases, 
and they by virtue of his name had been successful in that work, 
and thereby spread his name abroad. Mark vi. 13, 13, 14: 
Luke ix. 6, 7- 

— 'HptiSfi^'] Antipas, one of the sons of Herod the Great. 
See Joseph. Ant. xvii. 3. 

— o T€T/9op^f|v] The first meaning that seems to have been 
affixed to this word, is prince or governor of the fourth part of a 
kingdom. But the name was afterwards given to the governors of 
a province, whether their government was a fourth part of the 
country or not : as in the present case, where Herod had by will 
divided his kingdom into three parts, leaving Galilee and Persea to 
Herod Antipas. It is commonly used as a title inferior to that 
of king: though even that name is sometimes givoi to the 
tetrarcbs ; see ver. 9- Horace makes a distinction, Modo r^es 
atque tetrarchas, omnia magna loquens. Cicero gives the title 
of rex to Deiotarus. 

— Ttiv OKOYiv \fi(Tov\ i. c. iTcpi Tw Iiy^ov. Scc Glass. Phil. 
Sac. p* 7^* I^ the same way Tacitus uses auditio for fama. 

Interpreters enquire why he heard not of the fame of Jesos 
sooner. Some ' say because he was at Rome at the beginning 
of our Saviour^s preaching, and when he wrought his/ former 
miracles: but the arguments in favour of such an opinion are not 
satisfactory. Others say that he was engaged in the Arabian 
war : but the war with Aretas was carried on by his generals, 
and did not ciall Herod away from the country, and was waged 
after John^s death: Jos. Ant. xviii. 6,1. We cannot therefore 
understand this of HenxTs first hearing of Jesus ; but that be 
began to take notice of his fame when these miracles were wrought 
not only by himself in person, but by others in his name: or 
that being conscience-struck, he became alarmed at the repetition 
of those accounts which he had before not attended to, in the 
midst of his pleasures. 

2. Tw Trauriv ot/roS] i* e. ooi/Aof$, iplXois^ as 3 Esd. i. 30. 
The Septuagint translate the same Hebrew word by ^rac?, 1 Sam. 
xviii. 22: Jos. i. 7» 13 : in the latter of which passages Symmachns 
has ^ ' ^ by ^{\os^ Esth, ii. 18. Beausobre "here under- 


stands the words to mean courtiers, or his officers. In 1 Mace. i. 
6, Alexander calls his officers or generals iraiiat. 

— ovT-os etTTin 'Iwdvytii] So also St. Mark : but St. Luke 
says he was perplexed St^iropet, he enquired because it was said 
of some that John was risen &om the dead, and spoke of that 
to his servants as the more probable opinioD : desiring notwith- 
standing to see him, Luke ix. 9 ; that so he might more perfectly 
discern whether he was John or not. 

— - tjyifiSti] The resurrection from the dead was then an 
article of faith among the Jews. Thus Josephus informs us 
that udaiuroi' re 'ur)(uu xaii i/zu^oif irltrrn avrois elvai, koi 
mro J(0ovof ouatufrtK re xal ri/xas oh dper^s q Kwctai eiriTi^&evats 
iv -rifi /3ifi 7s''yove. koI toic ^sv eifyyfiav tu^uM' irpoaT'StaBai, 
Toit oe patmorrfv tou avalitovv. And in 3 against Apion, 
OTi Tws TOW fOfioiK Sia(pu\a^afTi, ic^f e'l Seoi 9v^VKeiv virep 
avTvv, TrpoSv/im aircQavovaiv, ihoKCv o 9eor •yiveaQat t< iraKiv, 
KoX /3fac aneivio Xa^tv ix vepiTpow^t. Yet how Herod who 
was a Sadducee, xvi. 6: Mark viii. IS, could affirm the resur* 
rection of John, has been disputed. The mimier of the BaptTst 
was recent, and whether or no he agreed in all respects with the 
doctrines of the Sadducees, his fears and anxieties might lead him 
DOW to doubt ; particularly too as there was a prevalent opinion 
that some of the prophets should arise at the coming of the 
Messiah: or the suggestions of his guilty conscience might be 
too powerful to be removed by the flattery of his eervants. 
Wisd. xvii. 11, ^iXdi' yap liiwf vovripla fxapTVpi KaTaSucal^otiev^' 
(wl ie irpofffiXii^ -rd ^oXen-a avveypiiivTi t^ aweto^tt. See 
Forteus, Lect. xiv. p. 3. 

— at Zvvaiuti\ Middleton renders " the powers or spirits afe 
active in him.^ Ai ^vo/ucit, he says, must be some kind of 
agents, and tbat spiritual agents were so denominated, there can 
be no doubt, see Euseb. Prsp. Evang. vii. 15 : Dem. Evang. iv. 9- 
In the same sense several of the Fathers use the word : and jn 
this manner it is used in the New Testament. Compare Ephes. 
vi. 12, with i. 31. See also Bom. viii. 38. Herod had hitherto 
believed in neither a resurrection nor the agency of spirits. 
His remorse however and his fears, for the moment at least, 
^ake his infidelity ; . and he involuntarily renounces the two 
great principles of his sect. 

— eiie/)7oi;irii'] There is something, Middleton says, reumrkable 
in the sense which the ctMnmentators, with the exccplion of 
Wakefield, ascribe to eivpywvtp- Our own version of the passage 
6e«ms to be founded on a lectio aingularis, a pr. manu I 
viz. intpywiTtv, a word indeed which wants authority, but 


330 8T. MATTHBW.' 

if it existed, would be deducible from euapytii: and when we 
consider that the Codex Bezse was presented to the University 
of Cambridge only about twenty-six years before our present 
version was made^ it is not altogether improbable that this 
reading might have been thought of great importance. The 
other translators appear to take ivepyeiv passively : whereas it 
is every where in the New Testament used in a transitive or ao 
absolute sense : where the passive is required we have itfepyeltrBai: 
And besides, the action is usually referred to some Being of 
extraordinary power; either to Ood, as 1 Cor. xii. 6: Gal. ii. 8: 
iii. 5: Eph. i. 11, 20: Phil. ii. 13: or to the Holy Spirit, as 
1 Cor. xii. 11: or to the Devil, as Eph. ii. 2; and these are the 
oidy instances in which the active verb occurs except Phil. ii. 13, 
where we have t^ OeXeiw Kal t6 iv^pyfiv applied to foen. He 
infers therefore that ivepyovaiv is here used in an absolute sense,* 
and confirms his opinion of the meaning of ai SvpdfieK. 

Origen c. Cels. i^ jnev vv^ yiveTat irpos avairavo'tVy tf ^ ^y^pct 
irpo^ TO op^v re Kal iyepyelv. 

3. KptLTritTOi, &c.] A digression from this to ver. 13, giving 
a history of the captivity and death of John the Baptist. See 
Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 299. The aorists therefore would be ren- 
dered by plusquamperfect. So xxvi. 48, we meet with c^oncc, 
where Mark xiv. 44, has hehtoKei. 

Josephus takes care to conceal that John was imprisoned on 
account of his reproving the tetrarch^s conduct, and r^resents 
Herod as proceeding upon more general grounds. He describes 
John as a good man, who persuaded the Jews to moral and 
virtuous, living, to justice towards each other, devotion towards 
God, and to become united by baptism: and as he had many 
followers who were entirely devoted to him, the tetrarch deemed 
it advisable to seize and imprison him before any revolt or 
insurrection should actually begin. On this account he ordered 
him to be apprehended and sent as a prisoner to the castle of 
Machaerus, where he was afterwards killed. Soon after this 
event, Josephus adds, Herod'^s army was defeated and. destroyed 
by Aretas, and the Jews considered the tetrarcb^s loss and defeat 
as a punishment from God for the murder of John the Baptist. 
Antiq. xviii. 6, 2. It is possible there may be no real difference 
between the Evangelists and Josephus. The former relate the 
real cause of the Baptist^s imprisonment, as part of the secret 
history of the court of Herod ; the latter gives the public and 
ostensible reason. 

~~^e6€T0 €v ^vKaKvi] So Plato, cis (pvkaKtiv airoOeoBat, 
Machserus ^ ^ ^ Jordan, about two leagues from that 


river, on the north-east side of the lake Aqphaltites, and not far 
distant from the place where the river discharges itself into it. 
It was in the hands of Aretas, king of Arabia, when he married 
his daughter to Herod Antipas, but how it afterwards came into 
Herod'^s possession, we have no account from history. 

— 'H/Oftf&a&i] The daughter of Aristobulus, who was put 
to death by his father, Joseph. Ant. xviii. 6. She had agreed 
with Herod to divorce herself from her own husband at Herod^s 
return from Rome, was married to him, and cohabited with him 
as his wife. 

— ^iXiwTTov] Not the tetrarch and son of Cleopatra: but 
the son of Mariamne the daughter of the high-priest Simon* 
Josephus, Ant. xvii. 1, 2, calls him Herod, by which name the 
sons of Herod the Great were frequently called. He calls Antipas 
Herod ; and Dio Cass. p. 567) calls Archelaus Herod. The name 
is not in the Vulg. nor in the Camb. MS. He might according 
to the custom of the Jews have two names. Herod was the 
family name ; but Philip was that by which he was distinguished 
from the rest of his brethren. A like example we have Acts xii. 
where St. Luke speaking of one of the first Herod^s grandchildren, 
who was eaten up of worms, calls him Herod by the family name. 
Whereas Josephus speaking of the same person, calls him by his 
proper name Agrippa. 

4. ovK ij^etrri] By the law a man was forbid marrying his 
brother^s wife, unless the latter died childless. Lev. xviii. 16} 
XX. 21 : Deut. xxv. 5. Now Philip was still alive, and as he 
died in the twentieth year of Tiberius, must have lived four 
years after this time. He had a daughter by Herodias: she 
therefore was guilty both of incest and adultery. 

Joseph Ben Gorion tells us expressly that Herod took the 
wife of his brother Philip in his life time; and that he killed 
John for telling him that it was not lawful so to do: and that 
it was John who celebrated baptism. R. David G«nz, another 
Jewish writer, tells us. That Herod was a wicked man; that 
he slew many of their wise men ; that he took his brother Philip^s 
wife in his life time; and that he killed John for reproving him 
for it. 

— ix^^^^ ^^' 7*^*'<><^^* ^^ ^^* ^U. Gr. p. 56. So Xen. 
Kvp, irai^. I* By 10,' Kva^dptj^ etrejULire v/ocV Kafifiwrtiv tov Ttjv 
dSeX^^ eyovra. Hist. Gr. vii. 4, 23^ XiXwv o ti;i/ aSeX<l)rjv 
Tov 'Apx^^diuiou eywv. De Ages. xxi. ei (rvufiaiti yepai^ viav 
iy€iv. Horn. Hym. Here. 8, koi iy^i KoXkioipvpov ''HfiffP. 

5. OiXwv] To reconcile this with Mark vi. 19) where it is 

332 ST. MATTHEW.* 

said Herodias would have piut him to death, but could not prevail 
with Herod so to do ; it may be said, Herod was willing enough 
to. do it, but was withheld from the action, partly out of fear 
of the people, lest an insurrection should be occasioned against 
his government ; and partly by the checks of his conscience, as 
knowing John to be a just and holy man, whose death might 
be avenged on him by a just and righteous Grod, as the Jews 
thought it was by the destruction of his army. See Porteus, 
Lect. XIV. p. 6. 

— '€^o/3iy0iy] Several MSS. read epofieiro. 

— m Trpo^i^nyi^] Hesych. w^^ dXtfiik. See also Glass. Phil. 
Sac. p. 4i36. *Q9 oi!^ ofiouoaew^ aXXcc fiefimwaeuK^ So Neh. vii. 
2, avTos 019 di^p dXffi^t ^^ ^^ & true man, and one that feared 
the Lord. 

By the word Tr/oo^ifri;^ they generally meant one of the holy 
men whom God had raised up to his people in former ages. 

— et-xpvli Eurip. Here. Fur. 1401, wal^v trrepiffieh iralS 
oirox e')(w (T e/tAOv. Lucian, Toxar. xii. Vol. ii. p. 519, ov^w 
avTov evTiiJLorepov el'^e twv koXokwv, Dion. Hal. x. oi fiev ovv 


6. yev€(rla}v^ Sub. tifiepwv^ not cufiiroaiMv as Bos understands, 
£11. Gr. p. 156. Doubts have been entertained whether his birth- 
day is here meant, or the day of his accession to the crown, 
both of which were frequently celebrated with great pomp, 
among the Gentiles. It was usual with the Egyptians, Gen. xl. 
20: the Persians, Herod, i. 133: and the Romans, Plin. Ep. x. 
61 : though not with the Jews, who reckoned these among the 
feasts of idolaters. The former we read of in 2 Mace. vi. 7* 
where it is said of Antiochus Epiphanes, ei? Tijv irara fiffwa 
Tov l^curiXeaf^ yeveOXiov lifiepav, Philo de Opif. Mund. p. 20, 
eopnj yap ov /uia^ iroXew^f 17 ytopct^ ecrrii/, aXXa toS wavro^f 
fjv Kvpiwi a^toVf Kal iiovtiv iravoripLOV ovo/jidJ^eiv koI tov KOfrfiov 
yeveaiov. Joseph. Ant. xii. 4, 7) irdvre^ oi irpHroi Ttj^ Si/picK 
jrai T^9 vTTfiKoov yfopasy iopraH^ovTe^ t^v yevetrtov tifiipav toS 
9rai£/oi/ {tov fiaaiXiwi). Dio lviii. de Drusilla, koI ev roir 
yeveaioK airii^ eopri^. • Dio Cocc. Exc. 7^> ^ol /uiaos 'trpos tov 
TereXevrtiKora a^€X<f>6v eire^eiicvi/To, KaTokioras Tfjy t£v yepeaiwp 
TijuL^V' Josephus tells us 6f King Agrippa, iifiipav ovv eopral^wv 
avTov yeveffXiOv ore iraaiv wv VPX^^ €V<f>po<rvyais KaOiarturro 
OdXeion. Suidas, yeveaas tj ii eviavrov iirifpovrwra tov tc^ 
0€vTOi fiviififf' ^^^ latter we read of in 1 Kings i. 8, 9: Hos. 
vii. 5. And Josephus tells us of . Herod the Great, Ant. xv. 
11, 6, aw€icir€irrwK€t ydp. tii irpoOeafiiqi tov ^epi tov vaov 


iopra^fif, «!(• TttUTov iXBsiv. And in this sense the Latins 
use the expression Dies natalis. But though the word may be 
used ¥rith this latitude, it is safer to prefer the customary inter- 
pretation, unless where .there is positive evidence that it has 
that meaning. 

— ayo/teitju] Arrian. Exp. i. 10, 4, fivtrrtipuov t^v ftxrfoKtav 
ayofieimV' Plut. Sympos. viii. 1, 7-iff ^taKparow aryayovret 
yevi6\iov. .£lian, A. N. xi. 3, ■nil' ueyitmpi bojotiJc ayowriv 
/um ififxw aeixv^vre km fieyd\oirpeirti- Demosthenes, e'ip^vtf» 
ayet. Sallust, pacem agit. Flautus, ferias agere. 

— II 9vyaTrip\ Salome, ber daughter by her former husband. 

— wjo^iicraro] In antient times it was so far from being the 
custom for ladies of distinction to dance in public, that it was 
reckoned indecent if they were so much as present at public 
entertainments. The Queen Vashti thought it so dishonourable, 
that rather than submit to it, even when commanded by Ahasuerus, 
she forfeited her crown. Lardner (Vol. i. p. 15), not furnished 
with any instance parallel, concludes firom this very story, as 
related by the Evangelists, that this dance was a very unusual, 
if not a singular jnece of complaisance. If it had been a common 
thing, it is not to be supposed that Herod would have thought 
of requiting it with so large a present as half his kingdom. 
And notwithstanding Michaelis (Vol. i. p. 63) thinks that Salome's 
bong a child is a sufficient' answer to the objection of its being 
unsuitable to the dignity of a princess, and contrary to the 
mannas of the age, to dance in public for the entertainment 
of the court; yet it will generally be allowed to be a violation 
of decorum and of custom; and not probable that a young 
woman of high rank and so tender an age should voluntarily 
have taken such a step. 

— - ef T^ fii<x<f\ In the presence of the princes, captains, and 
chief men of the nation, Mark vi. 21. 

— t^peut Tf! 'Hpcoji;] Mseris ^pnrs nt, 'ArriKik' ifpstrt juot 
'EXXtipiicaic irai KOtvof. 

7' Mcff opKOv ti/to\oytioev\ Mark vi. 23, koi ofiorrf i- ovtii. 
Polyb. V. 96, 5, iifuiKoytfire njf Sxpmi avrois vapa^aftv- Kai 
•wept TovTwv opKOVS nrwtiaaTo koX awBtfKos- 

— o iav aertjtniTat] St. Mark here adds en>E ijtiiirou^ Tifi 
/3a7(Xefaf fu>v. See the same offer made, Esth. v. 3. Diod. 
Sic. XVI. Philip ^a^^cuuaaro irof ort av alr^irtj, yap'iaaoQat. 
Ovid, Metam. ii. 44, Quoque minus dubites, quodvis pete munus, 
et illud Me tribuente feres; promissis testis adesto Dts ^urandn palu». 

334 ST. MATTHEW^. 

8. wpoftifiaaOtlffa] Hesych. wpofiifiaaBekf 'rrpoajfieh* Stiid. 
irpofiifia(ist^, wapaivels, iretOsh, 'n'poay€K. i. e. wrought upon, 
incited, stimulated, which agrees with the account given by 
St. Mark, who relates the whole story more fully in many other 
circumstances, and says that upon this promise she went out to 
her mother, and said What shall I ask? and came in again by 
her instruction to ask the head of the Baptist. Xen. Mem. i. 
S, 17$ war7ti9 Toi/v SiiaaKovTiK opw airov^ oeiKuvpra^ Te Tocr 
fiavOa^ovaiVf n^ep avrol irtHovaiv a SiiaaKovaiy xal r^ \oy^ 
wpoftifial^ovTa^* OT&x ^ icac YMxpartiv 0€iKvivTa roll ^i/90&- 
cny eauTov koKov KoyaOov opra, koI SiaXeyofii^Poy KoXXurra wepi 
aper^ xal t£u aXKwv av9p&>irivwv. Diog. Laert. v. 5, 11, ovTiK 
Kai TAffvpohvypov irpoefii^ae top irdKiTtfv. Dionys. Longin. 
procem. lib. de fin. p. 244, o\ ^ mro'xpfivcu 0'^)Unv ^yijaavTo 
Tott^ cvyoyrcfs wpo/3i/3a^6ty ci$ t^p twp ap^tncoprwp ^avrw 

— T^p ic€0aXf}i', &c.] It was customary with princes in the 
East to require the head of those they ordered to be executed 
to be brought to them, that they may be assured of their death. 
And such is still the custom in the Turkish court. We have 
also an instance in Josephus, Ant. xviii. 6, 1, which follows 
the story of this marriage. Aretas was extremely provoked at 
the treatment of his daughter, and at length a war broke out 
between him and Herod. A battle was fought and Herod^s 
troc^s were defeated. Herod sent an account of this to Tibe- 
rius ; and he resenting the attempt of Aretas, wrote to Vitdlius 
to declare war against him, with orders that if he were taken 
prisoner, he should be brought to him in chains ; and that if 
he were slain, his head should be sent to him. 

9. o jSacrcXei/^] The tetrarchs frequently took upon them 
the name of Kings, as is manifest from the instance of Deio- 
tarus, Tetrarch of Galatia, to whom the Roman Senate gave 
the name of King. Herod^s subjects spoke of him in this style 
of honor ; and therefore St. Matthew, who, as well as St. Peter, 
had stood in this relation to him, here uses it. But others, 
Jews as well as Greeks, gave him the title of Tetrarch, as St. 
Luke has done : and so Josephus always calls him. 

— eXviniOri] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. lB82. 

10. W/A^a^] See ii. 16 : Scil. nva. Leisn. in Bos. £11. Gr. 
p« 93. cirurroXif y. Schmidt. vtrripiTfip. Mark vi. 37) adds (nrc* 
KovKirwpa- Plut. Pelop. p. 293, xe/u^a^ ^/m>9 avrop etxXtve 
6app€tv. Joseph. Ant. viii. 2, 6, koI vifiylfa^ vpo^ avrop lio-wa- 
^ero. See also Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 360. Herod must have 


been at Machsrus or in the neighbourhood, unless the name 
in Josephus be an interpolation. It would have been a two 
days^ journey from Tiberias to execute the command. 
' -— « air€K€<pdXjur€] Arrian. Epict. i. 1, KeXevtrBeh Viro T(w 
iiefM»po9 avoKetf^aktaO^vai^ and next page^ ek ^vXoKfjp ae fid\£, 

• — iv TTJ ipvXaKfi] Which was contrary to the law of Moses, 
which enjoined that malefactors should be executed publicly. 

il. vf^x^^^ ^^^ vpoafjvexOfi' See xxii. 19. Seneca Octav, 
437, Perage imperata, mitte, qui Plauti mihi Sullaeque referat 
absdssum caput. Val. Max. ix. 2, Marius caput M. Anto- 
nio abscissum, tactis manibus inter epulas, per summam animi 
ac verborum insolentiam aliquamdiu tenuit. Jerom tells us that 
Herodias treated the Baptist^s head in a very disdainful manner, 
pulling out the tongue which she imagined had injured her, 
and piercing it with a needle. Similar instances of unfeeling 
barbarity are to be met with in history. Mark Antony caused 
the heads of those he had proscribed to be brought to him while 
lie was at table, and entertained his eyes a long while with 
that sad spectacle* Cicero^s head being one of those that was 
brought to him, he ordered it to be put on the very pulpit 
where Cicero had made speeches against him. 

— * €irc xiVcuri] One MS. has ep t^. And Cod. Bez. here 
has T^j which is the more remarkable because at ver. 8, to which 
T^ would have reference, it wants the words eirl Trci/a/rf. But 
Middleton adds, the Cod. Bez. sets criticism at defiance. 
. _ (r£iu,a\ Suid. <rw/iia, irav to TeOvtfKos Trapa toI? waXaiois- 
In the same manner Corpus is used by the Latins. The read- 
ing vTw/ma which occurs in some MSS. is evidently from Mark 
vi. 29. A few. MSS. add avTod. 

— €\06vr€9 atniyyciXavl for aireXOovre^' As Soph. Phi- 
loct. 1211, /uLff irpo^ A(09 eXdri^ \k€T€vol\ SchoL eXOtf^ avrl rod 

13. oKovtra^ o *\ft(Tovi\ The digression or parenthesis begin- 
ning at ver. 3, ends here. The meaning of this then may be. 
When Jesus heard of the opinion Herod had of him, &c. Though 
St. Mark^s words vi. 31, would seem to make it probable that 
it was to rest and refresh his disciples. 

— ecelder] i. e. from Capernaum. 

epfjpLov rdxoi'] Called by St. Luke ix. 10, roirov epfj/uLov 

iroXeias KaXov/tievrjs BifdcraiSa, John vi. 1, says on the other 
side the sea, and consequently in the tetrarchy of Philip who 
was a meek and peaceable prince. 


— TTC^i?] by land, in opposition to ev r^ irXoi^. Sub. it 
Schoetgen. in Bos. Ell. Gr. p. 191 ; pedestri seu teirestri via, seu 
itinere, Mich. ib. Herod, v. 98, ivOevrev ve^fj KOfiil^ofijevoif 
aiTiKeaTo €9 Tlcuoviijv, Xen. Ki/p. iratS, viii. 6, 9, on ye twv 
ayOpwvivwv ire^fj iropeiwu avrtf Tay^urrti ToXiro evSrikov. Cicero 
uses classe et pedibus venire. £p. Att. iii. 8 : and v. 9, Actio 
maluimus iter facere pedibus, qui incommodissime navigaase- 

14. e^€\9wv\ Scil. ex rod irXoiov. 

— €ir ai/rov^] Several MSS. have eir aiiroiv- This verb 
in the New Testament admits of the construction eiri rivl and 
eiri Tipa. 

— ap/MtfOTov^l Hesych. appwaria^ voaoSt cur9iv9ta» 

16. oyjfia^ y€voiuL€tni9} i* e. irapayevoyAvti^. Luke ix. 12, j| de 
lifiepa iip^oTo KKip€iy, This must be the oyf^ia wpwrti^ see viii. 16; 
for we read again ver. 23, o^ias yevofiiinit which must be second. 
See Middleton, Gr. Art. p. 228. 

«— * ^17] See Hoogeveen, Doct. Part. c. xxii. § 6. 

— tj Apa liSfi 'frapiiXOep] Mark v. 36, i^Sti wpa^ ^oXX^ •ye- 
voixivfii. Lysias de Evandro, iraXai ri^ti o jqmvo^ irnpcXtiKvOe. 
Sappho apud Hephaest. Ai^vKc fiev a SeXawZj xal IlXfrca^, 
IA€<rai HvKTC^y trapd ^ ipx^^ wpa, €7(0 Se fiova KaOeuiw. 

— €c( rd^ KWfia^] Luke ix. 12, ei; rcc^ Kvkktp K^i/xa^. 

19- ayaK\t0^v€u] See viii. 11, avcucKlvto signifies discumbere 
facio^ as Mark vi. 39, kqI ewera^er avroiv i/uLaOrirais:) awjucXlvM 
TTcirras. Here therefore KeXewras is to be taken alone, and 
o')(Xov9 referred to drcucXiOffvai. Theophylact, avcucXiyet Se Tovi 
oj(Xou9 67ri roi/s X^P'''^^' cioao'Kwv Ti^y ei/reXciay. 

— cTTi T0V9 yopTov^^ Athcu. XI. p. 459, icaTOJcXiras iw tjJ 
iro^, KaraKXdfrai irapeOriKe twv QvOiprwv, Virg. ^n. vm, 
176, Gramineoque viros locat ipse sedili. 

— Kol Xafiwv] Koi wanting in several MSS. versions, and 
Fathers, has been perhaps introduced here from St. Mark. 

— oi^ajSXe^as] Xen. Ki/p. irai^. vi. 4, 4, i^/3X6>|^av €19 
Tov ovpavov eirev^aro* 

— evXoytiae] He gave thanks to God for them. St J(dui« 
eixapuTTiia'ai Sieowxe^ and Matt. xv. 36, ev^apumfo'as erXcKrc. 
In the institution of the Lord^s Supper, that which in St. Mat- 
thew and St. Mark is evXoyiiaraiy in St. Luke and St Paul is 
eiyaptxrrriaa^* The grace the Jews were wont to say before 
meals was a thanksgiving, Blessed be thou, O Lord, who hast 
given us, &c. 

— - jcXacra^j &c.] Xen. An^b. vii. 3, 22^ iveXoiuvin tw ira- 


/Muceifierov; air^ aprou^ Biekka Kara fAucpov^ xar ippiirrep off 
avT^ coojcci. 

20« lypay] Scil. oi 'AirocrroXoi. John vi. 12, trvvtuyayaif. 

*-^ TO ir€pixy(revov\ , There is a different reading, twv irepia^ 
a€vovTW¥, The Vulgate has a comma after wepiatFcuov, an^ 
necting roii' /cXao'MaTaii^ StiSeKa Ko(pi¥ov^ with ttX^/mk^ and they 
took up the remainder, twelve baskets full of fragments. Whidk 
Beza thinks the softer constructions the other is mostly followed.- 

"— id&eKa KO<f>ivov%\ Suidas iro^iraf, aryyelou irXeKTov, As 
many baskets as there were disciples. Each carried a. basket 
as the Jews were wont to do when they travelled through hea^ 
then countries, or Samaria ^ partly because there were no inns, 
and the hay which it contamed therefore served to spread un4er 
them when they slept, and partly that they might carry with 
them the articles of provision, &c. permitted by the law, and 
not be polluted therefore by unclean meats. Juv. iii. 13, Nunc 
sacri fontis nemus, et delubra locantur Judaeis, quorum cophinus 
fienumque supellex. And vi^ 542, Cum dedrt: cophino fseno^ 
que relicto. Arcanum Judsea tremens mendicat in aurem. 

This being one of the most astonishing and at the same time 
the most extensively convincing of all the miracles Jesus per- 
formed during the course of his ministry, every one of the 
Evangelists has recorded it ; and which is remarkable, it is the 
only one found in each of their histories. 

22. ek TO wepav] See Glass. Phil. Sac< p. 470. To the 
western side of the Lake ; into Galilee where they probably were 
unwilling to go, after they knew that John the Baptist had been 
put to death by Herod. St. John vi. 15, says it was to avoid 
the importunity of the people who would have made him a 

— 6air ov] Dum interim, xxvi. 36. But see Hoogeveen, 
Doctr. Part. c. xix. Sect. 2. § 7- 

23. oyffiai Se yevo/uiivfii^ John vi. 17$ aKcria i^cfi eyeyovei* 
See ver. 15, this was the oylfla ieikfi* 

Eustath. in Od. xvii. Atmi Kara Toiv iroXcMovv i} &iXi}. i} 
fiiu yap oylfia ielXrj to reXcirraiov dkiun r^ v€[Kfii fiipos to 
wepl liXlov Svafidsp iripa ie ieiXti frpw'ia to evOii ex fiearnjifipia^. 
Phav. Hesych. AccXff wpd'ia ^ /jl€t apuiTov wpa, ociXiy oyj/ia 
If vepl Iwriv f^Xioi;. The first was considered as commencing 
from the ninth hour : the second from the twelfth hour or sunset. 

24. fiifTov Ttfi QaKaavffi'] Thus Gr^« Naz. Carm. de Seipso 
62, w^ vavv fiiavfv kKvowvos* Joseph. Ant. vi. 4, 5^ wapaye- 
vafuvo¥ 'toTfio'i fJiMtrov tw irXifdevs. xiii. 1, 3,^ o ci itapopfMicrai 


388 srr. MATniEw. 

fUtrois aweCKviiAfJievoK toS re irorofiod xal t£v iroXeimiuv, xiv. 8, 1, 

^-^ fiagfawtl^Ofxevcfv'\ Thm Polyb. i. 48, 2, speaking of a Btorm 
xii wind, wrr^ kuI TOi ffrock ^taaaX^veiP, xal Ttnv^ 9r/MNceipieiw( 

2B. Teraprri Se <f}v\ttK^] Sub. ip. See Bos. Ell. Gr. p. 428. 
OrdSnals f<M- tne most pitft, whether the nouns with which thej 
agree be expressed &r understood, are anarthrous. See Mid- 
dktOB, Gr. Art. p. IdS. The Jews formerly divided the night 
into three equid portions (Judg. vii. 19.), but after the tiine of 
Pottpey the Gf^eat they seem to have followed the Roman ifivi- 
oom into four. This came from the Greeks ; and the diviaiom 
were distinguiiAied by the nacmes o>^, po&rapwcnowf r^exTpfXpuvkif 
trpwu Joseph. Ant. ▼. 6, 5, roTa TeTaprttv pjaXttrra ^Xeactfy 
irfM^ffye rffv tivrov trrp a rt d v Fc^iat^. Achill. Tat. «. p. IBl, 
ir^pi vrpwTa^ vt^KTo^ ^vXaxd^ irpaariefiev a^o^nfri. 

— crr^Xide] for ^X9e. So dso Mark iii. IS: vM. SO: Luke 
xxiii. 33 : John iv. A*J. Or dtriiKOev airo rov opov^ /cm ^Ot 

-— «ri r^y ©aXoeroTy?] Artemidor. in. 16, emi tfoXcrarcn;? A>- 
tceci/ viBptiraTeivj aTro^ftijatti ficnikoyievtp wjaQop. lAteian. Fhi> 
lopsrad. xm. Vol. in. p. 40. elcet tov vTepfiopeav avipa Trero- 
fjL€vov fj €7ri TOV viarcfs fie^Kora; This was thou^t so im- 
pracAJcahle, that the picture of two feet walking on the sea was 
an Egyptian hieroglyphic for an impossible thing. And in Scrip- 
ture it is mentioned as the prerogative of God, that he done 
treadeth trpon the waives of the sea. Job ix. 8. 

26. (f^dvratrfui] It was a common opinion among iJie Jews 
that spirits appeared sometimes under a human shape. And 
jt was a received notion among them that evil spirits appeared 
more frequently in the night than in the day time. See the 
Septu^nt in Ps. xc. 6, which renders what is in Hebrew '^^ de- 
struction at noon day^ by huficviau yjeoTififipivcm. 

2iJ. 6ap(reiT€' fifi 0o)8eia^e] Horn. II. a>. 171> ©o/twrci Aa/9&i- 
vlifl npMi/xc, ippetrl fifioe ti rdp^i. Herod, l. 9, ^aprregf ri;yi;\ 
TCal pci^ ^)9e?. Artstoph. Plut. 1*092, Bdppet^ /x'^ <f>oficiv* Judtth 
^.1, BdptffitTOpy ytivcu, loat fiij fpofifiOii^ Ttj xap^q trov. 

96. TOV aveiMfv iayvpov] See Middleton, Gr. Ait. p. 228. 
'itryypo^, i. q. trtpoSpo^' 

^*^ o-cSo-oi;] Virg. Mn. vi. 365, Eripe me his invicte malis, 
ttnd 370, Da delttram misero, ^ tecum me tofie per undas. 

SI. . rif Ti} for rt or Biari Sub. airtfjvj Bos. EtL Gr. p. l€. • 


*«• i^Urrmrm] H^ych- &oW^a' SiX^Pirniw dwcpei^ autpifioAr 
Xf<. TfaJB k n figumtivit word, Ukm ^Ui^r from a p«noii atMdr 
ing where two way* meet., not koowo^ whsoh to eboooe, but 
iQcUning fometifoiBe to the one aod aometimes to the odier : or 
^rom the tremolouf iBotfon of a b^bmce, when the weights on 
IxHh sidfiB ire nearly equal, and oooaeqiie^tly now the one aadf 
j»ow the other acale eeeme to prqKHiderirf^e and fiK the beam. 

92, inmiffmf o apeftas^ Herod# vii, 191, i wejii&t itAwwr^^ 
JBlian. apud Suid. in voce (TKXtfpol' oi avefnoi oi aKkf/pol *re mi 
ejfdpoi vapa^p^fia eKoircuraV to hi toufUt i^TopeOti^ 
' 33. irpQa^KvvrfTav\ See ii. 2, 11, p^ 44. 

— - Oeov vio9] i- e. the Messiah, in the language of the Jews^ 
who applied to the Messiah those woids of Ps. ii. Thou art my 
Son, be. iUid hi our Ixwd'^s dtfys, H k eertam that ^ Son of 
Grod"^ and ^^ Christ^ were CDttvectjUe tenna^ and known to dck 
ihoCe the same persoD. See €&andler^i Defence of Christianity^ 
c ill. eeet. 3. p. 198.^ 

Sereral traftslators and mtiea underttend this to li^^nify only 
Thou art a . Son of God^ Bp. MMdleton has shewn th<|t the 
want ci the articles affords no ground for wdi an interpi«te- 
tioQ. JEIe then briefly notioes the partienlar cirewnstanees of 
tUs passage. It is <»«ijeetared by some oonunentators that the 
nariners who jnade tUs deelaration weee pagans; iot whi(ih 
amppositico howei^er he inds not the least support. Adjvutting 
however that they were pagans^ it is not easy to nod^stand 
how, if they jspake merely in Gonformity wiidi their own notions^ 
imd according to their own phraseology they eanae to use the 
isgcpression. But they were the oonfMnions of the diseiples: 
nprijght they not tha'efore use a phrase whieh they ha4 borrowed 
from others ? Against this it is wged, that the disciples thett- 
selves were not yet acquainted with our Saviour^s divinity: 
« pnaition which thou^ tnne <«i th^ whole, ja yet received with 
lop little nestridaon. That tjie expected Messiah was to be the 
Son of Grod was a Jewish dootrine* If thc^efoce they had believed 
our fiaiviour to be the CSiristt they must also ha^ve regarded hw 
as the Son of God: but aOoariia^ thdr faith to have been nnaet^ 
tied, still it was natural, whenever his extraor<&uury worka 
Induced a momoitary aeqniesocaice in his nnaaionf to apply to 
him the title 1^ whicb> had thek con^ctlon been uniform^ they 
would nntfarmly have daadnguished him : and it js ^OQt too mucli 
to add, that luhowing the preten^ons of Christ, they wspuid 
hardly conceal them fnnn thdr companions and friends.* Even 
on jtfae supposition therefore that the mariners were pagans, thidr 

Y 2 


exclamation that Jesus was the Son of Grod, I mean in the highest 
sense, admits an easy solution. 'AX^dm expresses both their 
former doubt and their present conviction. See 6r. Art. p. 328. 

34. Vevyiia'apiT] The name of a country as well as the lake: 
the same as is called Cinnereth, Numb, xxxiv. 11. According 
to Josephus B. J. iii. 9, 8, the land of Grennesareth ran thirty 
furlongs along the shore of the lake, and was in breadth twenty. 
Capernaum, where Jesus Christ was then going, was in that 

— w€pij(wpo^j Sell, ytjv' 

— oTrearetXav'] Sdl. ayyeXov^. 

Chap. XV. 

1. Tt>re] About that time, when Christ had miraculously fed 
the five thousand, and was gone thence to Capernaum. 

— oi avo *l€poaoKvfiwv] There is no need of understanding 
here eXOoyre^: as the words themselves according to common 
usage signify merely the country or habitation, as Judg. xii. 8, 
A^cucifav arro RvfiXeeiii Heb. xiii. 24, oi airo r^ 'iToXfOw: 
Acts xvii. 13, OI iiro t$9 6€d'(raXoviJCf;9 'loi/jacoc : and John xi. 1, 
Lazarus when sick at Bethany is called airo ^tfiavUxsi Matt, 
ii. 1, Mayoc cciro cokitoXmp irapeyevovTO eh 'lepoaoXvfia^ • See 
also Matt. xxi. 11: xxvii. 57: Mark xv. 43: Luke xxiii. 51: 
John i. 46 : xii. 21 : xxi. 2 : Acts vi. 9 : x. 38 : xxi. 27* Thus 
Polyb. I. 31, 3, oca tov <l>oPoy <Fvm(f^€vyovrwv eiy Tfi¥ woXiy T»r 
airo T% ympas* And v. 86, 10, r^y evvoias irpoKaBtrfovixivfii 
irpo^ Toi/y airo r^y 'AXe^avipeias /Sao-iXcTy. So Livy i. £0, Tur- 
nus ab Alicia, i. a Aricinus. See Drackenborch on^ Livy iv. 
7, 4. Find. Oljrmp. x. 84, airo Mai^ivca^ 2c^i09 f/ec^rro. Po- 
ly aenus II* p. 191, OI d€ airo Ttj^ TeveSov .... iireipwvTo irpo^ ro¥ 
*l(PiKpaTffv wXcIv. 

A few MSS. want oc. The difference will be, that with the 
article we must understand the principal part of the Scribes 
and Pharisees of Jerusalem; without it, that some Scribes and 
Pharisees came from Jerusalem. The latter is the more probable; 
and this is the sense of the Syriac version, and apparently of the 
Vulgate. See Middleton, 6r. Art. p. 231. 

2. irapa^ivowTi} Arrian. Epictet. iii. 5, irapafiaiyeiv Owv 
TO? ivToXa^' Herod, i. 85, furetrrfiae rd vofUfia maWa, Km 
€<l>iXa^€ Tavra fi^ irapa^lvetV' Demosth. c. Aristocr. Vol. i. 
p. 624, 1, irapafias tovs opKovi kcu tus (rvvftf/ca?. 

— T^v frapdS^aiv] Hesych. irapdiotri^' aypaipos &&x<r«aXia. 
Any thing taught or delivered down, as the ^07^0 of the Greek 

CflAPTSR XV. 341. 

philosophers. A. Grell. uses tradido to express vapdioats' 
^lian. Hist. An. ii. lO^ calls them imQfifia Trmoi ck' warpSt 
wapaioOiy* Joseph. Ant. xiii. 10, 6, on vojujuLa woKXd nvd 
irapicocav r^ Ciifiip o\ ^apiaaloi iic nraripfov otal^cf)^^ amp omc 
avayiypairrai iv roh Mowaeov vofuns- These traditions the 
common people belieyed, were delivered by Grod to Moses, and 
by him to Joshua and his assessors; from whom they were handed 
down to the prophets and from them to Ezra, and so continued 
down. They were collected about a. d. 180, by R. Judah, in 
the tract called Mishna. 

— TW¥ vpeafivrepwy] Here meaning the chief doctors among 
the Jews, not the members of the Sanhedrim. In some of the 
Jewish writings. are these blasphemous maxims to be found; 
** the words of the Scribes are more lovely than the words of 
the law ; the words of the antients are more weighty than those 
of the prophets.^ 

— ou yap viirrovrai] The law of Moses requured external 
cleanness as a part of religion; not however for its own sake, 
but to signify with what carefulness God'^s servants should purify 
their minds from moral pollutions. Accordingly these duties 
were prescribed by Moses in such moderation as was fitted to 
promote the end of them. But in process of time they came to 
be multiplied prodigiously. For the antient doctors, to secure 
the observation of diose precepts that were really of divine insti- 
tution, added many commandments of their own as fences unto 
the former: and the people, to shew their zeal, obeyed them. 
Hence they placed a great piece of religion and sanctity in wash- 
ing their hands, and looked upon those who neglected this as men 
of a defiled soul. Thus Maimonides says, " The religious of 
old did eat their common food in cleanness, and took care to 
avoid all undeanness all their days, and they were called Phari- 
sees : and this is a matter of the highest sanctity, and the way 
of the highest religion; viz. that a man separate himself and 
go aside from the vu^;ar, and that he neither touch them, nor 
eat or drink with them; .for such separation conduceth to the 
eleansing of the soul from evil affections, and the sanctity of 
the soul conduceth to the likeness of Grod."" Hence they reckon 
this among the means to obtain eternal life, saying. Whosoever 
hath his seat in the land of Israel, and eateth his common food 
in cleanness, and speaks the holy language, and recites his phy- 
lacteries morning and evening, let him be confident that he shall 
obtain the life of the world to come. Buxtorf cites from the 
Talmud this expression, that he that eats bread with unwashen 
hands, does as bad as if he lay with a whore. The undervaluing 

349 ST; MArriiftw. 

this eeremony is md to be MUmg those thbg* for which th« 
^Smh^drim exooonniiiiicates i and U n reported that K. EUeser- 
ben^Haear was exeommuiiieated by the Sanhedrim becaaae he 
eontemoed the washing of hands. And the R. Akiba being in 
tirison, And not having water enough to drink and to wash hie 
pands, chose to do the liitter5 ^J^g^ It is better to die with 
thirst thm tridisgtess the tta^tion of the elders. Some escribe 
the institution of this rite to HiUel end Shammai, but ochen 
imrry it back to ages before them. 

— aprov iaOlaxrtv] This is a Hebrew phrase^ the meaning 
of which is, When they take their mesls. See 1 Sam* xx. 84: 
!klark iii. 80 : John xiil, 18. Some things they did ordinarily 
Mt without washing their handS) as dry fruit, 6ec. but not bread. 

4. eyer^iXttro] S^ Exod. xx. 12. Hence in Mark vii. 10, 
we read Mokr^v yJip ttire. For enrreiXaTo thM«fore some copies 
and versions read here elire, which has evidently arisen ttom the 
passage in St. Mark^ 

-^ rlfjta] Signifies not only reverence, but the itfording them 
^1 the necessaries of this present life, according to that of the 
Jerusalem Targum on Deut. xv. 4, ^< To honour is to make 
provision for them.** And according to the Jewish canons a son 
is bound to afford his father meat, drink, and clodies to cover 
him, to lead him in and out| and to wash his hands, face and 
feet. See Bp. Tayloi^s Works, Vol. xiv. p. I76. Hierocles in 
Carm. Pythag. p. 54^ says, a son is to honour them frwfianK 
i^pealf xat j(prffiaTWp x^/^T'?' PUlo de Deoal. p. 586, de* 
clares that iraiSwy iStov av^v o fitf yoviw¥ itrrt^^ as having 
received it from them, or having received from them the facul* 
ties by which they procure it^ that therefore they can never 
recompense them, and m^ both inhuman and ungodly, if they 
neglect to succour them % and that the very heathens taught the 
same. Theophylact on ver. 6^ explains rifx^v \yf evepyereiv* 
With the neglect of this duty the Caraites reproach the Rab* 
banists ; and to tlus day require that parents should be honoured 
by every mode, not only of words, but deeds* 

-*- 'top irarepa rrov] Several MSB. and some Fathers omit 


— *- KaKciKoywv] From Exod. xxi. 18. But in Deut. xxvii. 
16, the expression is anfm^mv toV iraripa\ and xxi. 18, woy 
etirei^ijs, ipeOtrm^^, ouk \nraKtvwp <pw¥^¥ miTpi^ iced (fpmv^ fift 
Tp6^. The prc^r import of KoxoKoyetv is to give abusive tan* 
guBge, to revile, to calumniate. ,So Esek. xxii.. 7« irtrriptt ical 
firiripa eKaKoXoyovp. And that death should be the punishment 
of those who abused their pinrents, is suitable to the laws of hea* 


thenSy Toif vfiptS^oura top avrou warepa M9 /mt^'j^uh t^ oi/crlaff^ 
Sopater ad Hermog. 

Modem transUtor^ have Goronioiily rendered KOKclKir/eiv by 
the word ^* to curse^^ or some equivalent term. But ta curse 
i. e. to pray imprecaticms is always expressed in the Now Tes« 
lament by ttorapaofuUf d^aOeiMMxi^w^ icaTawxd^uir«^«> ; a curse 
by Kurdpa, dydOe/Jiu, raravodc/aa : cursed by KaTrffiofAevof^ and 
awucora/MiTor* The application in the present instance ia evv» 
dently to reproachful or opprobrious wcurds, quite different from 
cursing. And hence what the Septuagint renders by xoKoX^Kyeiir^ 
£xod. xxiL 28, Symmachus renders by drtMol^eiy. 

— TTorepa tj Mtjrepa] See Middleton, Gr. Art. p. 133. *0 Xoir 
copAy rov varepa wa<^fiei Xo^fi' Tijv w to 0€io¥ ^ lusXerq, 
fi\aa<l>9iM.iay. Menand. 

-'— duydr^ TeXevrdrw] The Septuagint TeXevriiflr^i, i. e. 
without any hope of obtaining pardon. 

5. o9 ay etint] for edy riv. Mark vii 11, cay iiiwfi avOpwwos* 

-— iwpop] SciL ecrrt, or corca, or «rra#. 

This phrase iiipoy or Corban, does not impMt that be who said 
this had consecrated his goods to sacred used, or obliged himself 
to do -so, but only that he had according to the doctrine of the 
Scribes by vow obliged himself not to give any thing to him to 
whom he thus spake. Maimonides says, sit mihi Corban ista 
Massa panis, i« e. let it be as much forbidden as what is conse* 
crated; let that mass of bread be to thee a sacred thing, S« 
that whosoever said, liet it be Corban whereby I may b^ profit* 
able to thee; they, by their theology, declared him bound by 
a vow not to relieve him to whom he spake^ thusjt though he 
waa his father, unless they would absolve him from his vow« 
And by thus not suffering him to do any thing for his needy 
parents, by reason of this raah and wicked vow, they made the 
oonunandment of God void, and suffered them to slight and 
despise their parents by their traditions. 

Origen saya he should never have understood .this passage, 
had it not been for the information he received from a Jew, 
who told him it was a custom with some of their usurers wh«s 
they met with a tardy debtor to transfer the debt tQ the poor''s 
box ; by which means he was obliged to pay it under pe palty of 
bringing upon himself the imputation of cruelty to the poor and 
impiety towards God: and that children would sometimes imitiite 
this practice in their conduct towards their parents. 

— il; ifjLov ai^eXifd^] Thucyd. viii. 96, cf ^ irKsw^ 

m^\wrro> ^schyl. Prom. Vinct. 229, roia^ €^ e/iov o riv 


0e(Sv rvpawos mff^eXtipiivot. Airian. Epictet. ii. 81, elm Xeyov- 

— Koi ov /ftiy TtfAfiarfff &c.] Some suppose here an Aposiopesisy 
and understand avaiTio^ iari : or from the former verse, which 
is preferable, Oavart^ fi^ reXeirroT^. Others transhite, Then 
let him not any more honour, &c. Michaelis would understand 
here 6<f>€iK€h is tenetur ad servandum hoc; see Bos. Ell. Gr. 
p. 381 ; but see also p. 351. And Schoetg. uses the ellipsis of 
KwXirrov: see Bos. p. 141. It is translated in Bowyer, What- 
ever you would have me allow you for your maintenance, is 
already vowed as a gift to God ; therefore he must not relieve 
his father or mother. 

6. liKvpfotrare] here has the force of the present. See Mark 
'vii. 12, 13. Hesych. oKvpovv Karafyyeiv* 

Poeocke says they have a canon to this ^ect. That vows reach 
€ven to things commanded, or take place as well in things required 
by the law as things indifferent ; and that a man may be so bound 
by them as that he c^umot without great sin do what God had by 
his law required to be done: so that if he made a vow which laid 
upon him a necessity to violate God^s law, that he might observe 
it^ this vow must stand, and the law be abrogated. 

7* viroKpiTat] Our Lord here and elsewhere calls the Pharisees 
hypocrites, not only because they placed the worship of God, 
and great sanctity and religion, in ceremomes of human invention, 
and pretending to a regard to purity and religion did nothing 
out of pure respect to God^s glory, but did all their works to 
be seen of men, and to procure glory from them. But also 
because being so superstitiously careful to avoid the outward 
pollution of the body, by abstaining from touching any thing 
that was unclean, and washing their hands when they thought 
they might have done it, and even their pots and cups and beds; 
they Irft that which was within, viz. their hearts, full of hypocrisy 
and iniquity, uncleanness, extortion and excess. 

'•"^/caXoiv nrpoeiprfTev<T€^ &c.] He does not say, Isaias pro- 
phesied of the Jews of that age in which Christ lived, or that 
he then said what by accommodation might be implied to them, 
(see Kidder, Dem. Mess. ii. p. 81, 02,) but only thi^ he well 
said of the hypocrites of his age, that which was true of the 
like hypocrites in any age. You are that very sort of Jewish 
hypocrites of which IsiEuas (xxix. 18) prophemed, i.«. you do 
fully resemble them. 

^- ^'77^"^^ f^of] In several MSS., versions and Fathers, the 
reading is <rXaos <wto9 rolt ^^ecXco-i, &c., whence it would seem 


that iyySI^€i fioi and r^ (rro/uari avrHv xai may have crept 
in here from Isaiah; having been noted in the margin, and 
aflfcerwards inserted in the text. They are omitted by St. Mark, 
and added in no MSS.; on which Griesbach observes, that few 
have written commentaries or scholia on St. Mark, but many 
have on St. Matthew, whence the latter has been more liable 
to interpolations of this kind than the former. 

— i; 5e KapSia qwij(€t] Plut. Cat. Maj. p. 843, to. ptjfiara 
Toiv fii€v''E\krf(rtv awo ^ecXeW, to7s oe * PcD/uif oc; awo xapSla^ 
<f>€p€<r9cu, Themist. Or. xx. t!} fiiv yKwTrti ^iXoco^eTv, Ttf ie 
Kapoitf ouoafiwi* Theog^s 87? M>7 M* evetrtv /mev (rrepyej voov 
c €}(€ Kal if^piva^ oXXi;, el fie ifuKels ical aoi wurro^ eveari poo^. 

9. fMTfiv] Scil. 619 /uin/v. See Bos. Ell. 6r. p. 414. There 
is nothing in the present Hebrew that can be duly rendered in 
vain. But the Septuagint in Isai. xxix. 13, have it as our 
Saviour here and in Mark vii. 7^ cites it. 

This people talks much of religion, and makes a great shew 
of piety, but they have no regard for real goodness in Uieir heart. 
However, all their worship is vain and displeasing to me, while 
they practise themselves and impose upon others as matters of 
divine appointment, a variety of frivolous precepts of men^s 
invention, neglecting the eternal rules of righteousness. 

— iiSaaKciXia^] By way of, &c. See Middleton, 6r. Art. 
p. 66. 

— evToX/iOTo av0pw7ra>v'\ Things enjoined by mere human 
authority, as is plain from Col. ii. 22, Touch not, taste not, 
handle not, which are all iyraXfiaTa avOpeiwwVf though they 
come from their wise men, though they be the traditions of the 
elders or governors of the church, though they come from thos^ 
Scribes or Pharisees who sat in the chair of Moses ; yet, without 
a divine institution they are only the commandments of men. 

The word evrdk/ia occurs but thrice in the New Testament, 
viz. here; Mark vii. ^; Col. ii. 22; in all which places it is 
joined with dpdpwwfavf as it is also in the passage of the Septuagint 
here quoted. And in all these places it may be observed, the 
ivToKiurra are mentioned with evident disapprobation, and con- 
trasted by implication vdth the precepts of Grod, which in the 
New Testament are never denominated evraKfiaraf but erroXal. 

To teach these commandments of men as doctrines j is to 
enjoin them, or impose them on the consciences of others as 
things necessary, or things to be observed for their goodness; 
as the Pharisees did this washing <tf hands,, couhting those 
sinful and defiled who neglected so to do; and as parts of God's 

346 ST. M ATTHSW« 

worship; for otherwise they could not strictly and properly be 
said to worship God in vain, by teaching and observing these 
things. See Bp. Taylor's Works, Vol. xiii. p. 74» and x. 532. 

10. irpoaKciKeadfAepo^f &c.] Prov. ix. Iff, vpoaKoXovfiMv^ Twrs 
waptovrttf oSov, See Mark vii. 14: xii. 43. 

— oKoiere koi auyiere] See xi. 15: xiii. 43. Hear and mind 
what I say unto you. Eupolis in Stob. Serm. xxxiii. p. 98, 
aXX* OKOver, i Oearai, iroXXa nat ^uvUtu j^fnifiaT, €idu 'yap 

From these words spoken to all the multitude, and the words 
Mark vii. 16, spoken to the same persons, He that hath ears 
to hear, let him hear, it is evident that in our Lord^'s judgment 
the whole multitude was capable of understanding those things 
which the Pharisees did not, and by which the traditions of the 
Scribes, Pharisees and elders were overthrown; and that for 
this nothing more was requisite than ears to hear, or good 
attention to Christ^s sayings. 

11. TO Mefy)(6iievo¥] i.e. meat or drink. See Ezek. iv. 14: 
Dan. X. 3: Acts xi. 8, colL x. 14. The man is not unclean in 
God^s sight because such meat or drink hath touched him, 
and so he needeth not to be washed from that defilement; if 
it defile at all, it does it either from the quality, as being by 
God forbidden, and so the disobedience defiles; or firom the 
quantity, and so the excess defiles. 

Our Lord did ttot at all mean, immediately to overthrow the 
distinction which the law had established between things dean 
and unclean, in the matter of man^s food. This distinction, 
like all the other emblematical institutions of Moses, was wisely 
appointed; being designed to teach the Israelites how carefully 
the familiar company and conversation of the wicked is to be 
avoided. He only affirmed, that in itself no kind of meat can 
defile the mind which is the man, though by accident it may. 

— ^ toSto] DiaL £ryx. c. xvii. to yap ^jpij/^ara iroXXa 
mtCTfjaOcUt TOvTo elvcu to ^rXoirrcIy. Dial, wept aperij^f c iv. 
TO ^, w KXeo0avTD$ o O^/ucrroKXeov? wos ai/17/9 aya0os koi 
co(f>o^ eyeveTo, awep o irar^p aurov ^v <roif)o^j liStj tovto^ jc.t.X- 
Plant. Captiv. 11. 3, 54, Te meminisse, id gratum est mihi. 

— * Koivoif &c.] For ivvaT€u KoivSaai* Alberti Gloss. N* T. 
p. 7^9 /U17 Kotpov. fiij aKodapTov Xeye, Acts xxi. 28 : . Heb. ix. 13. 
Philo de Dec. p. 764, ^10 t£v fjiiv aXXtav iK€urrov Oipadw 
ewcACTioy koI irpovniTrrov e^wOew^ aKov^riov ^voil SoKei, fiovn S 
avTfj enTiQvfAia rf|i^ ipytiv e^ titA&v XaM/Sai^ei, koi ccrnv c^covatoc. 
De Mund. Op. T. i. p. 29> trrofMvn, it ov yiverai Bvnrm amv* 


fikiy ycip airif arta tcai ttotoj 4p9apToS {mfiaro? dffaprai 
Tffo(fkiL \ayoi i ij^iaaiv aOaPorov ^i^X^f aOamrroi POfkoi, Si' 

'-^Tov apOpi&nov] The article, Bp. Middleton sajs^ is here 
necessary, because as in the case of regimen, the defimteness 
of a part supposes the defimteneos of the whole: to KTrofia 
muBpmitov would not be Greek, nor in this place avOpe^vov. 

13. rare irpocreXBom^'] When he was entered into the hoose, 
Mark Tii. 17« 

•^ TOP \6yop] TovTtw subticetur, Mieh. in Bos. £11. Gr. 
p. S07* Bp. Middleton says, this word always in the New 
Testament, except where particular rules interfere, takes the 
article, when used in the sense of o Xiyos tou Oecv cfr roi 

13. iraaa 0i;r«a] ffwrnia literally signifies the aet of plant- 
ing, and thence by metonymy, the plant itself; and here ^roo-a 
^^vrekt is put for weuroi ^pvrtiai. The word is here genarally 
understood to be used metaphorically for doctrine. The Hebrews 
as well as Greeks, were wont to compare the miqd of man to 
A field, and the precepts with which it was imbued, to the seed 
or plants. See 1 Cor. iii. 6. Hippocrates in lege Sect. Op. i. 
p. 2, 17 fiev yap tpicris ^fiiwy okoIov 1) X^P^y '^^ ^ Soyfiara t£p 
BthuTKovrtap okoiow rei trirepfiaTa, Philo i. Allegor. leg. p. 44, 
j^wpoif fiiv ay pod J to ifoviTO¥ eipfiKe rov vov^ (o^ 'ya/o ev ayp^ to 
j^wpd fiKacrravei xal avOel, ovtw (iXatmffAa tov vov to voifroy 
icrri, Plutarch* de Lib. £duc. p. 2, tov avrov Tpovov yi} /i€i» 
eoucep fj <j}va'it, yetapy^ ie o iraiStvwv, <Tir4pfiaTt oe a< t£v \6ywv 

Theophylact interprets this, to; rmv irpetrfivreprnv irapaiwrct^^ 
Kal TO, 'lovSaiKa ivroKfuara \eyei exptl^wOrfvaif and this is cer- 
tainly true of those commandments of men : but the context 
has inclined some to interpret this of the hypocritical sect of 
the Pharisees, for they are the persons scandalized, ver. 12: 
^e blind guides, ver. 14: and therefore probably the {pvreia 
at this verse. 

14. a(f>er€ avrovf] Regard not what they say or do against 
me or my doctrines, seeing they say or do it ou'j of the blindness 
oi their minds. Arrian, i. teUs us that Epictetus used to say 
a0e9 ctVTop. Xenoph. Mem. i. 3, 4, ei ie t( jo^cicp airr^ 
trflfialp€tT0ai vapa OecSi^, ^frrov iuf iireia&fi nrapa ra (rtifiaivofMva 
^rof^cK, ti ct Tt9 airiv eireidcv icci Xafieiv ifyeiioua Ti/^Xoy xal 
>ti) ciSora t^v oiovj avrl /SXewoFTos Kal ci^Tos. 



— oinytA Ti/^o<] See xxiii. 16. Ti/^Xo( applied to the 
nund, signifies an ignorant man, who not only does not see what 
is right and true, but even follows after what is bad and Cake. 
Such men are called eaKOTurfAevot r^ Stavoiqi, £ph. iv. 18. See 
also Rom. i. 21. In the same way we meet with animi caligo, 
Juv. Yi. 613. 

— .ir€<TovvT€u] The future here has the force of present, 
whence in some copies is read iriirrouai, and the Vulg. has 
cadunt. The same proverb occurs Luke vi. 39* Hor. Ep. i. 
17» 4, Ut si caecus iter monstrare velit. Sext. Empir. Mathem. i. 
31, oi/Tff C€ o aT€j(vos Tov oTc^vov SiocuFK€iv ^vvoTaif M oOe o 
Tv0Xo9 Tou Tv^Xov oSff/cIy. Philo de Fortitud. T. ii. p. 376, 
43, ei Se rufe^ tw Ttjs ^vcews irXoi/roF irap oviiy Oifiepot, tov 
. Twp K€p£v (So^eSv imKovaiy TvifiK^ irpo (iKiwovros aKtjpnrrofieyoi, 
Kal ffyefiovi r^ oloS ypiiyievoi ven-fiptojuLeptp^ iriirrecv e^ avaytofgi 
a^tkovciv.-'^A. few MSS. here read c/uiirca'oi/in'ai* 

15. if^paaov] Explain. See xiii. 36. 

— ira/xt/SoXi/F] Frequently signifies a sentence or maxim. 
Here it refers to the maxim contained in ver. 11. 

16. aKfiiiv\ i. q. 6Tt. Phryn. p. 123, axfi^u ainrJ tow rri, 
Seno^Mtfi/ra \4yovaiv an-a^ air^ KejfpfiaOmj Anab. iv. 3, 26. 
Kor QK/uL^v XP^^^9 etiam nunc. Bos. Ell. Gr. p. 446. Jos^h. 
Ant. XVII. 11, 5, Tovs iroXirav ioiwrtiv ovra aic/uujv^ (r^Mi^ecF €¥ 
Up^ fjLij avarerpafjifiMvov. Polyb. I. 13, 12, axfiiiv cucepaia iv 
Toif WuTfAoi^i — V. 18, 5, OK^^v Tats Siavoims ^av fAerewpoi, 
Themistodes, Ep. ii. xpiifni oe aKfifjv evpairaev, AnthoL G. iii. 
14) 3, oi; §i€p{K aiquLtiv iyQpov iw d'^i^ois oroS^crai aKpefimriP, 

— Kal i/MCiV aavveroi] That therefore tibis parable was not 
understood by them, must be ascribed not to the obscurity of 
it, but to the prejudices and slowness of understanding that 
were in his disciples^ 

17* ouww voeire^ In some ou poe7T€^ which Mill approves 
of, •• 

— €19 T^p Kotkiav. x^f ^^] I*lut. Sympos. vii. 1, eiirep €« 
icoiXiai/ €j(wp€i Old aro/ULajfov ttop to irivofievov, Hesych. ywpeipj 
dwekOeiv. Xen. Kvp. irato. vii. 5, 16, to icwp Kara rd^ TaJt^pow 
i^wp^i. Galen, de Dogmat Hippocr. et Plat. ii. vcpi Zta^^ 
p^fiaros — Kal ydp koI tovto Sid T^y iipas eKirifiwerai — irpos 
Tiva Twy ^Twucwp iyeyovei fwi irore dfUfHafi^Tfio'is virep rw 
yyipei piifi^Tosy owep eXa/Sev o Xiimou ep r^ Xiyip ypiyj/as wiu 
^ptov^ Old (fnipvyyois x^/9€f . to ydp X^P^^ tovto iyw fieu ^^Sovy 
OKOueiv 61/ iatp t^ e^ipjfeTcu ^ eirTrcAtirerai. o ^, tovtwp fuep 
fi9jO€T€pov, 60f7^ afifAaiv€Tai ir/Oo? avroi;^ Kal TpWov oXXo iro/ia 


Taimi Xryciv ovk et'xep — ij ytumfp avrllii &cpa rd j(o\wiii 

18. TCI a iK7rop€vo/A€va\ See Mark vii. SO, 21 : James i. 16. 

19* iiaXoyuTfiot] Reasonings, counsels. 1 Mace. ii. 63, icoi 
o oioXo^KTMOs ctVTOv mrwKero, 

— p\cur{l>fffuai] Here revUings or calumnies, as Christ is 
speaking of offences committed by one man against another. 

20. ayiTTTacs x^f^O ^® ^^'^ ^^^ ^7 ^^^ undean hands, 
but unwashed : because they were bound to wash, although 
they were not conscious that their hands were unclean. In 
St Mark vii. 2, it is Kowals X^P^^* which seem to be called by 
the Talmudists imptsre hands, merely because not washed. 

21. iKeWev] From the cotmtry of Gennesaret. See xiy. 34. 

22. Xavavcda] It would seem from Josh. xxii. 9, that the 
whole country westward from Jordan was of old called Canaan, 
that on the east being named Gilead. From the same book, 
XIX. 28, 29, we learn that Tyre and Sidon were cities in the 
lot of Asher; which tribe having never been able to drive out 
the natives, their posterity remained even in our Lord^s time. 
Hence he did not preach the doctrine of the kingdom in this 
country, because it was mostly inhabited by heathens, to whom 
he was not sent; neither did he work miracles here with that 
readiness which he shewed every where else. St. Mark vii. 26, 
aays i/v ^ ii 'yi/yi; "EXXiyyis, ^vpo^iviaaa r^ yiveij calling her 
"E^i/i'i^ probably in the same sense as St. Paul, Rom. i. 16: 
M. 9 : who divides people into Jews and Greeks : and 2 Mace. xi. 
2 : vi. 8, the Gentiles are called ^'fiXAi/i^p, so that 'EXXiyvts and 
Xai/avola may mean the same thing, a Gentile woman, one not 
of the Jewish religion. And St. Mark calls her ^up<Hpolvi<r<raf 
as being on the ccmfines of Tyre and Sidon. But Syria being 
of great extent, comprehending Palestine, Coele-Syria, Judea, 
Phoenicia, Mesopotamia, &c. and the Phoenicians having a colony 
in Africa (Liby*Phoeilicians) in order to make a distinction from 
these St. Mark uses the name St/po^oii/uro-a. See Horsl^y'^s 
Sermons^ Vol. iii. p. 134^ 168, 169, 164; and Jortin^s Works, 
Vol. IX. p. 239* 

—-OTTO TW¥ opiwv CKelifwv] Scil. Twv fiera^v r^ Tvpov kqI 

— vie Aa/3i5] See ix. 27* From this expression some have 
argued that the woman was a proselyte; but there seems no 
necessity for such a supposition. Though she was a heathen, 
yet as she- lived iu the neighbourhood of the Jews and had 


oominuniestioQ with then, the might by that means' have leamt 
that the Messiah was to be the Son of David. 

33. WK itreKpSBfi Xoyow] SciL eya, Midi, in Bos. £1L Gr. 
p. 84. Arrian. Bxp. Alex. vii. 16, 9, top ^ awoKpiu&aQai 
avT0t9 \6yoVf tov EvpivlSou tov traffrau einoc. See Matt. xxiL 
46: 1 Kings xviiL 21 : 2 Kings xviii. 36: Isal xlL 28: 1 Mace. 
XV. 35. 

-— fj/MmMF ai/Tw] Euthym. ifporrwy orri tcni irapBKakovv. 
Theophyl. ijpf^aw, %a awoKwrtf air^Wj Tovrean ^mpetsdXow 

— - airoXvo-or] With her request granted. 

24. <kW airctrraXfiv] See Glass. Hiil. Sac. p.911« As the 
Gospel was to be publiclied to the Jews before it was to the 
fientilet, Jesus Christ never preached out of Judsea. This is 
die reason why St. Paul styles him the minister of the circnini- 
eiAokf Rom. xv. 8 : see Acts xiii. 46. 

— €if tA irpofiaTa] eJ^ for npos. Luke xL 49, uT^arrtki 
sit «N^roi;9 frpo^rov. Herod, iii. 30» Cambyses SmerdiD 

•^- 'n-pifiara oitoXwKotci] By these we understaiod the whole 
station of Jews, who being as sheep dispexaed, having no 
sh^herd, are therefore called Umt sheep^ ix. 36 : x. 6. 

— ^K09 'lo-patiX] And so above x. 6. The Greek fonn, 
Middieton says, would have been rod oticsv: the Hebcew wioold 
xeject the article. The writes of the New Testament waver 
between the two : fen* ia Heb. viii. 8, 10, we have ^av Akw 
IcrfoifX. The same diversity is observable in the Septuagint, 
and probably from the same cause : ^ot'Lr/MHfX may be regarded 
as a single noun, and that a proper name. The Syr. translator 
at Acts iv. 8, has rendered 'I^^oairX by house cf IsraeL 

25. itf^eKvyeil Some read lrpocr€Kiv^<re¥, vkieh Grieflbach 
does not approve of. 

26. WK e(m icaXoyj See Hoogeveea, Doctr.Part.Or. c xxxix. 
§ 1. i. q. oi irperreij s. aiaxP^^ ecrrc. Some read liere 4n!c 

*4F^e(m. Demosth. Up. ii. p. 112, «udc ^ao v/jlIv tovto yeporr 
ay KoXop* Xen. de Repub. Athen. i. 13, vojmil^wy touto oi KcXif 
4lhai, Isoer. ad Demonic, p. 9, a ir4H€iy aiaypiv, ^aSra popa^e 
/Jiffoe Xs'yeti; elvat koXov. Horn. Od. a*. 286, oi yap xetkiv 
Ji^va00ui io<nv ecrrir. Enrip. Orest. 26, ^Si; f ixan mof^ytp 
Xeymv w koKov. 

— Tei»«tfi»l »«•* 'evidently mean in g the Israelstes, who were ^l 
tMSc rigs '^ 12; and wp n viodeaia, Rom. ix. 4. 

CHAPTfiH XV. 351 

— - KwapUnil The Jews gave the name of dogs to the heathens 
for theu: idolatry and other poQutions, bj which they had 
degraded themsdves from the rank of reasonable creatures: 
im TO T0U9 eOvuKov^ axMafrrtw fiiev €\€i9 Kat frepl i-d ulfiam 
Tmir eiSaiKoBiTwv aifcurrpeff^etrOat, says TheophyllK^t. Christ hetie 
so far complies with the language of the Jews; as he is here 
Tepresentittg a Jew or Pharisee; not Tonchsafing her one word 
of answer, because they thought such persons wholly neglected 
by Ood, and unworthy to- be regarded by them; and calling 
her dog, according to Aeir common saying, that the nations 
of the world were likened to dogs. 

37* ya< Kvjtwe] According to Whitby, Kninoel, and others, 
after Casaubon, vai here imports beseeching, as in Eurip. Hippol, 
€01, vcu wpog T% ^ffi &ff^ia9 ivwKepoyy and Aristoph. Nub« 1458. 
valy ual KaTatoiadtfTi iraTp^ov Ala. To which Eisner and 
ae^ieral others will not agree, and quote Plutarch, Themist. 
p. 117? Q 0€^crTW(Xe«9, iv TtiSs aywn rowy wpoe^mwrrafiivev^ 
fenrS^WTi ; to which is answered Nai, oXXa TotS? aTroXettpOevrtts 
oi (TTeffMvovffiv. And de Virtut. Mul. p. 258, Q, yivai «caX<Sv 
If irurri^j Noi {elwev) aXKa leaSXtov, era fxei^ov ^tiv i^idi 
avyy€vofi€vcv. See Arrian, Epictet. it. 6, p. 896. 

— — itMKi/ua eo^Ui] i. e. Let me haye such kindness as the dogs 
of any iamily «njoy. Eurip. Cvetens. frag. ap. Athen. iii. 97^ 
90fMK ie Kei^ffw iicfioKXeiv nwri. Philostr. Vit. Apollon. i. 19,^ 
wXifcriov Tois tcval wparTeiVf Tory trtreufitevot^ ra eK'trhrrovTa 


S88. /MyaKf/ iToo 1} wumt] That having no promise to rely 
«poB, and snffering so many repulses with such seeming con- 
tempt, thou still retainest a good hope of my kindness and 
mercy, great is thy faith. 

—^TTurri^] Here that reliance whkh arises from a full per- 
suasion of the power and goodness of Grod. 

—-1^ diXen] Ae you desire. 

— awo Tvfi wpai cireiwjs] Em illo tempore. 

28. fieTmfiek m79ev] From the holders of Tyre and Sidon* 
See Mark rii. 31. Having tarried in DecapoUs a considerable 

— irapa] i- q. w/w, Mwk vii. 31. Horn. II. a. 847, "t^y 
vrapm vifav 'A}^aN3r. 

<^— €K TO opos] See V. 1. Bp. Middleton says it may be 
stemarked liiat what was there said of the contiguity of the 
nMUBtain district to Capernaum, derives confirmation from the 
nKntion in this pfawe of wapd n^v OaXqatrap r^ FoXiXafa^^ 


— *eira0irro] See xiii. 8. 

30. ;(oiXm] i.e. Some individuals of each dass. 

-— Kw<povi^ Hesych. kw^>ov, ovt€ \aKwv oi/re oirovtfv. In 
the New Testament we always find some words added by which 
all doubt is taken away, as in the following verse, Kw^poi^ 
XoXovi^o^. In xi. 5, KoKpol wcwovcri, 

— — ^XXcm] Denotes such as want a limb, and such as have 
not 'the use of it. Aristoph. Equit. 1091, t^v tovtov yeif 
ewoityre jci;XXi|i^i^— e/u/^aXe jcvXX^. • Schol. toSt' €<mF ircinr 
pwfi€vos» KvXXoik ^ 'AttucoI KCiKoSatv ew< To^y ko! X^<fwr 
o/uoiow. Galen, in Hippocrat. de Art. iii. to jrvXXor ovofui 
rcifc? Mev aTra<Tav ^laxTTpcfpfiv ipcuAv hf^wv, yevumv n ariftai^ 
vofjievov virodeirref air^ ' Tives Se nyy rotavrriv ii6p9f¥ ouurrfHHpJp^ 
offKinkrOai ffnurw^ iy i? irpos ti}i/ eaw x^ipav ti powii yiyerai tcS 

—^eppiyj^aVf &c.] Acts iv. 36, eTiOow irapa tov9 itoock twv 
'AvwrroKmv. Verbs implying force often used for those whick 
merely signify the doing what is mentioned, as here and iElian 
V. H. II. 7. 

31. icvXXovr JyicIs] To these words there are none corres- 
ponding in the Vulg. Copt. Arab. Ethiop. and Sax. versions. 

— c&S^oirai'] Some read iS6)^a(pv» It seems not improbable 
that many heathens were now present with our Lord, beheld his 
miracles, and formed a just notion of them; and brake forth 
in praises of the Grod by whose assistance and authority he 

32. fifUpas Tpeii[ For which several old MSS. read ni^poL 
T/oecv, which Griesbach has received into the text;, in whick 
case sub. eiah which some insert with the addition of irai. 

— TiJ 1. q. o. 

— €K\v0w<Tiv\ See ix. 36. 

38. ] See Exod. xvi. 3 : Ps. Ixxvii. 19, 20. 
— ticeXeiwre, &c.] Some read wafHtyyetKa^ Ttp o^X^ from 
Mark viii. 6, and for Kai XajSoiv, IXajSe. 

— dw«irc<r6ii'] So Xen. in CEcon. viii. 8, ci^ Tofci S avawiT- 
ToiMTt. Lucian de Asin. xxiii. Vol. 11. p. 290, avrol ^ dyaire- 
a-otrre^ eSeiiryovp. In this sense it occurs ten times in the New 
Testament. Tob. ii. 1 : Judith xii. 16. 

36. evyapumiaa^^ Jul. Pollux, ev^apixrr^iv (sc. TaTT e ro i ) 
€iri r^ ii^v€u yaptp, ouk eiri r^ et^evac. Diod. Sic. xx. 34, 
ioKpvwv eiTi Toiv o-jfkoi^ €u\apuTTwv. Plutarch, de Garrul. p. 505» 
avpiov dc Mot €vj(apumi(r€t9. Jos. Ant. iv. 8, 7^ oirm t^ Q€f 
tUv (xev virripyfievwy ^v\apiariiai^ and ^iyapiamfffirto fkiit.T^ 

€H APTBBr XY 1 . 95S 

Oc^* IHiilb de Cong, qiuer* etud. gr. p. 440^ eij^apiaroZaa r^ 

37* Girvpicai\ Herod, t. 16) jrariyef a\oliHp trirvpiha jcei/i}y 69 
xf|y Xi/uioji/, ira2 ov iroXXoi^ niia 'xpovov ewiajftit^ avaan^ irk^pea 
ij^Ovwv* Hor. S. 11 « 6, 104^ Multaque de iiiagii& superesseni 
C^ula coen&. Quae procul extrucds inerant hesterna caiiistiis« , 

39* ivefirf] Several MSS. read dye/3i7f which Wetstein approves* 

— • 4is TO irXolou] See xiii* 2. 

-— Ta opia May^Xd] St. Mark viii. 10, says ek rd nipfi 
^aX/uLOMovOd which Lightfoot tells us was a particular plac^ 
within the bounds of Magdala. Some old MSS. read Mcryi^oav* 
The place must, have been on. the w^tem shore of the sea of 
I in the tribe of Issadiar. 

Chap. XVI. 

1. oi ^pcaatot] A few MSS. with Origen otnit o\. This 
omission Bp. Middleton says is not necessary, since the article 
may imply only the greater part of those who resided in the 

— ireipd^ovres} i« e. making trial, whether he ^as able to 
do this or not, or whether he could shew such a sign as thft 
Son of Man, according to Daniel, was to do^ See iv. 7 • xii. 38. 
And because they came to him with an appearance Of their 
willingness to be convinced that he was the Messiah, could they 
see proofs sufficient of it; whereas they had already resisted 
the clearest evidence that he was the Christ, and so indeed 
came not to be convinced thkt he was so, but hoping he would 
fail ill the attempt, and so appear not to be so ;- therefore Christ 
drolls them both hypocrites. See Kidder^s Dem. of Mess. i. p. SO. 

-— cTtifpiiTrfaav] See Bos. EU*. 6r. p. 448. Euthymius cn^ 
ffOTiiaav difTi rou irapexaKetrav* 

— — crtifielov CK tou ovpavov] Such as might be a nre from 
heaten 1 Kings xviii< 38 : or storms in the air 1 Sam. vii. 10 : . or 
Moseses miracle, of having manna rained down from hqaven : aa 
if the miracles which Jesus did, had not been proofs sufficient of 
his divine mission. Or scMne glorious appearance in the heavens ; 
see Leland, Deist. Writers, Vol. i< p. 190 : in which case under**, 
standing the prophecy Dan. vii. 13, literally, they might expect 
that Messiah would make his first public appearance in the clouds 
of heaven, and take unto himself glory and a temporal kingdom^ 
Seer iv. 6^ Agreeably to this, Josephus B. J. 11. 13, 4, describing 
the state of affairs in Judea under Felix, tells us that the de-. 
cavers and impostors pretending to inspiration} endeavoured tQ 


9Bi S9<. MATTHEW. 

bring about changes, and so making the people mad, led tfaen) 
into the wilderness, as if they had been to shew them signs of 
liberty. Wherefore when -the Pharisees desired Jesus to diew 
' them a sign from heaven, they might mean that he should de^ 
toonstrate himself to be the Messiah by coming in a visiUe and 
miraculous manner from heaven with great pomp and by wresting 
the kingdom out of the hands of the Romans. 

— — €K Tod ovpavov^ Mark viii. 11, has airo rcS cvpauoS' 

2. evSla] SciL auptou etrroi. Suidas eviia, t} avev oFefuw 
fifiipa' Eustath. II. ^y. p. 314, eiiia, o etrnv ti evaepia^ The 
Word is formed from Ai(, Jupiter, who was supposed to preside 
ovel* and rule the air and sky. Pliny, Hist. Nat. xviii. 35, 
Si circa occidentem rubescunt nubes, serenitatem futurse did 
spondent. Si nubes solem circumcludent, quanto minus luminis 
relinquent, tanto turbidior tempestas erit. Quod si in exortu 
fiet, ita ut rubescant nubes, maxima ostendetur tempestas. And, 
Sol ventos prsedicit, quum ante exorientem eum nube» rubes^ 
cunt. Virg. Georg. 7. 441, Ille ubi nascentem maculis variaverit 
ortum Conditus in nubem, medioque refugerit orbe, Suspecti tiU 
feint imbreS. Aristot. Meteor, i. 11, 6 fiei^ yap voro^ eviiav 

•-— irvppaS^et yap'\ See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 635. 
•. — o ovpavo^\ Aer, nubes. Thus Xen. Anab. iv. 2, 2. roi 
Kmp iroKv v/v e^ oipavoV" 

3. KOi 'irpm] Scil. \eyere- Ligbtfoot says that the Jew$ 
used to value themselves highly on their skill in prognosticating 
the weather. 

— - yeifAwv^ Scil. 6<rrat. In profane writers evo'ta and yeir 
fitor are similarly put in opporition, as Plut. de lib. educ. p. 8, 6# 
^iSJif ra X/0O9 yeiiJiSpa vpocniKci ^/rapcurKevd^eiv, Xen. HeHen. 
II. 4, 10, 0€ol vvv ipavepw^ lifJi^v ^v/Afiaj(ov<rh koI yap iv evoif 
yeifuSva iroicvtriv, orav ijfiiv ^v/jLipeptf. 

«— aTvyval^wv] properly signifies to make any one sad ; here 
it has the force of the middle verb, i. q. Xi/ireco^ai. Phavorin. 
trrvyval^w, Xe'yerat to Xinrov/cai. In the same way the Latins 
iise triste ccelum. Pliny, Hist. Nat. ii. 6, Hie (Sol) cceli tristi* 
tiam discutit, atque etiam humani nubila animi serenat. Henu 
clid. Ponticus, AHegor. Horn. p. 460, says of Homer, v^itrrartti 
*njv ffpav, Tovricrri tok depa (rrvyvov avo too ^(eifAwva^ en jcaJ 


; — . viroKptraf] Omitted in several of the best MSS. Mill 
and Griesbach have fancied it came from Luke xii. 66, as there 
bould be no j^obable cause for its omission. But the force of the 

CHAPTER ,XY|. $55 

passage would be lost by pmitting it. Euthymius, vTroKptrai 
auTous wv6fuur€V9 oi fiopou, W9 aSXa fiey . Xiyovras, aXAcf^ 
0€ (Ppovovvras, dXXd acoi m Sokovvtu^ yAv aoKpoik^ ovroi ^e, 

-— • vpotrmirov] Maiiil. iv. 916, Atque ideo faciem cceli non 
invidet orbi Ipse Deus. Fliny, H. N. vi. 31» alia illius cceli 

— iiOKplyeiv] Luke xii. 56, oiSare SoKijua^^eiv. The Sep< 
tuagint translates the same Hebrew word by Siaicpiyeip .and 
&Ncipui^ecK, Job xii. 11 : Ps. xxv. 2. 

•— Tw¥ K€up£v] Not necessary to tak« this for tovtwv t$v 
KcupmVf though Luke xii. 56, haa tqv Koipov tqvtov* Tba 
assertion may be here general. Whitby says ol Kaipol both in 
the Old and New Testament signifies set times and seasons ap« 
pointed by God. &ee Dan. vii. 28 ; viii. 19 : xi. 27* 29 : Ephes. 
i. 10: 1 Thess. V. 1. 

-^ oJ hivcuTOe\ Some MSS. add yvwwcu or Siayvivat* Others 
have Qv ioKifM^ere, ou avviere, ov yivwcKCTtt which are evident^ 
explanations, that have afterwards found their way into the text 
from transcribing. 

4. yevea irovtfpai &c.] Meant of the Pharisees and Sadducees^^ 
and not of the whole Jewish nation, see xii. 39, 40. It is a phrase 
of the Talmud. 

, -*•' jAoixcMs] i- e. unbelieving or degenerate, that hath 'de^ 
parted from the faith and holiness of its ancestors: See xii. 39- 

— cwi^^Tci] Not content with so many, seeks others in 

— Kol tni/Aeiov^ But a sign. 

6. opare xal wpoaexers^ Joined to increase the force of his 
caution: so Exod. xxxi. X3y opare Kcd (puXa^aaOe^ 

-— OTTO T^ ^vMi}9] Thi^ leaven ver. 12, is interpreted to be 
the doctrine of those sects, as £i^x^ unports both doctrines to be 
believed* and traditions, or ordinances to be received from them. 
See Cral« v. 9- Lightfoot says, that leaven in the notion of the 
jews, did seldom signify doctrines, but generally affections and 
pravity of heart, which signification also it generally bears ip 
Scripture ; sometimes relating to hypocrisy, as Luke xii. 1 ;. and, 
sometimes to the leaven of malice and wickedness opposed to^ 
sincerity and truth, 1 Cor. v, 8. This bemg fitly compared to 
leaven, because it puffeth up our spirits and sours our tempers. 
Theophylact in loc. T^fitiv oifOfidl^ei riji; oioaaKoKlav tUv ^apu* 
caiMV Kal ^HpwSiavwy^ m i^d^fi outraif xal TraXaiap Kcuciai yifiovr, 
ca¥, lias yap o waXaicuO^i^ iv rn Koiclf , Kat /mi}3Jk mmvparwofy 

z2 * 


ivm/ievoi \eyeiu, ware yXvKiaiveiv t^i; Xapvyya tov cucaiovTo^, 
o TotovTOi ^'^^V^ ^X^^f iTfiKatS^ Kaxlai cioaaKoKiav SaKyovaav 
KOi ei9 fUTafieXeiaif wTTepov ctr/ov&uv top ireur^evra, 

7- ^leXayil^ovTo] SuiXoyi(^€<r0ai here is used in the sense of 
iicLXiyetrdiUy disceptare. So Dion. Hal. Ant. x. p. 687} iieXoyi^ 
l^ovTo re KOI aweXdXovp wpo^ ciXXiyXoi/v : Hi- p- 168, iap fiev 
opSt Kara yvwfULfiv, a iidXoyll^oiu,aij ywpoSvrd /aou Xen. Mem. 
in. 6, 1- 

- .M« iy eai/rocf] Mark viii. 16, irpo^ tOCXtiXov^, See also 
Ephes. iv. 82: Col. iii. 13. 

-^ ore aprovff, &c.] Concerning the ellipsis here, see Glass. 
Phil. Sac. p. 621. im is often used in this manner after verbs of 
speaking, when a verb of the first person follows; as Appian 
Alexand. Bell. %yr. p. 14f99 says that Hannibal elireiv, on iywye 
ira^a av ifiavrip irpo 'AXe^dvSpov. Max. Tjrr. Diss, xxviii. 
p. 271 9 elwev oSv ori ypwptl^to nr^v aairiia, Plato apud Stob: 
Serm. cexxxiv. p. 619, Xc'yei, ort Sokw /uoi e^^ecr iuLtjj(avfjV' Dio. 
Cass. XXXVIII. p. 60, 609/, ot» fiera Kdrwvo^ ev r^ ol#ri7/uior< 
fiLoXXov fj /icra aov evravOa elvai /Soi/Xo^ai. 

8. elirev airroiv] avrol^ in several MSS. is wanting, and 
mnitted by Griesbach. 

9. oiirw] Not yet ; even though I have twice by a miracle 
supplied food. 

' — — iroeroi/v Ko(piuov^'\ that remained after the multitudes Were 

'- In the relation ftirmerly giv6n of both miracles, and here where 
our Lord recapitulates the principal circumstances of each, the' 
distinction of the vessels employed for holding the fragments is 
carefully marked. Now though our words are not fit for answer- 
ing entirely the same purpose with the original terma which 
properly conveyed the idea of their respective sizes, and con- 
sequently of the quantity contained; still Campbell observes there 
is a propriety of marking were it but this single circumstance, 
that there was a difference. He therefore calls the latter maund^y 
hand-baskets, mentioned by Thevenot (i. 2, 24) as used in the 
East. All the Latin and foreign translations, antient and modem, 
except Luther^s, make the distinction, though their words are as 
ill adapted as ours. 

' 11. 'K'ik ov] See Hoogeveen, c. li. Sect. 3. § 9. 
* *— vepl aprov] In several of the best MSS. the reading is 
itepl apTtavi which may probably have arisen from a marginal 
annotation as the preceding aprovs is in the plural; and some 
transcriber afterwards copied this into the te^t. 

CUAPTEft Kyi< 357 

•— ir/EXxrej^eii'] Some MSS. have ^iMxre^^cre* or nrpoai^tr^ 
Sif making these the words used by Jesus; that I spdce not of 
bread, 'but that I said, beware, &c. Grotius would understand 
oT€ elTTOPy Kuiuoel etvwu as in ver. 12, elire Trpocre^efj/. Wolf 
would understand aXka before irpoaixeiv which the Syriac has 
supplied. Others wapayyeiXa^^ Michaelis in Bos, EU. Gr, 
p. 352, understands Sely. 

13. iXOwPf &c.] St. Mark viiL 27, says that Christ had this 
conference with his disciples when he was on the way to Caesarea. 
'-— Ktuaapeias rtj^ ^iX/irwov] See Bos. £11. Gr. p. 225. . This 
city, whilst in the possession of theCanaanites was called Lesheim, 
Josh* xix. 47) and Laish, Judg. xviii. 27- When the children of 
Dan took it, they named it after their progenitor. But in after 
times it was called Paneas from the mountain beneath which it 
stood, and was rebuilt by Philip the Tetrarch, in honour of 
Tiberius C»sar. It is by the addition of Philippi distinguished 
from another C»sarea mentioned Acts x. 1. Joseph. Ant. xviii^ 
2, 1, 4>iX<?rxo9 Si Tlavedca t^v irpos rai^ irtjyai^ rod 'lopiduou 
9caTcuTK€ia<Ta9y wo/uidi^ei Kaiadpuap, 

-^ Tiva fie XeyovaiPf &c.] Some look upon the words tok 
viou ToZ avOpwrov as a gloss crept into the text, (see Wassen** 
berg. p. 18, Diss. Valck. Schol.) ; but it is the reading of Ire^ 
nsus, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Jerom, Tl^eophylact, and all 
the versions. There is also a difference of opinion respectinjg 
the construction of the passage. One rendering is that of our 
English version. Whom do men say, that I, the Son of Man, 
am ? Another, Whom do men say that I am ? The Son of Man ? 
This is one of the many new senses which the writers in Bowyer^s 
collection would derive from a new punctuation ; a kind of con- 
jectural criticism, as Bp. Middleton observes, which has experi- 
enced unusual indolgenc^ merely because as is alleged, it altera 
nothing of the original text; but which, if generally allowed, 
would corrupt the sense of antient writers no less effectually than 
do the rashest and most unauthorised substitutions. It is not 
true that the most antient MSS. are without points, (See Bp^ 
Marshes Notes on Michaelis, Vol. ii. p. 892,) and the supposition 
made in the Preface to Bowyer^s Conjectures, '* that the Apostles 
inserted no points themselves^ is very questionable. The first 
perspn who distinguished the several parts of a period in Greek 
writing by the introduction of a point, was Aristophanes of 
Byzantium, who flourished about 200 years before the Chriatian 
sera, and points have been found in inscriptions written. 200 year9 
earlier. Admitting however that the Evangelists and Apostles 

^58 s¥: MATtttBw. 

did not adopt a contriTance which must in their time have been 
growing into common use, they may be supposed at least t6 
have availed themselves of the same means of becoming intelligible, 
to which writers before the use of points, ordinarily liad recourse: 
and that was arrangement. Bp. Middleton therefore says he 
cannot agre6 with those who woiild rashly disturb the estab^ 
lished punctuation. Had the passage been intended to oonve^ 
the sense supposed, it woula scarcely have stood in its present 
form; for be does not recollect any instances 6f ail interrogai 
tion so abrupt as rov v\6v rod av6poyirov\ some interrogative 
particle, such &s ^1} or fAi^Ti being prefixed. 

The omission of rov in the Cod. Bez., if supported, would 
have favoured the conjecture: but resting on a single authority 
fiuch as thai, must be deemed of little or no importance. Th^ 
omission of /<e by Jerom and in BircFs Vat. 1209, and sefveral 
versions, strengthens the common interpretation. Adler in his 
VeVsiones Sjrriacse, p. 164, very well conjectures that the received 
reading was made up of two, viz. Tiva fie Xeyovaiv oi avOpwim 
elvai^. which is the reading of St. Mark and St. Luke, and of 
Tiifa \€yov<riv 01 ivOpwiroi elvai t6» vmp tov avOpwTrov which is 
the supposed true reading of St. Matthew. At any rate the new 
punctuation gives a most improbable meaning. Had Christ en- 
quired whether he were commonly regarded ad the Son of God^ 
the case would have been different : this would have been to ask, 
whether men regarded him as the Christ the promised Redeemer 
(John xi. 27) : but the Son of Man was a name which though 
frequently assumed of himself by himself, as in the present 
instance, was not applied to him by others till after his ascen- 
fiion. See J&r. Art. p* 233. 

It may be observed that in no other passage where our Jjord 
calls himself the SoA of Man, does he annex the personal pro- 
iioun, or express himself in the first person, but in the third. 

Herod, iii. 34, Xeyercu yap eiirelv avTov vpot Tlpffj^wirea, 
TOV ixifia re ixaKiara^'^-Wpri^a/iTve^, Koiov fie Ttva vofiil^own 
Ileptrai eluai aifcpa ; rlva^ re Xoyovi vepl ifiio vroievtrrat ; Aris* 
toph. Plut. 426, oieade S etvai rlva fie ; 

-*^ Oi avOpwtroi] Men generally; not tb^ doctors of the 
Pharisees and Sadducees. 

14. 01 fiev *lwapvfiv9 &c.] They who thought he was Joha 
the Baptist risen from the dead, speak suitably to the (pinion 
of the Pharisees who (Jos. Ant. xviii. 1, 3) held there was 
for good men pacTfivri tov avafiiovv- 

— - oXXoc a 'HXiav] It was the received €>{iinion of the whde 

XYia 859 

90don that Eliatf was to gome before the Metsiah, aad to anoint 
him when he came. 

. — €T€poi 2e 'lepe/mlav] The antient Jews used to set Jere^ 
miah at the head of the prophets. They «eem to haVe ha4 
a tradition among them, that Jeremiah the Prophet would appear 
among them when the Messiah came, to recover the ark of the 
covenant which they fancied he had hid; 2 Mace ii. £. See Crai- 
4ock^s Harmony, Part ii. pu 12. And they might farther encourage 
themselves in that notion from Jer. i. 6, 10. i 

— iva rwv jrpo<ptrrisv\ viz. of the Old Testament. The Jews 
supposed that some of the antient prophets woyld rise from the 
dead about the time of the Messiah. See Elidder^s Dem. Mess, il^ 
p. ljB4. And it might be the consequent of an opinion that pre^ 
vailed that the Messiah was to come *^ not from the living but 
from the dead,^ they thinking none of that age of piety sufficient 
to bear him ; and supposing that the resurrection wi(s to begift 
with his kingdom, they might easQy he induced to think he 
should be one that should rise from the dead. 

— iva] eh here the same as rh^ Luke ix. \% on grpo^^'nyr 

16. Uirpos] Chrysostom on this passage p. -483 observes re 
aTOfjLa TW Airo<rTokuf¥ o TlerpaSf i iKowrayov SepfMS, o top 
yopov tAv *AirofFToKui¥ Kopvtpalois, mvrmp ipmrffii^Twv uiroi 
airoKpiyeTtu* So also Theophylact They were all agreed in 
the same judgment, and so the answer of one only was needful. 
See Stanhope Epist. and Grosp. VoL iv. p. 37& 

•— * Q X/Mo-Tos] The name of office ; not a prcper name here. 
See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 132. 

— — o vios Tov Oepv Tov ^ft>FTos] Thls has been supposed to 
signify no more than the Me&siah. Whitby however thinks that 
there is this difference betwixt the two phrases, that the one 
respects his office, the other his original ; though perhaps neither 
Nathanad (John L 60) nor the other Jews, nor the Apostlep 
used it in that sublime sense in which the Christians did always 
take it. i 

' ^^^ }^wvros] To distinguish him from the .heathen idols, which 
were things without life, mere stocks and stones, ^the workmanship 
of menu's hands. 

17* Bap 'lofMi] Where the names were of the more cusr 
tomary sort, patronymics for distinction'*s sake were frequently 
added ; as in the Old Testament, and here .; x. 3 : xxiii. 35 s 
Mark ii. 1 4 ': John vi. 42. Christ adds FeterX4>ld name and his 
patronymic, on reasoning here on hisr new name : as he (^d Johni 


43, when he conferred it on him. It was usual to mention the 
old name on bestowing the new. See Gren. xvii. 6 : xxxii. S8. 

— « 'Iwva] Jerome and Isidore read Bap 'IwawSf i- e. *Iwav- 
yov» and Grotius thinks 'Iwva contracted from 'IwawS; but for 
this opinion there scarcely seems sufficient reason. The name 
<was sufficiently common, though transcribers from bdng more 
accustomed to the latter, may have changed it in copying. 

»-* aap}^ Kai of/ia] In the New Testament, and the writings 
of the Babbins, from whence it seems to have been derived, these 
'words signify *^man,^ as compounded of flesh and blood. See 
Gal. i. 16: Eph. vi. 18: Heb. ii. 14: Ecclus xiv. 18: Wisd. vii. 
1, 2. It is not found in the Old Testament. 

— * auK a7r€KaKu>jfe] SciL rovro. See Bos. Ell. Gr. p. S80* 
They who suppose that Peter had a peculiar revelation of this 
matter, not vouchsafed to any others, and that without this he 
could not have owned and emlMraced Christ as the Son of God, 
must not only suppose the like special revelation given to Natha- 
nael, contrary to our Lord'*8 own words, John i. 61 ; and to the 
Centurion, Matt, xxvii. 54, and to all others who had the same 
faith ; but must excuse all those Jews who did not believe this, 
it being not in their power to do so for want of this peculiar reve- 
lation : whereas our Saviour still appeals to the works that he 
had done among them as to sufficient testimonies that he wa9 
the Christ, the Son of God/ John v. 36, 3^ : viii. 18 : x. 26, 38 : 
xiv. 11. See .also John viii. 24. 

18. Kqryw Se croc Xiyw] Dico vero ego quoque tibi. 

— ' ad etJlerposi] In Syriac Cephas, which signifies a stone. 
Jesus Christ gave this name or ascribed this quality to Simon, 
as God had before given Abram the name of Abraham, Gen. 
xvii. 6 : Jacob that of Israel, xxxii. 27 ; and as Christ himself 
aumamed James and John, Boanerges. The words here are 
emphatical. Simon had said to Jesus, Thou art the Christ, the 
San of the living God. Jesus in return says to him Thou art 
Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; conferring 
a high dignity on the Apostle. 

r— €iri TavTff Tff nreTpft] In allusion to Tlirpo?. We find 
Wtjoo9 thus used in Herod, ix. 65: Callim. Hym. ApoU. 22: 
Soph. (Ed. Tyr. 334, &c. But in the Syriac, which our Lord 
«pdce, and in which the identical words used by him, must be 
iBought for, the same word with the same termination and with 
the same punctuation, is the name of the Apestle, and the name 
^or a rock. And nothing can better illustrate the Syriac words 
employed by our Saviour than the French translation, Tu €$ 


Pierre, et Bur cette pierre, &c. It is as if our Lord had said^ 
^< Thou art by name a rock, and suitable to that name shall 
he thy work and office ; for upon thee, i. e. upon thy preaching, 
as upon a rock, shall the foundation of my church be laid.^^ Now 
the whole grace of this allusion is entirely lost, unless we expound 
the passage of St. Peter'^s person, not of his confession or the 
object of it. It can hardly be doubted but that our Lord in- 
tended to say something singular to Peter as the reward of his 
singular confession ; yet if Christ had spoken not of St. Peter 
whom he had formerly called Cephas whep he made mention of 
the rock on which he did intend to build his church, but either 
of himself or the confession of St. Peter, he had said nothing 
singular concerning this Apostle; Christ^s building his church 
upon himself or on this truth, that he was the Messiah or the 
Son of God, being no singular reward of Peter. Besides when 
our Lord adds, And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom 
of heaven, i. e. I will cause thee first to open the kingdom of 
heaven by preaching to the Jews and to the Gentiles, and laying 
the foundation of a church among them, it is evident by the con^ 
tiexion of the words he speaks of Peter. When therefore he had 
said in the foregoing words <^ upon this rock, kcJ*^ why should 
"^e not conceive he speaks of the same person. 

Indeed as Bp. Marsh observes (in the Appendix to his Com- 
parative View, &c. p. 26) it seems a desperate undertaking to 
prove that our Saviour alluded to any other person than to 
6t. Peter : for the words of the passage can indicate no one 
else. But both the Lutheran and Calvinistic divines had re- 
course to the gratuitous supposition that our Saviour explained 
by his gestures what he did not explain by his words. They 
Tentured at least to conjecture that when our Saviour said to 
St. Peter 2i) el Ilcrpos he extended his hand and pointed to 
'St. Peter : but that he immediately turned his hand and pointed 
to himself when he said iirl Tavrri Tti Trerpg. Such a gesticula- 
tion must be supposed, if oyr Saviour meant to speak of himself i 
or the Apostles with whom he was conversing could not possibly 
have understood him. But the supposition is merely gratuitous. 
Nor must we overlook the parallelism between our Saviour^s 
reply to St. Peter, and the answer which St. Peter had given 
to our Saviour. See App. p. 27. 

— oucoiofjLn<Tw] He speaks here of his church not as a thing 
in present being, or as a building now erected^ but as hereafter 
to be raised. And the promise here made was punctually ful- 
filled by our Lord using Sti Peter's ministry in laying the foun- 


dation of a Christian church among* the Jews and Gentiles, and 
in his being the first preacher to them of that faith which he 
doth here confess^ and making the first proselytes to it: for 
St. Peter laid the first foundations of a church among the Jews 
by the conversion of three thousand souls, Acts ii. 41, who when 
they gladly had embraced St. Peter^s doctrine, were all baptizedi 
and then ver. 47, we first find mention of a Christian church, 
^ee Bp. Pearson on the Creed, Art. ix. Vol. i. p. 506, where 
he also explains the different modes of using the word eic«cXi|or(a» 
St. Peter also laid the first foundation of a church among the 
Gentiles by the conversion of Cornelius and his friends. Acts x. 
And in relation to this promise of our Lord, as well as the comT 
pletion of it by the conversion of Cornelius, it seems to be, that 
be does in the synod of Jerusalem say. Men and Brethren, you 
know how that a good while ago, d<l> ^fiepwv afrjfolwp^ God 
chose me out among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should 
hear the word, Acts xv. 7- 

— iciXai "AJ^"] By these words some understand the pre^ 
valence of schism and heresy, of wickedness and vice. So 
Jerome, Ego portas inferi esse reor vitia et peccata, Tel certe 
Haereticorum doctrinas ; others understand the subtlety of Satan, 
the power of his temptations and assaults. But if we examine 
the import of the phrase as it is used by all the antient Greeks, 
the Jewish writers, the Old Testament^ and the translation of 
the Septuagint, we shall find that it is never used by them to 
signify the power of heresy or schism, sin or Satan, and therefore 
cannot be rationally supposed here to bear that sense ; but it is 
constantly used by them to signify the state of death, the place 
or receptacle of die dead; or else the entrance into that place; 
and in all languages this seems to be the plain and constant im- 
port of the phrase. In these words therefore it seems reasonable 
to conceive it is a promise that even death itself should not pre^ 
vail against the genuine members of Christ^s church, or that diej 
should enjoy a happy resurrection. 

Eurip. Hec. 1. ^«ai veKpSnf KevOfiwva kcu aKorou irvXas Aimv. 
Theognis 427, d>vpTa ^ oirw9 wKurra frJXa^ aicao ire/o^cu. -Horn. 
II. «. 646, oXX i/ir ifiov Sfitfiirra irvXav ai&io irepiiactv, Lu- 
dan* Menip. vi. Vol. i. p^ 463, auoiyeiv tw aiau ras irvXas* 
Ovid. Metam. i. 662, prseclusaque janua leti. 3 Maoc. v. 51^ 
flC9f irpoi wuXoff a&>i; KnSefrriiTas* Isai. xxxviii. 10, "fropewrofiai 
iv wvXeuv ojov. See Ps. ix. 13: cvi. 18: Wisd. xvi. 13. 

— Jcarur^Jcroi/flriy] for Karurxyeiv Suvii<rovTau Thus ver, 26» 

CalUm. Hym, in. Jov, 93, rk kw Aw ipypjxr 

cirfcnei. Thils dkbitis for daxe poteritia, in Stat. Thebaid. ix^ S8. 
Nil opus anna ultra tentare et perdere mortes : Ite precor ; quid 
jam dabitis mihi denique majus ? 

19. iw<Tw aoi Tcis jcXeiv] Our Lord by giving these keys to 
St. Peter cannot be reasonably supposed to give him a supremacy 
over the rest of the Apostles, or over the whole church of Christ; 
because these keys were given to him, that with them he might 
bind and loosew Now whatever this imports, belongs equally 
to all the rest of the Apostles, Christ having said to them in 
general as fully as he did to St. Peter, ^^ Whatsoever ye shall 
bind,*" &c. xviii. 18. See Barrow'^s Works, Vol. iv. p. 47. Bp, 
Taylor's Works, Vol. viii. p. 66. He here only promises to 
St. Peter that he should be the person who should first open 
the gate of the kingdom of heaven both to Jew and Gentile by 
Inaking the first converts among both. See also John xx. 22, 

Or if by the keys we understand power and authority, which 
is the meaning of the metaphor in the Old Testament ; (comp* 
Isai. xxii. 22, with Rev. iii. 70 the power of binding and loosing 
added to it must be ccmsidered explanatory of it: and is with 
peculiar propriety applicable to the stewards of the mysteries of 
Grod, 1 Cor. iv. 1. After my ascension into heaven, I will give 
thee and thy companions in the apostolate, authcmty to order 
all the afiairs of my churchy so that whatsoever thou shalt bind 
on earth, . shaU, &c. 

-— o iap ^j/o'tyf] This seems to relate not so much to per- 
eons as to things: the meaning of it according to the language 
of the Jews, as Selden, Buxtorf, and Lightfoot have proved, 
is *^ Wliatsoever you allow shall be idlowed of, and whatever 
you forbid shall be forbidden. Your determinations shall b^ 
ratified in heaven.^ 

.— ^ €0 Tois ovpaMMf] for €P T^ iwpav^i xviii. 18. 

20. SiearelXaTo] Some read iireriiuLfia^v, probably from Mark 
▼iii. 30: Luke ix. 21. This reading is also mentioned by Origen. 

— Iva tJifjievl eifrwaiv] i. e. till after his resurrection, when 
they were by office to be his witnesses, and to declare to others 
that he was the Christ. Had they publicly declared him to bo 
the King of the Jews and the Son of God whilst he was on earth, 
as this would have looked like a confederacy between them%and 
their master, so might it have encouraged the attempt of the 
Jews to come and make him a King, John vi. 15, especially 
wheti he was shortly to go up to Jerusalem in royal triumph, 
xxi. 3 — ^9- It was expedient too. that this truth i4iould not bg 


published to the world at an unseasonable time for fear of diaw- 
ing persecutions on Christ himself or his followers for their con- 
fession, and stopping the progress of the Gospel. See xvii. 9. 

— 'Ii|(7o5v] Wanting in several MSS. 

21. lip^aro ieiKifveiv] Ijp^aTO oiSaaKetp, Mark viii. 31 « Our 
Lord frequently after this repeated the prediction of his suffer- 
ings, xvii. 22: xx. 18: xxvi. 2: Luke xvii. 25: xxii. 15. But 
it is remarkable that on none of these occasions was the prophecy 
delivered to any but the twelve and a few select women, one 
instance excepted, Luke xvii. 25, where it was expressed in terms 
somewhat obscure. 

— ' on ^ec] ori in Greek joined with indie, pries, where in 
Latin the past would be required. See Hoogeveen, Doct. Part 
c. XXXVIII. Sect. 2. § 2. 

— aireX^eiv ei; *Jep6a'oXvjna] It appears from St. John that 
he had been at Jerusalem two or three times ; but now he must 
go to suffer there: because a prophet could not suffer out of 
that dty, Luke xiii. 38; he being to be tried by the Sanhedrim 
which sat there. He was also to be condemned by the rulers, 
and those who had the authority of life and death, that so being 
condemned and put to death by them who bore the title of Grod^s 
vicegerents he might more properly be said to be ^^ smitten of 
God and afflicted,^ Isai. liii. 4 ; though also in a higher sense 
it pleased ** the Lord to bruise him and put him to grief by ' 
laying on him the iniquity of us all,*" ver. 6. 

— woXXa vaOelv^ Hom. Od. k* 466, iireiti fiaXa mXKa 
Wirocrdc. — 6. 223, ffSfj yap imaXa troXX* eiraOov koi woX)^ ifio^ 
yfjaa. Hor. A. P. 413, Multa tulit fecitque puer. 

— avo t£p irpetrfivTepmvj &c.] The members of the great 
Sanhedrim, sometimes also called irpeafivrepoi rov XaoS, xxvi. 3: 
wpeafivTcpoi tov 'lapai^X, Acts iv. 8 ; and npeafivrepoi rHv *Ia^^• 
laimvy Acts XXV. 15. The Sanhedrim itself called frpeafivripi^vj 
Luke xxii. 66 : and yepovaia Acts v. 21. 

22. wpo(r\a^/uL€p{K ayrop] Taking him by the hand. See 
Rom. XV. 7- 

— ^p^aro 67rirf|ui$y] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 189: &t 
iirerlfjifiae, as ver. 21. Thus Propert. iii. 4, 16, Indpiam 
spectare for spectem: ii. 15, 33, incipient revocare: ii. 19^ 19^ 
incif^iam captare. Aul. Grell. N. A. ix. 13, manu significare 
co?pit, utrimque quiesderent pugns ; i. e. significavit. 

— ewfTi/uL^v] This has sometimes been translated, to cxposi 
tulate. When it relates to any thing past, it implies declaration 
of censure or blame; and its signification seems to be the ..samp 


9d that of iirtwXfil^ai^ 1 Tim. v. 1 ; i. e« increpare, objurgare : and 
so Ammonius says it is used by the Attics* Thomas M. explains 
it by fiiikipoficLi* So Philo uses it, de Temul. p. 266, o ^ roi/- 
Toii (those who had transferred to other objects the worship due 
to God) €7riTifiwy tov etriviKiov i/xvov ij^dpj^wv eSeixOrg* And 
he joins it with oFeio/^eti/, de Spec. legg. p. 77^) o Upo9 X0709 
opKov iv ov ieovTi xatp^ iroioviuievoii oi fierpito^ C9r«Tf/u^ xai 

^^tketos coi] Scil. d Oeo^ eitf or iiafievrif as is used in 
Josephus; or lotfi, eltfi or ^, Schmidt. See Glass. Phil. Sac. 
p. 551. It is a phrase common in the Old Testament^ and 
always used by way of abomination and abhorrence ; 1 Chron. xi« 
IQfiXewf fioi o Qeo^j tov iroi^crcu to p^fxa toi/to. See Gen. xliii. 
83 : Isai. liv. 10. In 1 Sam. xx. 2, the Septuagint has /jh^^aws 
ffoij where Symmachus translates iXeoK : and in xxii. 15, jULtfiapiwv^ 
which he renders by . iXeati- In 2 Sam. xx. 20, we have t\€W9 
fjLoij iXecuff /Aoi, c< KarairovTw koi ei (^Oepi ; and xxxiii. 17^ 
<Xe«>9 juiiH Kvpt€y TOV woifja'ai tovto, 1 Macc« ii. 21, cXeois ijfitp^ 
KaToXiTreiu voijlov koX SiKcuwfiaTa* Joseph. Ant. vii« 11, 8, to 
an address av airovSal^eii titfrponoKty 'lapatiXiTSu KaTofiaXeiv 
KOI TtopOija'at firjiev i^afxaprovaapf JoaVs reply is, 6 ^ iXeoi /mev 
€uy€To TOV Qeov ai/r^ ctafieveip, avTo^ oe ovt(09 €J(€^v elirey, W9 
fiLfjoeva TOV Xaov <f>ov€vaaif ovy^ ori iroXiv i^eXeiu fiovXeaOai 
TfiXucavTtiv. Philo in Euseb. Praep. viii. 3, iXecu? jJalii^ d Geo© 
Kal auTtjs T^9 wepi tovtwv ivvolas yivoiTo^ Aristsenet. il. 13^ 
ovTtoi iX^m fJLOi' eifi *A(ppoolTff, 

23. vTraye owiaw /uoi;] virdyw in the New Testament used 
only intransitively. The words here contain a reprehension of 
Peter with some vehemence and indignation, as under a pretence 
of charity, shewing himself an adversary to Christ, as the word 
Satan signifies. Numb. xxii. 22 (Aqu.) : 2 Sam. xix. 22 : 1 Kinga 
V. 4 : xi. 14, 23, 25 : Ps. cviii. 6. So Plautus, Abin^ e conspectu 

. -"^ tTKoySaXov] An obstacle. Basil, wav to avTiKei/xevov t^ 
^ov Kuplou OeXfifiaTi, CKcipiciXov iari. Peter, unacquainted with 
the end and design of Christ^s death, endeavoured to put an: 
obstacle to it by his advice, to decline a work so necessary for 
the salvation of souls, being more concerned for the advancement 
of that temporal kingdom the Jews expected from their MesAah^ 
than for the glory of God, and the salvation of souls. Chrysost. 
Hom. LIV. in Matt. p. 346, eKCivoi avOptairivfa Xoyiaju^y xal yrftvtp 
TO irpayfia H^eTa^wv^ evo/murep aia"}^p6tf etvat Tovto ixvT^ Kai 
an-pewe^, KaOiKvoifAeuo^ Tolifvv avTov, iPfiaiv, ov to €/x€ iraOeTv 


iwp€m'€9* oXXa av trapKUc^ yvdfiri TCN/roc9 ^ti^i^ff* Thecfphii 
in Marc. c. vxii. p. 232, *0 Kvpio^ ^tKvvwv art iwi trmrffpH^ 
TO avTov rroBoi yeviiaercu, Kcd Sri 6 2arayo9 fiottov ov OiXei 
iWTop iraOeiv, iva f&ij criocni tovs dvBpwTrov^j Saravair oM»|ia^C4 
TDK TleTpoVy W9 ra too Sarara <f>popodvTa, Kai /uiy ^Xovra 
mvTO¥ wcSeivf aX\' avruceifievov ai/r^, 

• ^^ov <f>pov€ls to] Scil. ir/Kt'y/iAara. Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 133, 
ovra. Peter had the same carnal and gross ideas'of the Messiah^» 
kingdom as the rest of the Jewish nation. In classical Greek, 
0/E>oyeiK rd rivo9 signifies to be of the same sentiments or party 
with any one, to favour him, to be on his side : thus Polybius, 
Kal <PpopovvTe^ ra Y\€p^€tai\ and to, Vtofiaimp <f>povei. Pint. 
Alcib. p. 206, (TvXKajiificufOfiivwv roir to, oijiulou if^povoSkri :*-* 
Pomp. p. 621, oaot rd Kdp^iHK i<f>povouv, Demosth. iirep 
0yfAfiop* has oTt Ofifiaiwv Td eKeivou (f>po¥OvvTa)pj amkyicvf toii9 
ToJrcDir iyQpov^ nrd twv 'EXXiyiwi/ if^poveiv. 1 Mace. x.'20, Ka\ 
^poveiv rd fffiSv, to have a care of our interests. * Theophylact 
on this passage says rd tUp dvOpdirtav Se e^iyoie ^popeiv toi* 
Tierpopy KcSo Taveivd Tiva <f>pov€iv koi aaptcuca, jy^cXey ip 
ap€a€i eliKU top Kvpiop, Kal fiii aTauptoOffvau 

24. ei Tf9 deXec oiriW, &o.] See x. 38. To be under my 

— dTrapvri(rd<r6w iavrop^ This phrase here used in the sense 
of ovK €')(€ip TtjuLiav Ti)i/ ^tT^fi^v avToJ/, Acts XX. 26 : and fuaeip 
Ttjp eavTov ^v)(^, Luke xiv. 26: or as Tit. ii. 12, Ttjp dce^uu^ 
Kal Td^ Koa/uLiKdi iwiOv/uLla^ dpvelaOai. As we find in Sallust^ 
Omissis pecuniae et corporis gaudiis, animo non indulgere neque 
assentari, neque concupita prsebendo perversam gratiam gratis 
ficari; sed in labore, patientia bonisque praeceptis et fortibus 
iSEu;tis se exercitare. Chrysost. Horn, lv.* in Matt. p. 350, 
dwappfjcdaOw eauTop, Tovrecrr*, fxtioep iyeTw koipop irpo^ iavrop, 
«XX ckSotw T0T9 kipSvpoi^, ToTy dywai, Kal ftJy eTepov Tadra 
m<rxppT09j ouTto StaKeiaOo). Bp. Taylor, Vol. 11. p. 166, says. 
Not only desires that are sinful, but desires that are his own, 
pursuances of his own afiections, and violent motions, though 
to things not evil, or in th^nselves contagious. 

— — a/9aT(() TOP (TTavpop^ It was the custom antiently for the 
malefactor to carry the cross on which he was to sufiPer, to the 
place of execution. Hence the expression of taking up oneV 
eross was used to signify his sufiering any evil willingly. See 
Bp. Taylor's Works, Vol. in. p. 373. 

25. Tf/V ^l^uxn^] Here signifies life, rather than the soul in 
the sublimer acceptation of the word. And in this qiense it 


Continually occurain the Old Testament where T-ifjoeii' rn^ i^vj^jjy, 
Ptov. xiii. 3: xvi. 17: xix. 16 : xxiiL 14: and trwacu ttJv yj^vx^iiwl 
Amos ii. 14, 15, is to preserve Ufe; pvcrai nyp ^vx^^ ^^' ^' ^* 
ini. 1, 2^ is to deliver us from death ; and aireXeaai ti^p ^^V^s 
Ps. XXV. 9) to lose life, or die. Thus also Horn. U. i. 401, ov 
yap €fxoV yffvyffi apraj^iov aWo. Herod, viii. 118, on /ici^ 
iawr^ jiaaiKffOf T^y '^^V^f ^pfitfaoBai y/waerf (rrefpayrf tou 
KvliepmfTea. ''Ori ii ll€p(r€a>p ^n-oKKov^ amiXeaey airorafieiv ri/ir 
ic€^mAi7v avToS. 

' 26. Tt] i.e. Kara ti, see Bos. EU. Gr. p. 444, as also in 
T^if yfnfy^ l^fijUiimOfi. See also Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 268. 
. — • cJ^fiXeirai] Contract fut. for (o<f)€\iia€TCHj and used foi^ 
fot. pass., as it is followed by idu KcpSiiap. See Mark viii. 36. 
. — OI^^Ml^7^of] i»q. riS. "^ 

-— < Toy KoaiJLOv o\ov] Earthly advantages and goods, wealthy 
Ice. For Tov fi€v Koafkov oXoi/, see Hoogeveen, Doctr. Part. 
c. XXVI. Sect. 2, § 14. 

— Ttiv >lfvj(fiy avTod l^tifuwOrf] Forfeit his own life. Herodi 
VII. 39, TOV Si €F09, TOV irepiij(€ai jULaXicrraf t>Ji/ yj^vy^v ^i/zuciwreac* 
Agathias iii. tI ii Kepiavovfiev awaaav ti^v Yl^paiia trpoaXajn^ 
^vovTeSi tA^ ii >}nr)(as €i[rifAtwfi€voi\ 

The expression is proverbial and imports, It signifies nothing 
how much a man gains, if at the expence of his Ufe. That 
our Lord has a principal eye to the loss of the soul, or of 
etenial life there can be no doubt. But this sentiment is couched 
under a proverb, which in familiar use concerns only the present 
life, ^v^^ ^^ doubt is susceptible of both meanings. Euripi 
Siippl. ^^Sy tovto yap pj&vov fiporols ovk eaTi TomXw/uL 
aya\€o0i»f XajSeii/, >l^vj(fiv fipoTeiav' j^rj/ULaTwy 5* elclv iropoi. 
And Plato, Alcib. iii p. 453, aSXa fieirroiye avTl T79 cr^f '^vy^ijf 
iwd* air T^v rrdvTwv 'EXK^ywv ytapav re Koi Tvpavvloa fiov\tfieiip> 
aoi yeveaOai, Ovk olojtxai eyoiye. trw yap av; juitjQiy ye tI 
pLaWwy avTOif jfp^trOai. Anacreon,. Od. xxiii. 10, Oayeiv yap 
ml iriirpwrraiy ti ')(pvcro9 w(p€\€i /ixe; 

-—97 Tiiioa-ei] Fut. for potential. So Herod, i. 199, ovk wna 
fUya Tc Of i(i(T€i9, ais M-iv Xa/myl^eat^ 

''^avTaXkayim] Ransom, compensation. Joseph. B.J. i. 18, 
2, av €*/rl ToaovTwv iroKiTwv <f>oy^f fip^X^ '^^^ '^*^ ''^^ oiKovjUiiutji 
liyejAoyiav avToXXay/uLa xpiyot. Eurip. Orest. 1155, to wX^Oo^ 
carraXXayiMi yewaiov <f>iXov. Ecclus xxvi. 14, owe eaTiv dyraX" 
XayfiM wcvcuievjaeytj^ '^^X^* ^* ^^* (plXov irtoTov ovk amy 
dvrdXXayfJLa. See Bp. Taylor's WorkiJ, Vol. vi. p. 64. 

27. imiXXei] See Glass. Phil- Sac. p. 279. . 


— fieXkei yap ^px^cr^ai] There is not any necessity of 
interpreting these words of the destruction of Jerusalem) to 
make thein comport with the verse following. They seem more 
plainly to relate to the day of judgment. For the expressions 
are parallel to those which are elsewhere unquestionably meant 
of that great day, as xxv. 31 : 2 Thess. i. 7 ' ^nd the words 
Tore airoiwaety &c. cannot relate to the Jews only ; those words 
in all other places plainly relating to the day of judgment, as 
Rom. ii. 6, 16 : Rev. xxii. 12. And there can be no doubt of 
his power thus to judge and inflict punishments on men, since 
he will shortly give a signal experiment of it in inflicting the 
sevei^est punishments on the unbelieving Jews; a/jLtjv Xeyw vfiivt &c. 

— ev Tfi So^fi rod '/rarpo^ atrrow] In the bright Shecinah^ 
or Glory of God. In xxv. 31, we find it ev rij 861[ti avrov. 
See also John xvii. 5 : and Luke ix« 26. 

-^ Tore aTToSwaet, &c.] Lucian, or whoever is the author of 
the Dialogue Philopater xiii. Vol. iii. p. 699, speaking of God, 
says Kal ecrriy ei; ovpavf pKeirwv iucaiov^ re Kq,oucov9j koI ev 
j3i(3\oi9 rd^ irpd^ei^ airoypaKpdiuLevoSf avratrocwaei Se Tracriy, ^p 
fIfiipcLV airros ivereiKaTO, 

28. Twv woe caTijKOTtov] Several read 6(rTCtfTaiy, which Gries^ 
bach admits into the text; and wSe earwre^y which Wetstein 
adopts. St. John alone of the Apostles lived beyond the timd 
of the destruction of Jerusalem: but as this was spoken in the 
presence of the other disciples and the multitude of the Jews, 
Mark viii. 34, there might be several whose life was extended 
beyond that time. 

— ov fitj yevawvrai BavaToii\ Signifies merely, to die. See 
John viii. 51, 62, Oewpelv t6v Odvarovi Heb. ii. 9. Anthol. Gr. 
Ill* 25, 15, woOeouaa a£eX0oi/ Hijinop deropryov ycvadfAevov 
Oavdrov, Thus Tertullian adv. Marcion. iii. 149, Qui nondum 
debita mortis Gustavit, quoniam rursum venturus in orbem est 
. — kp'xpiievov €v TTf /3acri\£c^3 Luke xxiii. 42, oray eXO^ ev 
rrj fiaa-iXela <tov, Euseb. inter Op. Philostrator. p. 463, ev 
iAaj3ac6i^ eXOetif lOTopei. Xen. !Ephes. ii. eXBwv ovv & t^ 
dyptp. ^lian. V. IJ. iv. 18, ore KarriXQe HXdrtov iv SureXc^. 

This is spoken of Christ'^s coming after forty years to the 
destruction of the Jewish church and nation : and is represented 
as the vapouala or coming of the Son of Man, xxiv. 3, 27, 39* 
44: then was the Son of Man to come, John xxi. 22: Heb. x. 37- 
with power. Matt. xxiv. 30 : and great glory, Mark xiii. 26. 
Well therefore might this glorious advent of the Son of God 
in so great majesty and such re^mblance of his Second coming 


ct the day of judgment, be introduced as a just ground to 
believe and to expect that dsy, viz. a time when Christ should 
punish with destnictioa from his presence all that did not believe 
and obey his Gospel, as he had then punished the unbelieving 

RapheHus understands it as " going into his kingdom,^ "'PP'y- 
ing it to the disciples beholding Christ's aeceDsion into heaven, 
where he took possession of his mediatorial kingdom, and which 
was a proper proof of his coming again to judge the world.- 
The meaning of ipyofievow he endeavours to sttpport from Acts 
xxviii. 14: Luke ii. 44; and iv for eic ttom John v. 4: Luke xxiii. 
4S. But the ascension happened in a few months after this: 
yet our Lord's manner of speaking intimates that most of the 
company should be dead before the event referred to. 

Bp. Forteus thinks he only meant here to intimate that a few 
of bis disciples, before his death, should be favoured with & 
representation of the glorious appearance of Chtist and his 
taints at the awful day of judgment; whidi promise was fulfilled 
a few days afterwards, at his transfiguration before them ob 
the mountain. See Lect. on Matt. Vol. ii. p. 49, &c. But his 
kingdom was not to take place till after his resurrection, xxviii. 
18 : John xvii. 1 : and he did not then render to any according 
to their works. 

Within a few years, the temple, the city, and the whole 
polity of the Jews were destroyed for- ever in a revenging 
manner by the hands of the Romans, which they made use' of 
to crucify the Lord of Life. The Romans themselves were the 
next enemies, who first complied with the Jews in Christ's 
crucifixion, and after in defence of their heathen deities endea- 
voured the extirpatiqa of Christianity by successive persecutions. 
These were next to be made the footstool of the King of kings ; 
and so they were, when Rome, the regnant city, the head of 
that vast empire was taken and sacked ; when the Christians 
were preserved and the Heathens perished; when the worship 
of all their idols ceased, and the whole Roman empire marched 
under the banner of ChristiBnity. 

Chap. XVII. 

1. fieff iifxipm ef] i. e. fura roit \6yom to^towt, Liikt^ ix. 
28. See Mark ix. 1 ; but St. Luke ix. 28, says wati >]n.cpai 
oKTio. St. Matthew and St. Mark compute only the days iK-twixt 
the discourse of Christ, and the day he went up into the mount \ 
St. Luke includes Jaoth the days of his discourse and his astcnt. 


^ • ** 

870 rr. m atthcw. 

And thk b cirideDi from the wotd ma^ls wUch w] 
mea&foedf i» always added to ngnify it is not exact, fant 
something to make it oomplete. Thus Luke in. S3» 
^/Nocorro, L e. when beginning to be thirty : X.iike zxm. 44| 
wrei wpa <«Tiy, inclining to the sixth hour: so Matt. xir. 21: 
Xuke i. 66: xxii. 59: Jc^ iv. 6: xix. 14: Ads iL 41: it. 4: 
T. 36: X. 3. Like diffoenoes are to be met wilk in profc ne 
authors. Compare Soeton. Galb. c. tviui Tac. BSst. i. 99; 
and L 14; i. 48^ 

The rehition of this singuhur transaction is grren wa by thne 
out of four evangelist Sy Matthew, Mark, and Luke, and allwM 
to in the writings of the fourth ; and they all agree in the rasm 

— TOP nirpop, tau 'loicw/Soy, cat 'laMtynfr} The tfafee diaripirs 
whom Christ distinguished by his peculiar confidence, and ad- 
mitted to the most private transactions of his fife, as being 
afterwards to be great piUars of the diurdi, espedaUy «if the 
circumcision. Gal. iL 9* He dumges their names, admits them 
to this vision in the mount, takes them with him when he raises 
to life the daughter of the ruler of the synagogue, Mark t. 3fjz 
and in his agony. Matt. xxvi. 3fJ. 

Very fanciful reasons have been assigned by some of the 
commentators, for his taking with him only three of his *lwap1i»jL. 
But all that seems necessary to wy on this head is, that as the 
biw required no more than two or three witnesses to constitute 
a r^^ular and jucBdal proof,, our Savicmr diose to have only 
this number present at some of the most in^iortant scenes of 
his life. 

-*~o/Mt v^Xor] That this was Mount Tabor, antiquity has 
constantly taught and believed; and Jerome tells us (£p. xvii. 
18) that there was in hu days an old tmditian that tiiis was 
Mount Tabor which lay in the tribe of Zabulon. Yet Li^tfoot 
questions the truth of this tradition. The objection that in the 
preceding narration Christ was in the neighbourhood of Ceaaren 
Philippi, and to reach Taboi he must have travelled nearly the 
whole length of Galilee, Whitby answers, that he might do this 
with ease in the space of six days : and that he did so, is made 
very probable firom the very words of the same chapter which 
represent him and his disciples as a»€urrp€<fK^ivwff ^^* ^9 ^nA 
going throu^ Galilee, Mark ix. 30. And that tiie silence of 
the text is no sure evidence that Christ made no such journey, 
appears from the observation which Li^tfoot himself makes 
cm Mark x. 1 ; where it seems to be intimated both by St. Mark 


ind St. Matthew, that when he had finished these words, forth* 
with he altered upon his journey, yet in truth he went twice 
to Jerusalem in the interim of his going to the coasts of Jordan. 

There is no kmd of authority for supposing it to he Mount 
Sinai, which is in the Desert of Arabia, and to whiqh we no 
where read that Jesus betook himself. The generality of those 
who do not allow Mount Tabor to be meant, understand MouQ^t 
Paneus. Whatever mountain it was, here they spent the night» 
as appears from Luke ix. d7« where we read of their owiing down 
£rom the mountain the next day^ 

S. fi€Te/aop^0iy] Implies merely a ebange in external appear^ 
inoe: so Lukeix« 29$ tJ elSqs tw wpwrwirop avTcd erepov 
fyevrro. This is the proper meaning of the word; for juLopipii 
both in the Old and New Testament signifies only the external 
shape or appearance : as when it is said ot Belshaz^ar, Dan« v. 10; 
and of Daniel, vii. 28, that n f^o(Kf>ii jjAXoio^diy; of Nebuchad* 
nezzar, iv. 88, if /nofufe^ iiov ewiarpr^v ew' iiie i and of Christy 
that he appeared to two of his disciples iv irept^ ^/>0J7^ Mark xvi. 
IS; and therefcnre the word which is derived from it, can extend 
ne farther than to a change c^ the outward form or appearauee 

This was so striking a circumstance, that Eunapius (Vit« 
Jamb. p. 92) relates a story of JamUi^hus which seems evidently 
IxMrrowed from this : as many things which Philostratus tells u» 
ot Apollonius Tyaaeus seem also to have been borrowed from 
ether histories recorded of Christ by the Evangelists. 

--^aXoM^s nk o ijXioq] A phrase expressing scnnething belongs 
ing to the majesty of the Godhead: see xiii. 43: Rev. i. 16: 
Hab. iii. 4. Horn. II. ir* 547$ OKTipe^tny eeciroT«9 tjeXloto. 

•~lAiaTia] i,q. ifiarioy, the plur. having here the force of 
(he sing. See xxiv. 18, coll. Mark xiii. 16 : and ix. 21, coll. 
Mark V. 28. The Seventy sometimes use i/iana in passages 
where the original Hebrew is sing., as Gren. xxxix- 18 : Job i. 
90, See also Eurip. Fhcen. 334, 383. 

-^ XeiMpa] i. q. Xo^wpa. Hesych. Xsvxcer, to Xa/n^piry Xfli/«<i> 
^tSpa, Tija^'irpd. White and splendid garments proper fbr kings 
and royal ministers of the heavenly court. 

*<— TO ^^3 ^^* Marie ix. 3, Xevna, Xiav W9 x^^^ 

3. i»06^tti/] Because Christ, ver. 9, commapds his disciples 
to tdl no man to opuiui, some have conjectured thut Moses and 
]Elias were not truly there or seen by them, but only that they 
had in their phantasy, or imagination an appearance of them. 
But this is highly improbable : for St Luke says expressly that 


372- ST. MATTHfEW. 

these two talked with him and spake of his exit, which he was 
to accomplish at Jerusalem. His words seem to imply that the 
Apostles had fallen asleep, probably from fatigae and the 
difBcnk ascent,* or as some suppose, from the length of time 
6ur Lord continued in prayer: but whatever mighft hare been 
the cause tbey were certainly awoke from their lethargy by 
the celestial glory that surrounded them. And this St. Luke 
calls oTrrao-ia, a representation of the thing to their eyes. 

— fier airrov «ri/XXaXoSin-€s] Luke ix. 31, iXeyov ttiv e^o&Mr 
airov^ fiv tfxeKKe irkvipodv iv ' lepowraX^/i. And what subject 
can we suppose so proper and so well-becoming the conversation 
of three such illustrious persons, as the redemption of mankind 
by the death and passion of the Son of God ? What these two 
antient prophets had in their times imperfectly revealed ; nay 
what the angels in heaven desire at all times to look into, these 
were the sublime subjects (for these are implied in their speaking 
ef Christ^s decease) of their conversation at this interview. 

— MaxTn^ Kal 'H\ia(] One the deliverer, the other the restorer 
of the law ; and therefore the natural and proper representatives 
of the law and the prophets. That they actually appeared in 
their own proper persons, there is not the least reason to doubt. 
Grotius even goes so far as to affirm that their bodies were 
reserved for this very purpose. But there is no necessity and 
no ground for this imagination. For though indeed the sepulchre 
of Moses was not known, yet his body was actually buried in 
a valley in the land of Moab, and therefore must have seen 
corruption: and as the whole transaction was miraculous, it 
was just as easy to Omnipotence to restore life and form to a 
body mouldered into dust, as to re-animate a body that was 
preserved uncorrupted and entire; and indeed was a much 
exacter emblem of our own resurrection. We may however 
readily admit, what some learned men have justly obsarved, 
that Elias having been carried up into heaven without undergoing 
death, he was here a proper representative of those who shall 
be found iUive at the day of judgment, as Moses is of those 
who had died and are raised to life again. 

4. dvoKpiOei^ elTre] i.' q. etnCy Luke ix. 33. 

— •eli'ac] i.q. fxeveiv^ The Seventy translate the same verb 
by fiivetVj Gen. xxiv. 55, and elvai. Josh, xxiv* 7 • £zek. iii. 15. 
Peter fancied, no doubt, that Jesus had now assumed his proper 
dignity, that Elias was come according to Malachi'^s prediction, 
and that the kingdom was at length begun. 
' — CKffifas!^ Hej^ch. axtiv^. ij cmto ]^v\wv ij irepi^Xaiwv oiKia. 


A tent or temporary shed or booths made of the branches of 
trees, such as the Jews used to make at the feast of tabernacles. 
There is no reason at all to suppose they meant any sumptuous 
tabemaclea like that of Moses in the wilderness. The words 
seem to be those of rapturous surprize, intended merely to express 
the pleasure they had in what they saw and heard. 

5. i;€06Xf7 <f>wTeivri\ This is called by St. Peter, who beheld 
it, << the excellent glory ,^ 2 Pet. i. 17) and being also accom- 
panied by the voice full of divine majesty issuing from it, must 
have.been the Shecinah or visible symbol of the divine presence. 
The cloud is the well-known token of the divine presence under 
the law : many instances of it occur in the Old Testament, but 
more particularly at the giving of the law on Mount Sinai. 
On the mountain where our Saviour was transfigured, a new 
law was declared to. have taken place; and therefore God c^ain 
appears in a chud. But there is one remarkable difference 
between these two manifestations of the divine presence. On 
Mount Sinai the cloud was dark and thick; and there were 
thunders and lightnings and the voice of the trumpet exceeding 
loud, and all the people that were in the camp trembled. At 
the transfiguration on the contrary the cloud was bright, the whole 
scene was luminous and transporting, and nothing was heard 
but the mild paternal voice of the Almighty expressing his 
delight in his beloved Son. These striking differences in the 
two appearances evidently jwint out the different tempers of the 
two dispensations. See Porteus, Lect. xv. Vol. ii. p. 54. 

— ^reivii] A few MSS. read (fmro^, which Griesbaeh admits 
into the text, without good reason ; not only number but weight 
of MSS. being against it. — ^We find a similar mark of the 
presence of their gods mentioned in profane writers^ Virg. ^n. 
II. 590, Et pur& p^ noctem in luce refulsit. Servius says in Itice, 
in nimbo, qui cum numinibus semper est. And v. 839) Aera 
dimovit tenebrosum et dispulit umbras ; Sarv. nam semper Deos 
ambit nimbus. 

— • eirciTiciWev] The Seventy translate the same verb, which 
properly signifies axewai^eiv and trepuccXvirretv by iiruTKUxl^eiyf 
Fs. xc. 4 : cxxxix. 7- Thus Philo de Sonm. p. 680, jcrdif^-^ 
cTTuricia^cc to t^ ^vaew^ awoppnra: and p. 681, we have 
ovyKpv'^i Kal avaxtaacu^ L^g« &d Cai. p- 996, ijv cvvecrKiol^^v 
aypioTifTa w^a^ifva^, 

— ai/Toi/s] Some refer to the disciples: others to Moses, 
Ellas, and Christ : Le Clerc to all who were there. 

**- ^^vi}] Two other instances only occur in the Gospels where 
Grod was pleased as ,it were personalty Jo interpose^ and mak' 


Ml Open decl^mtldn from heaven in ikrour cf liis Son : one at 
our SaTiour^s baptiBm, and the oAer on his praying to faift 
Father to save him from the sufferings that awaited hinL 
- — ayawrfTo^] See iii. I7. 

— iu f ev^f^ra] Though neither St Mark nor St Loke 
has given us these wordft, we may be sura that they were really 
•spoken, as we have the concurrent testimony both of St Matthew 
and St. Peter, who lias thus quoted them, 3 Pet. i. 17- 

-^ avrov ofcoi/ere] Emphatically : in preference to Moses 
or the Prophets: shewing that the Law was hencefc^ih to give 
place to the Gospel preached by hitn. It is applied by St Peter, 
Acts iii. S2, to that solemn charge to hear die great prophet, 
given in Deut. xviii. 15. There was reason to expect about 
that time some such declaration as this respecting the cessatioa 
of the Mosaioal law. For St. Luke informs us, that the law 
and the prophets were till John, i. a. they were to continue 
in tofce till John the Baptist had, as our Lord expresses it, 
restored all things, had preached those great doctrines of repoit- 
ance and redemption by the blood of Christ, by which men 
were restored to a right state of mind and the favour of God: 
till he had thus prepared the way for the Messiah, and publicly 
announced the kingdom of God; and then they were to be 
superseded by the Christian dispensation. Accordingly, not 
long after the death of John^ this scene of the transHgurattoa 
took place; and this great revolution, this substitution of a 
new system fbr the old one, was made knowti in that r^narkable 
tnanMr to the three discipW 

Diod> Sic. xviit. S6, v/uec^ ovy leaOawcp vfU¥ jcoc Ttponrvfo^ 
iypd>\fafksv, axavete tovtov. See 1 Mace. iL 65^ 

6. etnsoror iirl irpofttofrov] Eurip. Bacch. 604, BapfiafOi 
yvPOiKe^ oAtw^ itcirc'irkrfyfievai fpo^p Wpoi m^ ^ire^rmtcaff* 

This effect is similar to that which visions of this kind com- 
monly had on the prophets and other holy men to whom they 
were given : Gen xv. 12 : Isai. v\> 5 : Ez. ii. 1 : Dan. x. 6 : Rev. 
i. 17 

8. irapavT^^ tov^ iA0a\fA^v^] i. q> irepijiKeyffdfigwoi^ Mark ix. 
8 : or amj3Xe7rdrrf9f Gen. xxii. 4. 

•*--€i M*}] See Hoogeveen, Doctr. Pert* c. xvi. Sect. 6. §7- 
Kidder, Dem. Mete. 11. p. 58. Matt. xx. 23. 

9* ctTTo] A great number of MSS. have eiC| which Wetsteia 

— /uLiiSevi ^TTffre] If the only intent of the transfiguration had 
been to repres^it by an expressive action, our Lord'^s resurrection 
and exaltation, and a future day of retribution, it is not easy 


to asfligB a sufficient reason why this injunction of secrecy till 
after his resurrection, should have been given : because he had 
already, xvi. 21, foretold his resurrecti<m to his disciples, and 
he also apprised them before his death, chap. xxv. of his coming 
in glory to judge the world. It does not therefore appear how 
the publication d the vision on the Mount could have been 
attended with any other consequence than that of canfimnifig 
what Jesus had already made known. . But if we suppose that 
<me purpose of the transfiguration was to typify the abolition 
of the ceremonial law, and the establishment of the evangelical, 
a plain reason presents itself for this command of keeping it 
lor some time private ; for it was one of those truths which 
the first converts were not . able to bear. Great numbers of 
them, though they firmly believed in Christ, yet no less firmly 
believed that the Mosaical c^spensation was still in full fence. 
7his prejudice continued several years nfter our Xiord^s resur^ 
rection* Mention is made of several thousand Jews who bdieved, 
and yet were all zealous of the law« And it was the suspicion 
that St Paul had forsaken, and taught others to forwke Moses, 
which brought his life into the most imminent danger, and 
actually occasioned hia imprisonment. No wonder then that 
a transaction which was designed to prefigure this v^ doctrine 
that St. Paul was charged with, and that was so offeokive to 
the Jewish converts in general, should be thought unfit by our 
liprd to be publicly divulged till some time after his resurrection. 
See Porteus, Lect xv. Vol. ii. p. 67- 

'^^op€ma] Macrob. Somm, Sdp. i. 3, Aut enim est oi^ci/nos 
— aut est opa/uia quod visio recte appeUatur« Yisio est autcm^ 
cum quis id videt, quod eodem modo quo apparuerat, eveniet.. 

•^ e«r oi/] See Bos. £11. 6r. p. 477. 

10. rl cw XiyoifirsMf &c.] Why would yon have us not say 
that we have seen Elias, since this might be a most Ukely means 
of persuading the Jews that you are the Messiah. Glass 
traaslates, Cur vero, Phil. Sac. p. 546L 

"—^1 «X0cip wpHrop] Le- irpo rod iXOeir tow Xpurrov, 
See Glass. PhiL Sac. p. 390L The traditicm of the Scribes Was 
that before the coming of the Son of David, £Uas was to oome 
to i»each of him ; and as Trypho says, in Justin. Dial. p. 326, 
oi/^s ey^i ^tfofuw Twa p^XP^ ^^ ikSwy 'HXcos Xpi<Tn ovtow k€u 
ifHiyepov waai iroifi<Ji^ aod p. 268, /irarrev iji^ec^ ^poao&w/utey tov 
liXiav xP^^Oi airiv eXOopra. This persuasion was grounded on 
a misunderstood passive of Malachi, iv. 5, 6. 

11. epx^Tou] An callage foe eKeva-erai' See Gham. Phi^ 


Sac. p. 309* The same enallage Xenophon uses to point out 
tlie greatest certainty of a thing^s happening, Anab. iv. ^, 5. 
ewei^v apl^wfieOa eU to '^(tv irapievaij <^ipovTai oi XiOoc 
iroXXoi. Wolf seems to think there is not any enaUage, or 
mark of time, present or future: but merely the order in which 
they would come, viz. that Elias comes first. See Kidder, Dem. 
Mess. II. p. 185. 

— a7roicaTa<m|fr€i] Hesych. aTroKaTatrrrjfrai' TtfXeioMrcu. It 
is plain this word here, as airoKarixTraicrK^ Acts hi. 21, cannot, 
as it generally does, signify restoring things to their former state, 
but only, in general, reducing them to order. It is strange 
that Tertullian (de Resur. xxxv.) should infer from hence that 
Elijah the prophet is to come before Christ^s second appearance ; 
a wild notion which has been well confuted by Grotius. 

Christ grants the supposition of his disciples that a project 
was to come and restore all things; but, he applies to John the 
Baptist what the Jews were wont to understand of Elias himself; 
and instead of restoring them to their former grandeur, and 
reviving the kingdom of David in their nation, as they imagined, 
our Saviour gives them to understand, that the restoration John 
was to cause in the world was to be only spiritual, like that 
mentioned Luke i. 17- See Acts i. 6. 

12. 'HXiaf fi^ri ^Xde] viz. John the Baptist iv irvevfAaTi m 
Swdjjiei 'HXtoi;^ Luke i. 17* 

— iy ain-^] Some read simply avr^ from Mark ix. 13. But 
^his form has probably arisen from the Hebrew mode of expres- 
sion. In the Septuagint we find also eiroifiaev ev avrdi^. See 
Gen. xl. 14s: Dan. xi. 7 ' Luke xxiii. 31. 

— oaa liOeXfjauv] John the Baptist was all along exposed 
to the calumnies of the Jews, and at last fell a sacrifice to the 
passion of Herod, and the foolish humour of Herodias. 

14. yovvTrerwp ai/r^] St. Luke v. 8, 9rpo<ri7re<re toJp youaai 
TO? 'Ii^o-oS. For dvT^ several MSS. read airrivj which Griesbach 
admits into the text. The Hellenists have yowirereiv tivi and 
•yoi'inrcreci' Tiva* The verb has an ace. after it in Mark i. 40: 
X. 17.* and is followed by efiTtpoaOev, Matt, xxvii. 29. Suidas, 
yovuireriirTai * alriaTiKfi, irpoaKvy^aai. 

15. Kvpi€f eXitjaov] Arrian. Epictet. 11. 7^ '''^>' Oeov iiruca^ 
\ov/ui€Voi ieofAcOa'avToVf Kvpie €\efi<rov, iirirpe^v fioi i^eXBelr* 

T^ fiov Tov i/iov] Luke ix. 38^ an only son. 

— <Te\tivid^erai\ The symptoms are those of epilepsy. Coelius 
Aurclian. de Morb. Chron. u 4, Alii (epileptic!) publicis in locis 
cadendo fccdantur, adjunctis etiam ext^ius periculis, loci causa 

CHAPTER XTll. 377 

prffcipiteB dati, aut in flumina vel mare cadentes. Aretieus de 
Morb. Epilep. v. Ka-reirtvov yov¥ Toie^—peoitari iroraum are- 
vees evtSomts. 

— KOK^f iratr)(ti] Some read kokw e^^i which seems to have 
arigen from the transcriberB, who might fancy a redundancy in 
the other expression. Folyb. ill. 90, 13, Sier^pow Trjv iriimr 
Kaiirep ewat iraa-j^ovaox kokw^. Aristoph. Flut. 900, tn/j!, m 
ttj(0ofiai oTt •>(pii(rrM lav Kat ^uKoiroKi! vatrj^ai Kaiews. 

17- w yeyea airiffror] This reproof may possibly be directed 
to all who were then present, and to each of them in particular 
as they deserved it; to the disciples who are blamed for their 
unbelief, ver. 90 : to the Father who, seemed to doubt, Mark ix. 
SI, 22, 23: and the Jewish 'nation which is represented exactly 
under that character Dent, xxxii. 6, 20. But it seems from the 
circumstances more particularly applicable to the disciples. 

— SuoTpaftiUpti] Whatever i» conformable to justice, ho- ' 
nesty and the law of God is called ev0i>, as Acts viii. 21, tj xapSia 
ovK eartv ev0eia eviowiov rov 6vov. Thus also in Ps. Ixxii. we 
meet with euQeit Tn Kop&l^- And whatever is at variance with 
this rule, and as it were bent trorn it, is called SutrTpati/Unv xal 
iTKoXiov, and such men oieoTpa/inevot or ff-mXtoi. Euthym. atea- 
vpoft/ietiti avTi Tou OKoXtd, juq vomiaa to ei^u. Phil. ii. 15 : 
I)eut. xxxii. 6. 

— ave^ofiat\ Philo de Leg. ad Cai. p. 1031, ouS^ Kpdnarot 
trpwrwrj^vTOt rfviyeTo. Id. quod omn. pr. p. 870, xai iraic 
varpos fA€v ^ fujrpot imrayfiaTmv irailet avi^ovrai : p- 873, 
ov£« vapTiyoftim Si virep^Xoit kokuv ane^ovrat. 

— ^pepere] for irpoa^ptrt, Luke ix. 41, irpoaayayt, 

18. imvintprew ovr^] Scil. -rp irvevfum t^ oKoBaprtf. See 
Mark ix. 25. Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 158. 

19- eK^Xeiu avTo] Scil. to Satnovtoi>- 

20. cnritrriai'] Some read oXty&frurrlav, which probably may 
have been written on the margin, in order to soften the sentence 
and hence copied into the text. Clem. Alex, defines airiffrim 
to be viroXij^iv tov avTiKtiMvtw wrSevij airo^aTiKi}¥- 

— tK KOKKow crt»a7fetK\ This was a common comparison 
tunong the Jews which they made use of when they uould 
express any thing inconsiderably small, it being as our Lord 
expresses it, one of the smallest among seeds: see xiii. 81. And 
therefore it is probable that Christ speaking to them -wliu were 
accustomed to -this phrase, used it in thar sense, for tht- least 
sincere faith in God, which they who fear, Mark iv. 40, or duubt, 
James i. 6, seem not to have. 



— op€t TovTff] Some suppose the mountaia in the neigh- 
bourhood to be meant, where Jesus and the three Apostles had 
passed the night. When the Jews had a mind to extol any of 
their doctors, they said of him that he plucked up mountains 
by the roots. These expressions of our Saviour are therefore 
evidently proverbial (see 1 Cor. xiii. 2) and must not be taken 
literally : but merely to import to be doers of those things iriiich 
are exceedingly difficult, and beyond the power of nature to 
perform. It seems therefore reasonable to interpret them *' Who- 
soever shall with a strong faith in God, attempt the most diffi- 
cult things for the promotion of the Gospel, shall, whilst the 
gift of miracles remains, be successful. Wall says diis is not 
promised to every Christian that has faith, but to the Apostles 
who were sent out with a commission to do miraculous cures. 

Lucian Navig. xlv. Vol. iii. p. 878, av&pa — opfi oXa ccyslr 
uKptp T^ iaKTvKip Suvoftevov* Liv. ix. 3, Num montes moliri 
sede sua paramus ? Isai. liv. 10 ; Zech. iv. 7- 

— fierafiifOi] Arrian. Epictet. iii. 19, uses this word, when 
speaking of an inanimate object, rl yap evoifftrep o Xidos ; ita 
Ttjv Tov ^cuoiocf <rav fULwpicuff ioet fierafi^iHU airoyi 

— mi] i. q. ejc«fcr€. 

*— ovSey d jwan^i] Hare taken in pass. sig. See also 
Luke i. 37* In Greek writers it is used actively, as Epicfaann. 

SI. TouTo TO yivos] Scil. twi^ jai^orimr. A few MSS. read 

— iv wpoaevy^i^ er, i. e. ope. 
irpo<r€vxp Mac vtiOTeitf] i. e. by the faith which is tp be 

by prayer and fasting, i. e. by the most ardent devo- 
tion, as 1 Cor. vii. 5 : Acts xiv. S3, where frpwrevyea&oL fMri 
vfiareiwy signifies to pray ardently. 

Some have considered it an objection to this explanation, that 
it supposes diffisrent kinds of demons; and that the expulsioa 
of some kinds is more difficult than that of others. But this 
objection is founded entirely on our own ignorance. Who can say 
that there are not diflferent kinds of demons? or that there may 
not be degrees in the power of expdling? Revelation has not ssid 
Ihat they ax« all of i!>ne kind, and may be expelled with equal eas^ 

This verse beifig wanting in some MSS. Mill supposed it to have 
been taken from Mark ix. S9 : but the insertkni of it is supported 
by the authority of the greatest number and the best MSS. ; and 
besides tlie reading there is not avx ekTropeitrai, but iv 
SuvaroM, i^eXOeiv. 


28. aixurrpe^O|U«iw>'j St. Mark ix. SO, ujs they were goiiig 
privately thtough it, ovk ^eXer tun nt yvif i and he assigiu as 
« reason why he detdred his journey should be private, viz. that 
he might have an opportunity to talk over this subject at Urge: 
which shews that continuance or abode in Galilee refers to the 
c^ort stay they made in the places where they lodged ; and indeed 
be could not bo ccnveniently speak to all Uie twelve while they 
■were actually travelling. 

— fie\A«i] See Glass. Phil. Sac. p. 279. 

24. K<nre/}Mioi'|u] Which he had chosen for the place <tf his 
residence iv. 13, and ix. 1. This is the reason why they staid 
till he was come to Capernaum, to ask him for the tribute. 

■'— SiSfm)(/*a] Scil. vofi'arnara. The singular is BlSpaj^/un', 
jand though only one was to be paid by one nidividual in one 
year, the refermce, Middleton says, is to the practice of paying 

Our Lord speaks he-re of the half shekel (about fourteen pence,) 
called in the Septuagint Slipajffioif jryiov, Exod. xxx. IS : Neh. 
X. 32 : and paid annually 1^ all Jews above twenty years old 
ito the temple, for buyiTig the daily sacrifice and other things 
necessary fc^ the worship of God. Joseph. Ant. iii. 8, 2, irpoai- 
Tofep t*aipefmi» viieXov to ^huju Koff ixaiTTOv. o oi <rurXM vofua- 
fita 'Efipa'mv wv, 'Amiras oe'^eroi Spaj(tid9 T«ff<7opot. Hence 
it appears that the Attic drachma was one fourth of a shekel. 
"The Alexandrian drachma however which is used by the Seventy, 
is double the Attic ; their Siiptrj(fju>v therefore was a shekel. 
When dispersed throughout the world, the Jews still continued 
to contribute this half shekel for the use of the temple. Jos^h. 
xviii. 10, 1, JiimPit——o9ev 'lovSaiM t^ ^<rwi rviv ywpfwv «■«*- 
■rnvrtMi-m TO Te itSpa^ov r^ Oe^ Kara^aXXeo', S ikatrroK 
irttTptoV Tflimj irapeBerrO " ■ iwreSQtv oe iirl 'ItfoaoKuiittv ape- 
W/iTCTo, q Ktupoi. Notices of this tribute may be found also 
in profane authors. See Suetoo. Dom. xii. Cicero and Taintus 
seem to allude to it. After the destruction of the temple, Ves- 
pasian ordered the payment to be made into the Capitol. 

— oi T«X« ;] See Bos. Ell. Gr. p. 47*. The question here 
implies an affirmative. It seems to have been a voluntary iltiiig 
which «u«#»ni rather than law had establisbed. In Nehtniiah's 
days it was accounted so, and the sun was then something lower, 
Xeh. X. 39. And the custom prob^ly took its rise from tlie 
demand of that sum from each of the Isradites when tlney were 
numbered, Exod. xxx. 13. 

26. ot /ScKTiXeis T^ yifs] That the payment was for the templ e 

•380 ST. MATTHEW. 

may be inferred from our Saviour^s